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Industrial Engineering integrates
knowledge and skills from several fields of
science: From the Technical Sciences,
Economic Sciences as well as Human
Science - all these can also be supported
with skills in Information Sciences. The
Industrial Engineer comprehends
knowledge in those sciences in order to
increase the productivity of processes,
achieve quality products and assures Labor
safety
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Standard of living
The extent to which a person is able to provide the things that
are necessary for sustaining and enjoying life.
Standard of living of a representative family differs greatly in
different parts of the world.
What is considered a necessity in one part of the world could
be considered a luxury in the other.
Basic necessities of a minimum decent standard of living:
Food, clothing, housing and hygiene. Also, security and
education also considered constituents.

Greater the amount of goods and services produced in any
community, the higher its the average standard of living.
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Standard of living
There are two ways of increasing the amount of goods and
services produced:
- Increase the employment and investment in creating jobs. So
that more people are producing goods required for the society.
- Increase productivity. Same amount of labor produces more
goods.
We want:
More and cheaper food by increase in agricultural productivity
More and cheaper clothing and housing by increased industrial
productivity
More hygiene, security and education by increasing overall
productivity.
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Productivity
Ratio between output and input.
Arithmetic ratio of the amount produced to the amount of any
resources used in the production.
The resources may be: land, material, plant, machines, tools,
labor. It could be combination of all!
Over a period of time, one can say that productivity has
increased.
How?
Combination of improved technology, better planning, greater
skills etc.
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Productivity
Note that, increased production does not mean increased
productivity.
Higher productivity means that more is produced with the
same expenditure of resources; that is, at the same cost in
terms of land, material, machine, time or labor.
Alternatively, same amount is produced at less cost in terms of
land, labor, material etc; thereby releasing some of these
resources for the production of other things.
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Productivity and standard of living
If more is available at the same cost, or the same amount is
available at lesser cost the whole community benefits.

As per the ILO, higher productivity provides ways for raising
the standard of living by:
1. Larger supplies of both consumer goods and capital goods at
lower cost and prices
2. Higher real earnings
3. Improvement in working conditions, e.g. by reduced working
hours
4. In general, strengthening of the economic foundations of
human well-being.
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Productivity in industry
Many factors affecting productivity of each organization; also,
they are dependent.
Depending on the individual environments, decisions are to be
made.
Industries where labor and capital costs are low compared to
the material costs, better use of material and plant gives the
greatest scope of cost reduction.
In countries where capital and skilled labor are in shortage
compared to unskilled labor, one should look to increase the
output per machine or per skilled worker.
Increasing the number of unskilled workers may be beneficial
if by doing so an expensive machine or skilled craftsmen are
enabled to increase production.
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Governments responsibility
Government can create conditions favorable to raise
productivity. It can:
1. Have a balanced programs of economic development
2. Take steps necessary to maintain employment
3. Make opportunities for employment.
Last step is specifically important for a developing country
like India.
Government should make provisions for workers who are
going to loose jobs because of technology improvement
training and education programs.
Example: Indias First Five-Year Plan (1952).
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Managements responsibility
The main responsibility for raising productivity in an
individual organization lies with the management.
It can implement productivity programs.
It can create a positive environment and obtain co-operation of
the employees.
Trade unions should encourage its members to provide such
co-operation when the productivity program is beneficial to
workers, as well as the organization on the whole.

We will look at managements role in increasing productivity
of individual resource:
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Productivity of material
At the design stage:
Ensure least consumption of material,
Purchase equipments and plants such that consumption of
material is economical.

At the operation stage:
Use of correct process
Right use of the process
Operator training
Proper handling and storage of products at all stages
Proper packaging to reduce damage in transit
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Productivity of land, machines and
manpower
Effective utilization and maximum productivity is an
important source of cost reduction.
Reduction in the original specification, before the land is
purchased saves capital outlay (as well as interest expenses)
A savings in material which has to be imported saves import
duty and excise.

Productivity of manpower and machines is typically measured
in terms of time (man-hours; machine-hours).
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Factors tending to reduce productivity
Work content added due to the product for a manufacturing firm:
The product or its components are designed such that it is
impossible to use most economical manufacturing processes.
Excessive variety or lack of standardization.
Incorrect quality standards.
Excessive amount of material removal required.

