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UMTS Radio Theory

ZTE University
Content
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication
3G services
Multiple Access Technologies
Spectrum Planning
Spreading Technology
Coding And Interleave Technology
Modulation
UMTS Radio mechanism
Radio Transmission Technology
Requirements
Data
144 kbps High speed and driving
384 kbps Modest speed and walking
2 Mbps Low speed and indoor
Voice
4.75Kb/s -- 12.2Kb/s
64kb/s (Video Phone)
Information transmission at variable rate
according to bandwidth requirements
Delay requirements of different service
3G services
Delay
Bit Error
Different QOS requirements
3G services
Categories Actual Service Delay (One-way) Bearer Speed
conversational
Voice <150ms 12.2kbps
Video Call <150ms 64kbps
VoIP <150ms 15.3~39.6kbps
Interaction
Game
<250ms N/A
Streaming
Real-time Voice
Streaming
<2s 4.7~25kbps
Real-time Video
Streaming
<2s 64kbps~2Mbps
Interaction
Web Browsing <4s N/A
WAP Browsing <4s N/A
E-commerce <4s N/A
Background
FTP No strict N/A
E-mail No strict N/A
Content
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication
3G services
Multiple Access Technologies
Spectrum Planning
Spreading Technology
Coding And Interleave Technology
Modulation
UMTS Radio mechanism
Duplex mode
TDD modeuplink and downlink
has the same frequency
Adaptable to any frequency
band
Suitable for both asymmetric
and symmetric services
FDD modeuplink and downlink
has the different frequency
Paired frequency bands are
needed
Suitable for symmetric
services
TDD ( Time division
duplex,Such as TD-SCDMA)
D D D D U U U U
FDDFrequency division
duplex, Such as WCDMA
and CDMA2000
D D D D D D D D
U U U U U U U U
Why Multiple Access?
Increased capacity: serve more users
Reduced capital requirements since
fewer media can carry the traffic
Decreased per-user expense
Types of Transmission Medium:
Twisted pair
Coaxial cable
Fiber optic cable
Air interface (radio signals)
Three methods are frequently used:
FDMA
TDMA
CDMA
Each pair of users enjoys
a dedicated, private circuit
through the transmission
medium, unaware that the
other users exist.
Transmission


Medium
Multiple access technologies enable various users access public
communication line but without interference.
Multiple Access Technologies
Users are using
different frequency
Time
Frequency
FDMA
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
FDMA
Traffic channels are assigned to different users at
different frequency band, such as TACS, AMPS.
Time
Frequency
TDMA
Users are using
different time slot
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
TDMA
Traffic channels are assigned to different users at
different time, such as GSM, DAMPS.
Time
Frequency
CDMA
Code
Users are using different
orthogonal code sequence
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
CDMA
Traffic channels are assigned to users at same time,
same frequency band, but with different code.
Freq. 1
Freq. 1
BS1
BS2
Code D
CDMA Application
Users are distinguished by scrambling codes and OVSF
codes
Self-interference system
CDMA system is restricted to interference (GSM system is
restricted to frequency resources)
Content
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication
3G services
Multiple Access Technologies
Spectrum Planning
Spreading Technology
Coding And Interleave Technology
Modulation
UMTS Radio mechanism
GSM900/1800: 3G (WCDMA):
Single Frequency Network
IMT-2000 Spectrum Allocation
1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200
ITU
Europe
USA
MSS
PCS
A D B B C D C E F A F E
MSS Reserve
Broadcast auxiliary
2165 MHz
1990 MHz
1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200
UMTS
GSM 1800
DECT MSS
1885 MHz 2025 MHz
2010 MHz
IMT 2000
MSS
UMTS
Japan MSS
IMT 2000
MSS
IMT 2000
PHS
IMT 2000
2110 MHz 2170 MHz
MSS MSS
FDD MSS MSS TDD TDD
1
9
8
0

