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Individual or group tests

Verbal and nonverbal or performance
Culture-fir tests
Developmental scales
Wechsler Scales

are individually administered tests
with appropriate forms for different
age spans
Three Wechsler Scales
1. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-
Revised (WAIS-R)
2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
Children-Revised (WISC-R)
3. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale
of Intelligence (WPPSI)
Wechsler Scale
Have 10 12 subtests each, about half
belonging to the verbal-scale and the
other half to the performance scale
The test yield a verbal, performance,
and total IQ score
Verbal Scale
Was designed by Wechsler to measure
the examinees ability to work with
abstract symbols
Six Areas of Verbal Scale
1. Information Test

focuses on knowledge and information
acquired through educational experiences
individuals with high scores have had a
wide variety of experiences and cultural
opportunities and outside interests
individuals with low scores may show lack
of intellectual curiosity or a poor cultural
Six Areas of Verbal Scale
2. Digital Span Test

measures short term or immediate memory
the test demands concentration and
examinees with high scores have good
short-term memory and can focus their
attention well
low scores indicate poor attention or an
ability to concentrate that may result from
anxiety or stress
Six Areas of Verbal Scale
3. Arithmetic Subtest

focuses on items that require basic
mathematical skills
high scores are an indication of alertness,
ability to concentrate, focus on tasks, and
good arithmetic reasoning
low scores may indicate a poor
background in mathematical skills and/or
reasoning and an inability to concentrate
Six Areas of Verbal Scale
4. Comprehension Subtest

focuses on an individuals ability to make social judgments
and requires information and knowledge of moral codes,
social rules and regulations
high scores are an indication of an awareness of reality,
capacity for social compliance, and good judgment
low scores may be an indication of poor judgment and
possibly impulsiveness, antisocial tendencies, or some
type of personality disturbance
Six Areas of Verbal Scale
5. Similarities Test

measures reasoning and conceptual
thinking ability
high scores have good verbal fluency
and concept formation
low scores have a poor ability to think
abstractly and see things flexibly
Six Areas of Verbal Scale
6. Vocabulary Test

contains words from easy to difficult and
from concrete to abstract
individuals with high scores usually have a
wide range of interests, good recall, and
high general intelligence
low scores may have had a limited
educational background or may be poorly
Performance Scale
1. Picture Completion

requires the test taker to identify the missing
part of a drawing
measures long-term visual alertness and
memory as well as visual acuity
high scores have the ability to recognize
essential visual information and reveal
alertness and good visual acuity
low scores often have poor ability to
Performance Scale
2. Picture Arrangement Test

requires examinees to put scrambled comic-
strip pictures in the correct order to tell a story
high scores have social intelligence and an
ability to anticipate the consequences of initial
low scores usually have problems in
interpersonal relationships, few ideas, and
poor ability to plan ahead
Performance Scale
3. Block Design Test

requires examinees to copy a set of designs
utilizing colored blocks
requires visual-spatial organization and ability
to analyze a whole into parts, and nonverbal
problem-solving skills
high scores have good visual-motor-spatial
skills and are able to concentrate
low scores have problems in visual-
perceptual-motor-spatial areas and in visual
concept formation
Performance Scale
4. Object Assembly Test

is a set of jigsaw-type puzzles that require
visual motor speed and coordination as well
as an ability to configure and organize the
parts of the puzzle
high scores have excellent visual
organizational abilities
low scores have problems in visual perceptual
motor areas and in visual concept formation
Performance Scale
5. Coding or Digit Symbol test

measures visual motor speed and
accuracy as well as short-term visual
memory and an ability to follow directions
high scores have effective visual-motor
skills and are mentally efficient
low scores have poor visual-motor skills
and an inadequate capacity for visual
associative learning
Performance Scale
6. Maze Test