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Factors tending to reduce productivity
Work content added due to process
Incorrect production process (and/or machine) used
Process not operated properly
Non-optimal layout with wasted movements.
Working methods of operation causing wasted movements,
time and efforts.
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Factors tending to reduce productivity
Ineffective time due to management
Marketing policy which demands unnecessarily large number
of products.
No standardization of components between as well as within
products.
Failing to meet customers requirement from the beginning.
No plan for flow of work.
Improper supply of material, equipment.
Improper maintenance of plant and machines.
Insufficient safety measures.
Improper working conditions resulting in interrupted work.
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Factors tending to reduce productivity
Ineffective time within the control of worker
Taking time off without good cause: by lateness, by idling at
work etc.
Careless workmanship causing scrap or rework.
Failing to observe safety standards.
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Management techniques to reduce
work content
Nature of management
Management is the organization and control of human activity
directed towards specific ends.
Management techniques are systematic procedures of
investigation, planning and control which can be applied to
management problems.
Systematic approach to the solution of the problems proceeds
step by step from known to the unknown, always on the basis
of ascertained facts.
Since management deals with human beings, it can never be
completely scientific, and must partly be regarded as an art.
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Reduce work content due to the
product
Coupling of product design and process design phases (design
products such that most economical processes can be used).
Pilot project/ prototyping to avoid mistakes at a advanced
stage (very common in chemical companies).
Standardization of components.
Setting correct quality standards
Stricter standards lead to increased manufacturing time, lenient
standards lead to greater variability.
Knowing the customer Management should conduct market
research and consumer surveys to know the customer better.
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Reduce work content due to the
method
Process planning Identification of correct machines for the
process. In chemical industry, this is specified by the R&D
division or the license seller.
Process research Identification of best manufacturing
technique.
Proper maintenance.
Method study Combine with process planning to give most
suitable tools for the operative. Includes factory layout,
working methods of the operative.
Operator training Improve working methods of the
operative.
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Reduce ineffective time due to the
management
Strategic decisions Which markets to enter can affect
ineffective time to a great extent.
Production planning It is planning of proper programs of
work so that plant and workers are kept supplied without
having to wait.
Proper programs should be applied only on the basis of sound
standards of performance.
Work measurement Setting up those standards.
Material control Workers and machines should not be idle
because of non-availability of material and tools.
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Reduce ineffective time within control
of the worker
Training.
Make worker want to reduce ineffective time. (Create
conditions to make the worker get on with his work.
Hawthorne effect)
Effective personnel policy and managements attitude towards
the worker.
Good relationship between management and worker.
A sound wage structure, including incentive schemes
(typically based on time standards derived from work
measurement).
SAM : Standard Allowed Minutes
SMV : Standard Minute Value
Man Minutes/man hours
Machine hours
Production Capacity:
No. of Garments
Tech. Pack
PFD
Lead Time
Pitch time
Through put time
WIP
Bottleneck
Floater
Operator
Helper
Productivity



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Machine Down Time
UPS
Production Systems
Material Flow
Line balancing
Line Setup
Bundle size and type
Ticketing
Quality sampling plans
Acceptance number
Rejection number
AQL
COPQ
Observed time
Normal/basic time
Allowances
Direct Workers
Indirect Workers

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Work study
Technique used in the examination of human work in all
contexts, and which lead systematically to the investigation of
all the factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the
situation being reviewed, in order to effect improvement.
Two branches method study and work measurement.
Widely known as time and motion study.
Rapid developments after World War II.
Huge Capital investment, in process R&D may increase
productivity. However, it is expensive and time consuming.
Work study focuses on human and can increase productivity at
a lower cost.
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Work Study




Work Measurement
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Work Study
Method Study
Work
Measurement
Stop Watch
Time Study
Work
Sampling
Data
Synthesis
PMTS
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WHY WORK STUDY?
Example:
Goal of company: produce 10,000 parts per year
One work centre with multiple servers/operators
will be deployed to establish this goal.
Each part requires three operations to be
produced
All of three operations can be done by the same
server/operator
Company works 2400 hours per year
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How long does each operation take?
(Work measurement)
Time Study Results: (operation times in
minutes)
Operation 1 Operation 2 Operation 3
5 min. 10 min. 12 min.

In total, to produce one part, it takes 27
min. in one server
How many servers/Operators required?
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Work centre with one server/Operator can
produce in one year:
2400 X 60
-------------- = 5333 Parts
27 Min/part

Required Production = 10000 parts
Hence No. of servers/operators required is
10000 parts
---------------- = 1.87 2 servers/operators
5333 parts

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Suppose if demand is increased to 15000 parts per year.

How many servers needed ?

if servers cannot be increased what else can be done?

Reduce the duration. By what percentage ?

Goal is to produce 15000 parts per year

2400 hrs/year X 60 Min X 2 servers
----------------------------------------------- = 19.2 Min
15000 parts/year

(27 19.2) / 27 Min = 28.8 % But How ?
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Basic procedure of work study
1. Select the job or process to be studied.
2. Record from the direct observations everything that happens.
3. Examine the recorded facts critically and challenge everything that is
done.
4. Develop most economic method taking in to considerations all
circumstances.
5. Define the new method
6. Measure the quantity of work involved in the method selected and
calculate a standard time for doing it..
7. Institutionalize the new method and time as practice.
8. Maintain the new standards by control procedures.
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Work study
Since line managers are typically busy with the day-to-day
activities, they can only look at work study during their free
time. They should not be entrusted with the work study
responsibilities.
Workers also ruled out because they usually lack the
knowledge of the big picture.
Therefore, responsibility should be given to someone who can
work full-time on work study, without direct management
duties.
Someone in the staff and not a line position.
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Work study: A tool for management
Means of raising productivity (and efficiency) of the factory
by reorganization of work.
Typically involves low or no capital expenditure.
Systematic process Covers all aspects of raising
productivity.
Very accurate in setting standards of performance.
Savings from work study start at once and continues as long as
the improved operations are performed.
Applied everywhere: not only in manufacturing shops, offices,
shops, stores, laboratories; and service industries like
restaurants, etc.
One of the most penetrating tools of investigation available to
management.
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Work study: Beyond systematic
Should be applied continuously, and throughout the
organization.
Basis of successful work study: complete intolerance of waste
in any form whether of material, time, effort or human
ability.
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Method study
Method study Systematic recording and critical
examination of existing and proposed ways of doing
work, as a means of developing and applying easier
and more effective methods and reducing costs.