GSM
1800
FDD
1
9
2
0

China
1
8
8
0

1
8
6
5

1
8
7
0

1
8
8
5

1
8
9
0

1
9
1
0

1
9
3
0

1
9
4
5

1
9
6
5

1
9
7
0

1
9
7
5

3G Spectrum Allocation in China
60 MHz
30
MHz
FDD TDD
100 MHz
15
MHz
40
MHz
155MHz
1785 1850 1755 1880 1920 1980 2010 2025
2110 2170 2200 2400
Satellite Empty
Satellite
2300
3G Spectrum Planning in China
Main Operating Frequency Band
FDD mode1920-1980 MHz / 2110-2170 MHz
TDD mode1880-1920MHz2010-2025 MHz
Supplementary Operating Frequency Band
FDD mode1755-1785 MHz / 1850-1880 MHz
TDD mode2300-2400MHz
Frequency Band for Satellite Mobile Communication System
1980-2010 MHz / 2170-2200 MHz
The frequency bands, 825 - 835 MHz / 870 - 880 MHz, 885 - 915 MHz
/ 930 - 960 MHz and 1710 - 1755 MHz / 1805 - 1850 MHz, which are
currently allocated to public mobile communication system are also
allocated to expanded frequency bands of 3G public communication
system, but frequency using mode remains the same for both uplink
and downlink.
Content
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication
3G services
Multiple Access Technologies
Spectrum Planning
Spreading Technology
Coding And Interleave Technology
Modulation
UMTS Radio mechanism
SHANON Formula
C = Blog
2
(1+S/N)
Spread Spectrum Principles
Where,
C is capacity of channel, b/s
B is signal bandwidth, Hz
S is average power for signal, W
N is average power for noise, W
It is the basic principle and theory for spread spectrum
communications.
Spread Spectrum Principles
5 MHz
12 KHz
Power is Spread Over a Larger Bandwidth
radio channel
Receiver Transmitter
Spreading
Despreading
Noise
Spread Spectrum Principles
User information bits are spread over a wide
bandwidth by multiplying high speed spread
code(chip)
Spread signal bandwidth W wider than original
signal bandwidth Rb
f
Sf
f0
Before spreading
signal
Sf
f
f0
After spreading
signal
Sf
f
f0
After despreading
signal
White noise
f
Sf
f0
Before despreading
signal
White noise
signal interference White noise
Spread Spectrum Principles
Spreading Mode
Direct sequence spread spectrumDS-SS
Base band data is spread by multiplication of pseudo-noise
sequence and base-band pulse, the pseudo-noise sequence
generated by the pseudo-noise generator
BER subject to Multiple Access Interference and near-far
effect
Power control can overcome the near-far effect, but it is
limited by power detection accuracy
WCDMA uses DS-SS
Frequency hopping spread spectrumFH-SS
Data is transmitted in the random channel by the carrier
frequency hopping
Before FH again, data is transmitted using traditional
narrowband modulation
No near-far effect
DS-SS communication system
A technology of transmission after spreading
signal spectrum.
Fast
Spreading
Sequence
Slow
Information
Sent
TX
Slow
Information
Recovered
RX
Fast
Spreading
Sequence
Wideband
Signal
Spread Spectrum Principles
Many code channels are individually
spread and then added together to
create a composite signal
Unwanted Power from
Other Resoures


Spread Spectrum Principles
Any Code Channel can be extracted from the received
composite signal by using the right orthogonal code
Energy for transmitting signal can be lower than
interference and noise