demands visual planning, visual motor,
coordination, and perceptual
high scores show an ability to plan
ahead and a flexible mental orientation
low scores often show impulsivity and
poor visual-motor coordination and
orientation to reality
Comparison of Verbal and
Performance of the Wechsler
Intelligence Scale
Work with abstract symbols Nonverbal contact with the
Utilization of school or educational
Work with perceptual-motor tasks
Verbal memory abilities Work with concrete tasks and
Verbal fluency
Computational skills Long-term visual memory
Numerical reasoning Visual alertness
Logical thinking Ability to differentiate among details
Abstract thinking Temporal visual sequencing
Ability to form verbal concepts Social awareness
Work knowledge Nonverbal reasoning
Language development Planning ability
Awareness of social rules and mores Verbal concept formation
Common sense Whole/part analysis
Use of past experience Visual-spatial ability
Short-term auditory memory Sensory-motor feedback
Recall of information Visual-motor speed, coordination and acuity
Short-term visual memory
Ability to follow directions
Visual planning
Ability to follow a visual pattern
Classification of range of
intelligence test
130 above Very superior 98 99
120 - 129 Superior 91 97
110 119 High average 75 90
90 109 Average 25 74
80 89 Low average 9 23
70 79 Borderline 3 8
69 - below Below average 1 - 2
Is an individually administered measure
of intelligence and achievement for
children from 2 years 6 months of age to
12 years 6 months
Based on a theory of intelligence that
distinguishes between sequential and
simultaneous mental processes
Contains 16 subtests of mental
processing skills
K-ABC mental processing
Subtest (ages) Skill to be assessed
Magic Window
(2-6 to 4-11)
Identifying and Naming object from a picture rotated
behind a narrow slit, which permits the picture to be
only partially exposed
Face Recognition
(2-6 to 4-11)
Attending closely to one or two faces in photographs
that are briefly exposed and then selecting the correct
face in a group photograph
Hand Movement
(2-6 to 12-5)
Copying the precise sequence of taps on a table as
performed by the examiner with a fist, palm, or side of
the hand
Gestalt Closure
(2-6 to 12-5)
Filling in the gaps in a partially completed inkblot
drawing and also naming or describing the drawings
Number Recall
(2-6 to 12-5)
Repeating in a sequence a series of numbers orally
presented by the examiner
Subtest (ages) Skill to be assessed
(4-0 to 12-5)
Assembling several identical rubber triangles to match a
picture of an abstract design
Word Order
(4-0 to 12-5)
Pointing with and without an interference task, to
silhouettes to common objects in the same order in which
these objects were named by the examiners
Matrix Analogies
(5-0 to 12-5)
Selecting the picture or design that best completes a 2
x 2 visual analogy
Spatial Memory
(5-0 to 12-5)
Recalling the location s of pictures arranged randomly on
a page
Photo Series
(6-0 to 12-5)
Organizing in proper time sequence a randomly arranged
array of photographs illustrating an event
PURPOSE: to help examiners obtain a
better diagnoses of a test takers
cognitive abilities
Two major strengths of
1. A continuous scale for appraising the
cognitive development of the test takers
from age 2 to adulthood
2. An adaptive-testing format that permits
the client to be tested with a range of
tasks best suited to her ability level
Three levels of conceptual
model for the 4
edition of the
1. Top level G or generalized reasoning
2. Second level consist of three broad
Crystallized abilities
Fluid-analytical abilities
Short-term memory
3. Third level measures verbal, quantitative,
and abstract/visual reasoning dimensions
of intelligence
Factors of Stanford-Binet
Intelligence Scale
Verbal reasoning
Abstract/visual reasoning
Quantitative reasoning
Short-term memory
Leiter International Performance Scale

is a 54-item, nonverbal test used to
assess the intelligence of individuals
from age of 2 through adulthood
Arthur Point Scale of
is an individual scale that measures the
mental abilities of individuals with
reading or hearing impairments and/or
speech, emotional or cultural problems
Peabody Picture
measures receptive vocabulary
knowledge of Standard American
English and provides an estimate of the
verbal ability and the scholastic aptitude
of the test taker
Slosson Intelligence Test
provides a quick assessment of the
mental abilities of children and adults
Test of Nonverbal
provides language-free measure of
intelligence and reasoning
is used with exceptional clients having
speech/language, or learning disabilities
Advanced Progressive Matrices Test
was constructed by J.C. Ravens and is a
48-item nonverbal group IQ test
Culture Fair Intelligence Test
are a series of tests developed by R.B.
Catell and A.K.S. Catell
Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT)
was developed by R. L. Thorndike and E.P.
is a multilevel battery used to test children
and youth from kindergarten to grade 12
Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test (OLMAT)
was developed by A.S. Otis and later
revised by R.T. Lennon
School and College Ability Tests (SCAT)
are a series of group tests measuring
verbal and quantitative ability from
grade 3.5 to grade 14
Test of Cognitive Skills (TCS)
is a group test used to assess four
areas of cognitive skill in students in
grade 2 to 12
1. American College Testing (ACT) Assessment
contains a series of tests
2. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)
has two major section
a. verbal section measures verbal reasoning
and comprehension of textlike material
b. quantitative section measures basic
principles of algebra and geometry
is used by high school counselors to help
guide students in their educational decisions
used in admission decisions