Method study is associated with the reduction of the
work content of a job or operation, while work
measurement is mostly concerned with the
investigation and reduction of any ineffective time
associated with it.
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Objectives
Improvement of processes and procedures.
Improvements of factory, shop and workplace layout and of
design of plant and equipment.
Economy of human efforts and the reduction of unnecessary
fatigue.
Improvement in the use of materials, machines and manpower.
The development of a better physical working environment.
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Basic Procedure
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Selecting the work to be studied
Economic considerations
Bottlenecks
Movements of material over long distances
Operations involving repetitive work
Technical considerations
Relatively straight forward
Based on the technical knowledge of the process
Human considerations
Most difficult to foretell because of mental and emotional
nature.
Select an unpopular job for method study.
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Important considerations
1. Product and operation
2. Person who proposed investigation
3. Reason for proposal
4. Particulars of the job
5. Equipment
6. Layout
7. Product
8. Savings and/or increase in productivity expected.
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Method study charts and diagrams
Charts indicating process
sequence
- Outline process chart
- Flow process chart Man,
Material and Equipment
type
- Two-handed process chart
Charts using a time scale
- Multiple activity chart
- Simo chart
- PMTS chart

Diagrams indicating movement
- Flow diagram - Chronocyclegraph
- Sting diagram - Travel chart
- Cyclograph
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Method study charts and diagrams
Outline process chart: Is a process chart giving an overall-
picture by recording in sequence only the main operations and
inspections.
Flow process chart: A chart setting out the sequence of flow of
a product or a procedure b recording all events under review
using the appropriate chart symbols.
Man-type Records what the worker does
Material-type Records what happens to materials.
Equipment-type Records how the equipment is used.

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Flow
Diagram
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Man type process flow chart
A flow process chart which records what the worker does.
Frequently used in the study of jobs which are not highly
repetitive and standardized.
Service and maintenance work, laboratory procedure and
supervisory and executive work can be recorded on this type
of chart.
Since the chart follows one individual or a group performing
the same activities in sequence, the standard forms are used.
Essential to attach a sketch showing the path of movement of
the worker while carrying out the operation charted.
Written in active voice (e.g. worker drills hole) as against
passive voice of other flow charts (e.g. hole drilled).
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String diagram
A scale plan or model on which a thread is used to trace and
measure the path of workers, material or equipment during a
specified sequence of events.
A special form of flow diagram, in which a thread is used to
measure distance.
Necessary that the string diagram be drawn correctly to scale,
whereas regular flow diagram can be drawn only
approximately to scale.
Start using the string diagram by recording all the relevant
facts from direct observation.
Like flow diagram, it will most often be used to supplement a
flow process chart.
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String diagram
Thus, string diagram and flow chart can give clearest possible
picture of what is actually being done.
Flow process chart will be examined critically in order to
make sure that all unnecessary activities are eliminated before
a new method is proposed and tested using string diagram.
String diagram can be used to plot movements of material to
know how far the materials travel.
Most commonly, the string diagram is used for plotting the
movements of workers.
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String diagram: Process
A scale plan of working area similar to that required for a flow
diagram must be made; as stated earlier, with higher accuracy.
Machines, benches, stores etc. should be drawn to scale,
together with doorways, pillars, partitions.
Completed plan should be attached to a softwood board and
pins driven into it firmly at every stopping point, the heads
being allowed to stand well clear of the surface.
Pins should also be driven in at all the turning points on the
route.
A measured length of thread is then taken and tied around the
pin at the starting point of the movements.
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String diagram: Process
It is then led around the pins at the other points of call in the
order noted on the study sheet until all the movements have
been dealt with.
The result is to give a picture of the paths of movement of the
operators, those which are most frequently traversed being
covered with the greatest number of strings.
By measuring the length of the thread, the distance traveled by
the worker can be calculated.
Of two or more workers are studied over the same working
area, different colored threads may be used to distinguish
them.
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String diagram: Analysis
Examination of diagram and development of new layout done
in a similar fashion as with a flow diagram.
Pins and templates are moved around until an arrangement is
found by which the same operation can be performed with a
minimum movement between them.
This can be checked by leading the thread around the pins in
their new positions, keeping the same sequence.
The length of the thread for the new layout is measured and
compared with the length of thread for original layout.
Difference in length of threads represent the reduction in
distance traveled as a result of improved layout.
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Travel chart
String diagrams take a rather long time to construct. And when
a great many movements along complex paths are involved,
the diagram looks like ugly mess of criss-crossing lines.
When the movement patterns are complex, the travel chart is
quicker and more manageable recording technique.
It is a tabular record for presenting quantitative data about
movements of workers, materials or equipment between any
number of places over any given period of time.
It is represented as a square matrix: columns indicating origin
of movement and rows the destination. Or vice versa.
Data could be travel time taken, distance traveled etc.
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Travel chart
The person conducting the study doesnt have to trace the
actual path from origin to destination.
Just the start and end of the travel is recorded as corresponding
columns and row.
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Multiple activity chart
A chart on which the activities of more than one subject
(worker, machine, equipment) are each recorded on a common
time scale to show their interrelationship.
By using separate vertical columns, or bars to represent the
activities of different operators or machines against a common
time scale the chart shows the periods of idleness on the part
of any subjects, during the process.
This makes it possible to rearrange these activities so that such
ineffective time is reduced.
Extremely useful in organizing teams of operatives on mass-
production work, also on maintenance work when scheduling
expensive plant.
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Why charts?
It gives a complete picture of what is being done and helps to
understand the facts and its relationship to one another.
Details on the chart must be obtained from direct
observation. Should not be from memory.
Neatness and accuracy important.
Increased value if following is included:
1. Product, equipment details (code#, drawing#)
2. Job or process being carried out
3. Location and time (date) of the study
4. Observers name
5. Chart reference number
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Examine critically
Means by which each activity is subjected to a systematic and
progressive series of questions.
Grouping of activities: Five sets of activities can be grouped in
two categories
Those in which something actually happens to the work-piece
(it is moved, worked upon or examined)
Those in which it is not being touched (in storage or in delay)
Objective is to maximize proportion of do activities.
All other activities, however necessary, are considered non-
productive.
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Primary questions
The PURPOSE for which
The PLACE at which
The SEQUENCE in which
The PERSON by whom
The MEANS by which
.the activities are undertaken.