Processing Gain
Broadband
Interference
Concept of orthogonal code
Orthogonal
the result of multiplying
and sum is 0
Code1
+1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1
Code2
-1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1
Mul
-1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1
Sum
0
Orthogonal
Code1
+1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -1
Code2
+1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 -1
Mul
+1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1
Sum
-2
Non-orthogonal
-1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1
MUL
-1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1
1 -1 1 -1
-4 4
0 0
Judge
-1 1
1 -1 1 -1
-1 1
MUL
Integral
1 1 1 1
-1 -1 -1
-1
Example of orthogonal code
S1
S2
S1xC1
S2XC2
W
Spreading
Despreading
(S1xC1)+(S2xC2)
Air Interface
[S1xC1+S2xC2]xC2
=S2
[S1xC1+S2xC2]xC1
=S1 N
S
C1xC2=0,
C1,C2,orthogonal
Direct spread technique
Spreading code =
1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1
( SF = 8 )
Symbol
Spreading
Despreading
1
-1


1
-1

1
-1




1
-1

1
-1
Data=010010
Spreading code
Spread signal
= Data code
Data =
Spread signal
Spreading code
Chip
Sketch map of Spreading and Despreading
Characteristics of Spreading Communication
High anti-multi-path- interference capability
Anti-sudden-pulse
High security
Lower transmitting power
Easy to implement large-capacity Multiple Access
Communication
Occupy band wide
Complex realization
Content
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication
3G services
Multiple Access Technologies
Spectrum Planning
Spreading Technology
Coding And Interleave Technology
Modulation
UMTS Radio mechanism
Purpose of Channel Coding
By adding redundant information in the original
data stream, receivers can detect and correct the
error signal, and improve data transmission rates.
No correct coding: BER<10
-1
~

10
-2
Can not satisfy
the communication
Convolutional codingBER<10-3
Can satisfy the
speech communication
Turbo coding BER<10
-6

Can satisfy the
data communication
Principle of Channel Coding
Channel coding
Error-correcting ability obtains by adding redundancy in the
original data
Convolutional coding and Turbo coding 1/21/3 are
widely applied.
Increase noneffective load and transmission time
Suitable to correct few non-continuous errors
W C D M A
T U R B O
S P E A K
W W C C D D M M A A
T T U U R R B B O O
S S P P E E A A K K
W ? C C D D M M A A
T T ? U R R B B O O
S S P P E E A ? K K
Decoding
Encoding
Principle of Interleave Technology
advantage
Interleave is to change the sequence of data to random the
unexpected errors
Advance the correcting validity
disadvantage
Increase the processing delay
Especially, Several independent random errors may intertwined for
the unexpected error.
x1 x6 x11 x16 x21
x2 x7 x22
x3 x8 x23
x4 x9 x24
x5 x10 x25
Data input
A = (x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x25)
Data output
A= (x1 x6 x11 x16 x25)
e.g.
Encoding and Interleaving
W C D M A
T U R B O
S P E A K
W W C C D D M M A A
T T U U R R B B O O
S S P P E E A A K K
W T S W T S
C U P C U P
D R E D R E
M B A M B A
A O K A O K
W ? ? C D D M M A ?
T ? ? U R ? ? B O O
S ? ? P ? E A A K K
Encoding
Interleaving
W T S ? ? ?
? ? ? C U P
D R ? D ? E
M ? A M B A
A O K ? O K
Deinterleaving Decoding
Encoding + Interleaving can correct both
continuous and non-continuous errors
Content
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication
3G services
Multiple Access Technologies
Spectrum Planning
Spreading Technology
Coding And Interleave Technology
Modulation
UMTS Radio mechanism
Principle of Modulation
Definition
Modulation is the process where the amplitude,
frequency, or phase of an electronic or optical signal
carrier is changed in order to transmit information.
Using symbol stand for one or more bits to improve
communication effectiveness
Classification
Analog Modulation
Digital Modulation
Symbol bit
Modulation
Analog Modulation
The purpose of analog modulation is to impress
an information-bearing analog waveform onto a
carrier for transmission.
Common analog modulation methods include:
Amplitude modulation (AM)
Frequency modulation (FM)
Phase modulation (PM)

