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STEAM

GENERATORS
OR BOILERS
A boiler or steam generator is a device used to
create steam by applying heat energy to water.
A steam generator generates steam at the desired rate at the
desired pressure and temperature by burning fuel in its
furnace.
It is mainly of 2 types :
1. Fossil fuel steam generators
2. Nuclear fuel steam generators

AN INDUSTRIAL
BOILER


USUALLY MADE OF ALLOYS OR
SUPER-ALLOYS

TYPES OF STEAM
GENERATORS
BASED ON APPLICATION:

UTILITY

INDUSTRIAL

MARINE
BASED ON RELATIVE FLOWS OF
PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION
FIRE TUBE BOILERS
Here hot flue gases flow through
tubes surrounded by water in a
shell
WATER TUBE BOILERS
Here water from a drum flows
through the tubes and hot flue
gases flow over them.
WATER TUBE BOILERS
Water tube boilers were developed to permit
increases in boiler pressure and capacity with
reasonable metal stresses.
Different types include :

I. Straight tube boiler
II. Bent tube boiler





STRAIGHT TUBE
BOILER



A FOUR DRUM
BENT TUBE BOILER
HEAT ABSORPTION IN
WATER TUBE BOILERS
FEEDWATER IS HEATED BY THREE KINDS OF
HEAT EXCHANGERS :
ECONOMISER
EVAPORATOR
SUPER-HEATER
HEAT ABSORTION
IN A WATER TUBE
BOILER
HEAT ABSORPTION
IN DIFFERENT HEAT
EXCHANGERS OF
A WATER TUBE
BOILER
ECONOMISERS
AN ECONOMISER IS A HEAT EXCHANGER THAT
RAISES THE TEMPERATURE OF THE FEEDWATER.

THE ECONOMISER IS PLACED BETWEEN
CONVECTIVE SUPER-HEATER AND AIR PRE-
HEATER.

SUPER HEATERS
IT IS A HEAT EXCHANGER IN WHICH HEAT IS
TRANSFERRED TO THE SATURATED STEAM TO
INCREASE ITS TEMPERATURE.
IT INCREASES THE OVERALL EFFICIENCY AND
REDUCES MOISTURE IN THE LAST STAGES.
FLUIDISED BED BOILERS
They produce steam from fossil fuels and waste
fuels by using a technique called fluidised bed
combustion.

They can be of 2 types:

1. Bubbling fluidised bed boilers
2. Circulating fluidised bed boilers

AN ATMOSPHERIC
BUBBLING
FLUIDISED BED
BOILER
CIRCULATING
FLUIDISED BED
BOILER
EVAPORATION
Evaporation of pre-treated water by motive
steam bled from the turbine is often used where
the boiler make-up water treatment is not large.
Both evaporated water and condensed steam
exiting the evaporator are fed back as make-up
into the plant.

SINGLE EFFECT
SUBMERGED
EVAPORATOR
DEAERATOR
It is a feedwater heater that is a contact type
open heater.

It involves heating the water to remove gases like
oxygen and carbon dioxide that make water
corrosive as they react with metal to form iron
oxide.

These are removed by heating to saturation
temperature by the steam extracted from the
turbine.