With a view to ELIMINATING, COMBINING,
REARRANGING, or SIMPLIFYING those activities.
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Primary questions
PURPOSE
What?
Why?
ELIMINATE unnecessary
part of the job
PLACE Where?
COMBINE wherever possible
or REARRANGE the
sequence for better result
SEQUENCE When?
PERSON Who?
MEANS How? SIMPLIFY the operation
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The secondary questions
PURPOSE
What else might be done?
What should be done?
PLACE
Where else might be done?
Where should be done?
SEQUENCE
When else might be done?
When should be done?
PERSON
Who else might be done?
Who should be done?
MEANS
How else might be done?
How should be done?
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Classification of Therbligs
Effective therbligs:
Transport empty
Grasp
Transport loaded
Release load
Use
Assemble
Disassemble
Inspect
Rest
Ineffective therbligs:
Hold
Pre-position
Position
Search
Select
Plan
Unavoidable delay
Avoidable delay
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Micromotion Analysis
Each therblig represents time and energy spent by a worker to
perform a task. If the task is repetitive, of relatively short duration, and
will be performed many times, it may be appropriate to analyze the
therbligs that make up the work cycle as part of the work design
process.
The term micromotion analysis is sometimes used for this type of
analysis.

Objectives:
1. Eliminate ineffective therbligs if possible
2. Avoid holding objects with hand Use workholder
3. Combine therbligs Perform right-hand and left-hand motions
simultaneously
4. Simplify overall method
5. Reduce time for a motion, e.g., shorten distance
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Principles of Motion Economy
Developed over many years of practical experience in
work design

They are guidelines that can be used to help determine
Work method
Workplace layout
Tools, and equipment

Objective is to maximize efficiency and minimize worker
fatigue
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Three Categories of Principles
The principles of motion economy can be organized into
three categories:

1. Principles that apply to the use of the human body

2. Principles that apply to the workplace arrangement

3. Principles that apply to the design of tooling and
equipment
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Use of Human Body
1. Both hands should be fully utilized.

The natural tendency of most people is to use their preferred hand (right
hand for right-handed people and left hand for left-handed people) to
accomplish most of the work.
The other hand is relegated to a minor role, such as holding the object,
while the preferred hand works on it. This first principle states that both
hands should be used as equally as possible.

2. The two hands should begin and end their
motions at the same time.

This principle follows from the first. To implement, it is sometimes
necessary to design the method so that the work is evenly divided between
the right-hand side and the left-hand side of the workplace. In this case, the
division of work should be organized according to the following principle.
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3. The motions of the hands and arms should be
symmetrical and simultaneous.
This will minimize the amount of hand-eye coordination required by the worker.
And since both hands are doing the same movements at the same time, less
concentration will be required than if the two hands had to perform different
and independent motions.

4. The work should be designed to emphasize the
workers preferred hand.
The preferred hand is faster, stronger, and more practical. If the work to be
done cannot be allocated evenly between the two hands, then the method
should take advantage of the workers best hand.
For example, work units should enter the workplace on the side of the workers
preferred hand and exit the workplace on the opposite side. The reason is that
greater hand-eye coordination is required to initially acquire the work unit, so
the worker should use the preferred hand for this element. Releasing the work
unit at the end of the cycle requires less coordination.
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5. The workers two hands should never be
idle at the same time.
The work method should be designed to avoid periods when neither
hand is working. It may not be possible to completely balance the
workload between the right and left hands, but it should be possible to
avoid having both hands idle at the same time.

The exception to this principle is during rest breaks. The work cycle of a
worker-machine system may also be an exception, if the worker is
responsible for monitoring the machine during its automatic cycle, and
monitoring involves using the workers cognitive senses rather than the
hands. If machine monitoring is not required, then internal work
elements should be assigned to the worker during the automatic cycle.
The next five principles of motion economy attempt to utilize
the laws of physics to assist in the use of the hands and arms
while working.
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6. Method should consist of smooth continuous
curved motions rather than straight motions with
sudden changes in direction

It takes less time to move through a sequence of smooth continuous
curved paths than through a sequence of straight paths that are
opposite in direction, even though the actual total distance of the
curved paths may be longer (since the shortest distance between two
points is a straight line).