Digital Modulation
The purpose of digital modulation is to convert an
information-bearing discrete-time symbol
sequence into a continuous-time waveform
(perhaps impressed on a carrier).
Basic analog modulation methods include
Amplitude shift Keying (ASK)
Frequency shift Keying (FSK)
Phase shift Keying (PSK)

Content
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication
UMTS Radio mechanism
UMTS Data transmission Procedure
Channel Coding of UMTS
Spreading Technology of UMTS
Modulation of UMTS
WCDMA Data transmission Procedure
RF Receiving
Demodulation Despreading
Decoding &
De-inteleaving
UE Data
UE Data
Spreading
RF Transmitting
Modulation
Baseband
demodulation
Baseband
modulation
Encoding &
Interleaving
Content
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication
UMTS Radio mechanism
UMTS Data transmission Procedure
Channel Coding of UMTS
Spreading Technology of UMTS
Modulation of UMTS
Mainly used in the voice channel and control signal channel
Coding rate is and 1/3.
Output 0
G
0
= 557 (octal)
Input
D D D D D D D D
Output 1
G
1
= 663 (octal)
Output 2
G
2
= 711 (octal)
Rate 1/3 convolutional coder
Convolutional Code
Easy decode
Short delay
Generally use the Viterbi Algorithm
Channel bit error rate is 10
3
magnitude
Suitable to realtime service
e.g. speech and video service.
Characteristics of Convolutional code
Used in Data service channel
Code Rate is 1/3
Can be implemented in the transmission for large block and long
delay services
Turbo coding structure is based on two or more weak error
control code combinations. The information bits are interleaved in
the two Encoder, and generate two information flow. At last, this
information can be multiplexed and punctured
Decoding needs cycle iterative calculation
Interleaver
Encoder 1
Encoder 2
M
u
l
t
i
p
l
e
x

input
output
Turbo Code
Complex decoding
Use the LOG-MAP arithmetic
Channel bit error rate is 10
6
magnitude
Very suitable to non-realtime package service
which is BER sensitive & delay insensitive,
e.g. WWW, FTP, E_mail, multimedia
transmission.
Characteristics of Turbo Codes
Content
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication
UMTS Radio mechanism
UMTS Data transmission Procedure
Channel Coding of UMTS
Spreading Technology of UMTS
Modulation of UMTS
Symbol rate SF = Chip rate=3.84Mcps
For UMTSSF of uplink channelization code4~256
SF of downlink channelization code: 4~512
OVSF: Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor
OVSF Code Scrambling Code
Data
Spread Data
Spreading Process of UMTS
Symbol
Chip
3.84Mcps
3.84Mcps
Channelization Code
Adopt OVSF code
Definition: Cch,SF,k, describe channelization code, where
SF : spread factor k : code number, 0 < k<SF-1

SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4
C
ch,1,0
= (1)
C
ch,2,0
= (1,1)
C
ch,2,1
= (1,-1)

C
ch,4,0
=(1,1,1,1)
C
ch,4,1
= (1,1, - 1, - 1)
C
ch,4,2
= (1, - 1 ,1, - 1)
C
ch,4,3
= (1, - 1, - 1, 1)
Scrambling Code
UMTS Scrambling code is pseudo random binary
sequence
It has similar noise array character, seemingly random
but with regularity.
Can make the user data further random , strengthened
by scrambling a code to keep secret the user data, at
the same time easy to carry out multiple access
communication.
UMTS scrambling code is generated from Gold sequence
Gold sequence has excellent self-correlation.
Cross-correlation is very week between two codes.
It is used to identify cell and user for multiple access.
Characteristic of Scrambling code
There are 2
24
Uplink Scrambling Codes, they are
used to distinguish different users in one cell.
There are 2
18
-1 Downlink Scrambling Codes,
used to distinguish different cells
Scrambling codes usually used are the first 8192 codes,
which are code 018191. They are divided
into 512 aggregationseach aggregation has 1 primary
scrambling code (PSC) and 15 secondary scrambling
codes (SSC).
The 512 primary scrambling codes are divided further
into 64 primary scrambling code groups , with 8 primary
scrambling codes in each group.
Numbering rule for Downlink Scrambling
Codes