The reason behind this principle is that the straight-line path sequence
includes start and stop actions (accelerations and decelerations) that
consume the workers time and energy.

Motions consisting of smooth continuous curves minimize the lost
time in starts and stops.


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7. Use momentum to facilitate task

When carpenters strike a nail with a hammer, they are using
momentum, which can be defined as mass times velocity. Imagine trying
to apply a static force to press the nail into the wood.
Not all work situations provide an opportunity to use momentum as a
carpenter uses a hammer, but if the opportunity is present, use it. The
previous principle dealing with smooth continuous curved motions
illustrates a beneficial use of momentum to make a task easier.

8. Take advantage of gravity Dont oppose it

Less time and energy are required to move a heavy object from a higher
elevation to a lower elevation than to move the object upward. The
principle is usually implemented by proper layout and arrangement of the
workplace, and so it is often associated with the workplace arrangement
principles of motion economy.
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9. Method should achieve a natural cadence of
the motions involved
Rhythm refers to motions that have a regular recurrence and flow from
one to the next. Basically, the worker learns the rhythm and performs the
motions without thinking, much like the natural and instinctive motion
pattern that occurs in walking.
10. Use lowest classification of hand and arm
motion (five classifications)
The five classifications of hand and arm motions are presented in Table
10.5.
With each lower classification, the worker can perform the hand and arm
motion more quickly and with less effort. Therefore, the work method
should be composed of motions at the lowest classification level
possible.
This can often be accomplished by locating parts and tools as close
together as possible in the workplace.
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The two remaining human body principles of
motion economy are recommendations for
using body members other than the hands
and arms.
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11. Minimize eye focus and travel
In work situations where hand-eye coordination is required, the eyes
are used to direct the actions of the hands. Eye focus occurs when the
eye must adjust to a change in viewing distancefor example, from 25
in. to 10 in. with little or no change in line of sight.

12. The method should be designed to utilize the
workers feet and legs when appropriate.
The legs are stronger than the arms, although the feet are not as
practical as the hands. The work method can sometimes be designed to
take advantage of the greater strength of the legs, for example, in lifting
tasks.
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Workplace Arrangement
Figure 10.2 Normal and maximum working
areas in the workplace.
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1. Locate tools and materials in fixed positions within the work area
As the saying goes, a place for everything, and everything in its place. The worker
eventually learns the fixed locations, allowing him to reach for the object without
wasting time looking and searching.

2. Locate tools and materials close to where they are used
This helps to minimize the distances the worker must move (travel empty and travel
loaded) in the workplace. In addition, any equipment controls should also be located
in close proximity.

3. Locate tools and materials to be consistent with sequence of work elements:
Items should be arranged in a logical pattern that matches the sequence of work
elements. Those items that are used first in the cycle should be on one side of the
work area, the items used next should be next to the first, and so on,.

4. Use gravity feed bins to deliver small parts and fasteners

5. Use gravity drop chutes (channels, tubes) for completed work units where
appropriate

6. Provide adequate illumination
Workplace Arrangement
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Illustration of First Three Principles
Two workplace layouts.
(a) Poor arrangement of parts and tools in workplace
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Illustration of First Three Principles
(b) Good arrangement of parts and tools in
workplace
Numbers indicate sequence of work elements in relation to locations of hand
tools and parts bins.

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Design of Tooling and Equipment
1. Work-holding devices should be designed for the task; A
mechanical work holder with a fast-acting clamp permits the work unit
to be loaded quickly and frees both hands to work on the task
productively.
2. Hands should be relieved of work elements that can be
performed by the feet using foot pedals; Foot pedal controls
can be provided instead of hand controls to operate certain types of
equipment. Sewing machines are examples in which foot pedals are
used as integral components in the operation of the equipment.
3. Combine multiple functions into one tool where possible;
such as head of a claw hammer is designed for both striking and pulling nails.
4. Perform multiple operations simultaneously rather than
sequentially; A work cycle is usually conceptualized as a sequence of work
elements or steps
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5. Where feasible, perform operation on multiple parts
simultaneously; This usually applies to cases involving the use of a
powered tool such as a machine tool. A good example is the drilling
of holes in a printed circuit board (PCB). The PCBs are stacked three
or four thick, and a numerically controlled drill press drills each hole
through the entire stack in one feed motion.
6. Design equipment controls for operator convenience and error
avoidance; Equipment controls include dials, cranks, levers,
switches, push buttons, and other devices that regulate the operation
of the equipment. All of the controls needed by the operator should
be located within easy reach, so as to minimize the body motions
required to access and activate them.
7. Hand tools and portable power tools should be designed for
operator comfort & convenience; For example, the tools should
have handles or grips that are slightly compressible so that they can
be held and used comfortably for the duration of the shift
8. Mechanize or automate manual operations if economically and
technically feasible
137
Facility layout - Procedure
Start with the flow diagram/model.
Map all the material movements on the flow diagram/model.
Measure distances of travel (computer output, thread method,
drawing lines on the diagram etc.)
Analyze the current practice using a flow chart.
Go through the usual rounds of primary and secondary
questions.
Develop the improved method.

138
Material handling
Typically material handing may take up to 85% of the total
process time.
Only important method study principle: Motion Economy!
Material handling adds to the cost of manufacture but adds
nothing to the value of the product.
Therefore, ideally there should be no material handling.
Typical material handling problem solved in the same way as
all method study problem start with asking questions.

Most important question: WHY is this handling done?
139
Material handling: Process
Traditional way of solving any method study problems
Use of outline and process flow charts and flow diagrams to
ensure a correct workplace layout.
AIM: Minimization of movement in any plane horizontal or
vertical.
Specially critical when one is buying material handling
equipment for the workplace.
Change in workplace layout affects not only the quantity but
also the type of material handling equipment necessary.
140
Material handling: Important aspects
Always try to keep material at the height at which they are to
be worked upon.
Never keep material on floor.
Always keep distances over which material is handled as short
as possible.
Let gravity work for you.
Always handle in bulk over distances.
Always have sufficient boxes, platforms or container available
at the workplace.
Keep gangways clear.
Dont reduce the supplementary human labor if it means
increase in the load for direct operators.
141
Effects of shop layout on worker
movement
There are many activities in which workers move at irregular
intervals between a number of points in the working area, with
or without material. This happens when,
Bulk material is fed to or removed from a continuous process.
An operator is looking after two or more machines.
Laborers are delivering material to or removing work from a
series of machines.
In stores and shops when variety of materials are being
removed from or put away into racks or bins.
142
143
144
145
146
Making the Time Study
1. Secure and record information about the operation and
operator being studied.
2. Divide the operation into elements and record a
complete description of the method.
3. Observe and record the time taken by the operator.
4. Determine the number of cycles to be timed.
5. Rate the operators performance.
6. Check to make certain that a sufficient number of
cycles have been timed.
7. Determine the allowances.
8. Determine the time standard for the operation.

147
Reasons for Element Breakdown

1. One of the best ways to describe an operation is to break
it down into definite and measurable elements and
describe each of these separately.

2. Standard time values may be determined for the elements
of the job. Such element time standards make it possible
to determine the total standard time for an operation.

3. A time study may show that excessive time is being taken
to perform certain elements of the job.

4. An operator may not work at the same tempo throughout
the cycle. A time study permits separate performance
ratings to be applied to each element.

148
Rules for Element Breakdown

All manual work may be divided into therbligs
which are too short in duration to be timed with a
stop watch. A number of them must be grouped
together into elements of sufficient length.

The elements should be as short in duration as can
be accurately timed.
Handling time should be separated from machine
time.
Constant elements should be separated from variable
elements.

149
Time study equipment
a stop-watch
a study board
time study forms

Stopwatch Time Study

Stopwatch time study is the most common technique for
setting time standards in the manufacturing area.

The time standard is the most important piece of
manufacturing information, and stopwatch time study is
often the only method acceptable to both management
and labor.

Stopwatch time study was developed by Frederick W.
Taylor in 1880 and was the first technique used to set
engineered time standards.
150
151
TOOLS OF STOPWATCH TIME STUDY

The tools of stopwatch time study are important to know
before we get into the technique itself.

1. Stopwatches

a. Continuous
b. Snapback
c. Three-watch
d. Methods time measurement
e. Digital
f. Computer

2. Boards for holding watches and paper

3. Videotape recorders

4. Forms
152
Time study forms

Taking a time study requires the recording of substantial amounts of
data. These data are in a regular form consisting of element codes
or descriptions, ratings and element durations.

It is more convenient to use pre-printed forms which ensure that
each study is of the same consistent format, that all relevant data
are recorded more reliably.

There are numerous designs of forms; most work study practitioners
have their own ideas on the ideal layout.

The principal forms used in time study fall into two groups:

Those used at the point of observation while actually making the
study, and those which are used after the study, as part of the
analysis process, in the study office.
153

Forms used on the study board

Time study top sheet:

The top and introductory sheet of a study, on which is recorded all the essential
information about the study, the elements into which the operation being studied
has been broken down, and the breakpoints used. It may also record the first few
cycles of the study itself.
The sketch of the workplace layout, which should be drawn either on the reverse
of the sheet, if the layout is very simple, or on a separate sheet (preferably of
squared paper) and attached to the study.

Continuation sheet:

This form is used for further cycles of the study. An example is shown in figure
100. These two forms are the ones most generally used. Together they are
adequate for most general time study work.
For the recording of short cycle repetitive operations, however, it is convenient to
use a specially ruled form instead.

Short cycle study form:

Two examples of a short cycle form are illustrated. That in figure 101 shows a
simple type of form which serves very well for most common short cycle work.
154

Forms used in the study office

Working sheet for analyzing the readings obtained during the study and
obtaining representative times for each element of the operation.

Study summary sheet to which the selected times for all the elements
are transferred, with the frequencies of the elements occurrence.

This sheet, as its name suggests, summarizes neatly all the
information which has been obtained during the course of the study.
An example is in figure 104.

Analysis of studies sheet on which are recorded, from the study
summary sheets, the results obtained in all the studies made on an
operation. It is from the analysis of studies sheets that the basic
times for the elements of the operation are finally compiled.