2
18
-1 Downlink Scrambling Codes in all
(0..262142)
No. 511 Scrambling Code
Group
8176
8177

8191
8176PSC
8177SSC

8191SSC
No. 510 Scrambling Code
Group
8160
8161

8175
8160
8161

8175
No. 504 Scrambling Code
Group
8064
8065

8079
8064
8065

8079


No. 7 Scrambling Code
Group
112
113

127
8176PSC
8177

8191
No. 1 Scrambling Code
Group
16
17

31
16PSC
17SSC

31SSC
No. 0 Scrambling Code
Group
0
1

15
0PSC
1SSC

15SSC
No.63 Primary Scrambling Code Group

No.0 Primary Scrambling Code Group
Code Functions
Channelization code ---- for separation of physical
channels in the uplink and separation of users in
the downlink

Scrambling code ---- for separation of
users/terminals in the uplink and cells/sectors in
the downlink.

Air Interface
2
ch
c
3
ch
c
1
ch
c
scrambling
c
Modulation
Spreading code & scrambling code
Cchspread code
Relative to service rateextended to 3.84Mchips/s
A kind of orthogonal code
Cscramblingscrambling code
Have no effect on signal bandwidth
Downlink for identifier celluplink identifier terminal
A pseudo-random sequence
f
P
W
Processing
Gain
Rb
Despreading
Processing Gain
PG=Wc/Rb (Wc : Chip rate , Rb : Service bit rate)
Transmitter/receiver can obtain gain after
spread/despread
The narrower original signal bandwidth, the larger Pg ,
the better

The higher PG, the more anti-interference capability system has.
b
c
R
W
Gain Processing
E
b
=
Signal Power
Bit Rate
=
S
R
E / t
B / t
=
N
0
=
Noise Power
Bandwidth
=
N
W
E
b
N
0

=
S
R
N
W
=
S
R
X
W
N
=
S
N
X
W
R
Signal to Noise
Processing Gain
The more the expansion multiples, the higher the
processing gain, the stronger the anti-jamming capability
Relation between E
b
/N
0
and PG
Despreading procedure
Method of despreading
Input signal
Local PN code
When T=Ts, judge
Output after despreading
integral
0
Ts
(*)dt
Content
The Basic Principles of Wireless Communication
UMTS Radio mechanism
UMTS Data transmission Procedure
Channel Coding of UMTS
Spreading Technology of UMTS
Modulation of UMTS
Modulation Methods in UMTS
BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) in Uplink channles
QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) in Downlink channels
16QAM (16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) in HSDPA
Physical Channel Spread-Spectrum
Modulation Process-Downlink


Separation
of real
Parts
And
Imaginary
parts
Pulse
Forming
Pulse
Forming

Serial
Parallel
Switch
Serial
Parallel
Switch


Downlink physical
channel 1
C
ch,SF,m
j

I+jQ

S
dl,n
G
1
C
ch,SF,m
j

I+jQ

S
dl,n
G
2
Downlink physical
channel 2
G
p
G
p
P-SCH
S-SCH
cos(wt)

-sin(wt)

Re(T)
Im(T)
Physical Channel Spread-Spectrum
Modulation Process-Uplink
Separation
of real
Parts
And
Imaginary
parts
Pulse
Forming
Pulse
Forming
cos(wt)

-sin(wt)

S
dpch,n
Re(S)
Im(S)

C
d,1

d
I
c
c
Q
j
I+jQ



DPDCH
1
C
d,3

d
DPDCH
3
C
d,5

d
DPDCH
5
C
d,2

d
DPDCH
2
C
d,4

d
DPDCH
4
C
d,6

d
DPDCH
6
c
c
C
c

c
DPCCH

Q