Specially ruled sheet is for the compilation of relaxation allowances.
155
156
157
158
159
An Example
160
161
162
163
164
165
An other Example
166
167
average
168
169
170
171
172
173
Selected time
Variable element
In general more observations will be necessary of a variable
element than of a constant element before reliable
representative basic times can be established.
The analysis of factors affecting the time to complete the
element should be closely studied.
Some relationship should be established between the observed
time and the variable factors.
Multiple factors could be affecting the observed time variation
and establishing relationships amongst multiple factors is
difficult
174
Work content
The work content of a job or operation is defined as: basic
time+ relaxation allowance+ any allowance for additional
work (e.g. the part of relaxation allowance that is work
related).
Standard time is the total time in which a job should be
completed at standard performance i.e. work content,
contingency allowance for delay, unoccupied time and
interference allowance.
Allowance for unoccupied time and interference may not be
frequently included in the standard time calculations; however,
the relaxation allowance is.
175
Standard time constituents
A contingency allowance is a small allowance of time which
may be included in a standard time to meet legitimate and
expected items of work or delays, precise measurement of
which is uneconomical because of their infrequent or irregular
occurrence.
Contingency allowance for work should include fatigue
allowance; whereas the allowance for delay should be
dependent on the workers.
Typically contingency allowances are very small and are
generally expressed as percentage of the total repetitive
minutes of the job.
176
Standard time constituents
Contingency allowance should not be more than 5%, and
should only be given where the contingencies cannot be
eliminated and are justified.
177
Standard time constituents
Relaxation allowance is an addition to the basic time intended
to provide the worker with the opportunity to recover from the
physiological and psychological effects of carrying out
specified work under specified conditions and to allow
attention to personal needs.
The amount of the allowance will depend on the nature of the
job.
One of the major additions to the basic time.
Industrial fatigue allowance, in turn, forms a major portion of
the relaxation allowance.
Relaxation allowances are also given as percentages of the
basic times.
178
Standard time constituents
Typical values of relaxation allowance are 12-20%.
In addition to including relaxation allowances, short rest
pauses could be added over the period of work for an operator.
179
Other allowances
Start-up / shut-down allowance
Cleaning allowance
Tooling allowance
Set-up / change-over allowance
Reject / excess production allowance
Learning / training allowance
Policy allowance is an increment, other than the bonus
increment, applied to standard time to provide a satisfactory
level of earning for certain level of performances under
exceptional conditions.
180
Standard time
Now, we can add all the constituents to arrive at the standard
time for a job.
Standard time = observed time + rating factor + relaxation
allowance + work related contingency allowance + delay
related contingency allowance.
181
182
Work sampling is a method of finding the percentage occurrence of a
certain activity by statistical sampling and random observations.

Work sampling, or activity analysis, is the process of making sufficient
random observations of an operators activities to determine the relative
amount of time the operator spends on the various activities associated
with the job.


The major goal of work sampling is to determine how long, or how much of
the work day, is spent on specific types of work.

Work sampling may identify the fact that certain operators spend a large
portion of their time waiting for work, or performing paperwork tasks, or
even performing activities that are not included in their job descriptions.

One of the basic foundations of statistical sampling theory is the concept
that the larger the sample size, the results will be better or more accurate.

In work sampling, a sufficient number of observations must be made to be
sure that the results accurately summarize the work performed. There are
statistical formulas to help determine how many observations should be
made.

The number of observations that an analyst must make of a particular job
also depends on how much time is devoted to a particular task.

Work Sampling
183
CONDUCTING A WORK SAMPLING STUDY
It is recommended that a uniform procedure should be followed to perform a
work sampling study is to

1. Establish the Purpose
First, the objective of the study should be established. Work sampling can be
used to determine an overall perspective on the work done.

2. Identify the Subjects
Second, the people performing the task must be identified, i.e. general office
work is being studied with the objective of determining overall productivity.

3. Identify the Measure of Output
The third step in making the study is the identification of the measure of the
output produced or the types of activities performed on the jobs being studied.
This step is especially important if the objective of the study is to measure
productivity with the intent of setting a standard.

4. Establish a Time Period
Fourth, the time period during which the study will be conducted must be
established. Starting and stopping points for the study must be defined as well.

5. Define the Activities
This step involves defining the activities that are performed by the people
under study. For example, the definition used in a machine utilization study,
including only the categories of working, idle, and idle-mechanical breakdown.
184
6. Determine the Number of Observations Needed

After the work elements are defined, the number of observations for the desired accuracy at
the desired confidence level must be determined. The sample size is dependent on the
percentage of time believed to be spent on the major work element.
If a reasonable guess cannot be made, then a trial study of perhaps 20 to 40 observations
should be made to get an estimate of this portion. These initial observations should be
included with the rest of the observations taken during the rest of the work study.

7. Schedule the Observations

Once the number of required observations has been determined, either from appropriate
statistical calculations or from tables, the actual observations must be scheduled. Typically,
the analyst will assign an equal number of observations each day during the course of the
study.
For example, if 800 observations are required and 20 work days are established as an
appropriate observation time, 40 observations should be recorded each day.
A random number table can be used to establish the random times for each observation.

8. Inform the Personnel Involved

Before the study is actually performed, the personnel involved should be informed about the
objective of the study and the methodology that will be employed. As in any productivity
measurement study, this part of the procedure is very important.
Workers and their supervisors might think that they personally are being measured rather
than the work they are doing.

9. Record the Raw Data
The next and perhaps the easiest part of any work sampling study is the actual recording of
the raw data. Although this recording can be performed by anyone, it is desirable that a
trained analyst be employed.
It is also very important that the observations be made at exactly the same location every
time. Failure to be reliable in this manner may bias the results.

10. Summarize the Data
After the data have been collected, they must be summarized.
185
A few words about sampling
Sampling is mainly based on probability. Probability has been defined
as the degree to which an event is likely to occur.

A simple and often-mentioned example that illustrates the point is that
of tossing a coin.

The law of probability says that we are likely to have 50 heads and 50
tails in every 100 tosses of the coin. The greater the number of tosses,
the more chance we have of arriving at a ratio of 50 heads to 50 tails.

The size of the sample is therefore important, and we can express our
confidence in whether or not the sample is representative by using a
certain confidence level.

Establishing confidence levels
Let us go back to our previous example and toss five coins at a time,
and then record the number of times we have heads and the number
of times we have tails for each toss of these five coins. Let us then
repeat this operation 100 times.

If we considerably increase the number of tosses and in each case
toss a large number of coins at a time, we can obtain a smoother
curve, such as that shown in figure 89.
186
187



















To make things easier, it is more convenient to speak of a 95 per cent confidence
level than of a 95.45 per cent confidence level.

To achieve this we can change our calculations and obtain:
95 per cent confidence level or 95 per cent of the area under the curve = 1.96
99 per cent confidence level or 99 per cent of the area under the curve = 2.58
99.9 per cent confidence level or 99.9 per cent of the area under the curve = 3.3

In this case we can say that if we take a large sample at random we can be confident
that in 95 per cent of the cases our observations will fall within 1.96

188
Determination of sample size

As well as defining the confidence level for our observations we have
to decide on the margin of error that we can allow for these
observations.

Let us look at our example about the productive time and the idle time
of the machines in a factory. There are two methods of determining
the sample size that would be appropriate for this example:

the statistical method and the nomogram method.

Statistical method. The formula used in this method is:
189
Let us assume that some 100 observations were carried out as a preliminary
study and at random, and that these showed the machine to be idle in 25 per
cent of the cases (p = 25) and to be working 75 per cent of the time (q = 75).
We thus have approximate values for p and q; in order now to determine the
value of n, we must find out the value of .
Let us choose a confidence level of 95 per cent with a 10 per cent margin of
error (that is, we are confident that in 95 per cent of the cases our estimates
will be 10 per cent of the real value).
190
Nomogram method
An easier way to determine sample size is to read off the number of observations
needed directly from a nomogram such as the one reproduced in figure 91.
191
Making random observations

To ensure that our observations are in fact made at random, we can
use a random table such as the one in table 12.

Various types of random table exist, and these can be used in
different ways. In our case let us assume that we shall carry out our
observations during a day shift of eight hours, from 7 a.m. to 3 p.m.
An eight-hour day has 480 minutes. These may be divided into 48
ten-minute periods.

We can start by choosing any number at random from our table, for
example by closing our eyes and placing a pencil point somewhere
on the table. Let us assume that in this case we pick, by simple
chance, the number 11 which is in the second block, fourth column,
fourth row (table 12).

We now choose any number between 1 and 10. Assume that we
choose the number 2; we now go down the column picking out every
second reading and noting it down, as shown below (if we had
chosen the number 3, we should pick out every third figure, and so
on).

11 38 45 87 68 20 11 26 49 05
192
193
Looking at these numbers, we find that we have to discard 87, 68 and 49
because they are too high (since we have only 48 ten-minute periods, any
number above 48 has to be discarded).
Similarly, the second 11 will also have to be discarded since it is a number that
has already been picked out. We therefore have to continue with our readings
to replace the four numbers we have discarded. Using the same method, that is
choosing every second number after the last one (05), we now have14 15 47
22
These four numbers are within the desired range and have not appeared
before. Our final selection may now be arranged numerically and the times of
observation throughout the eight-hour day worked out. Thus our smallest
number (05) represents the fifth ten-minute period after the work began at 7
a.m. Thus our first observation will be at 7.50 a.m., and so on (table 13).
194
Example: Conducting the study
Determining the scope of the study. Before making our actual observations, it is
important that we decide on the objective of our work sampling.
The simplest objective is that of determining whether a given machine is idle or
working.
In such a case, our observations aim at detecting one of two possibilities only:




We can, however, extend this simple model to try to find out the cause of the
stoppage of the machine:
195
Making the observations

So far we have taken the first five logical steps in conducting a
work sampling study.

selecting the job to be studied and determining the objectives of
the study;

making a preliminary observation to determine the approximate
values of p and q;

in terms of a chosen confidence level and accuracy range,
determining n (the number of observations needed) determining
the frequency of observations, using random tables;

designing record sheets to meet the objectives of the study.

There is one more step to take: that of making and recording the
observations and analyzing the results.

196
197
Group sampling techniques
As the name suggests, these are designed for the measurement of
work carried out by groups of workers.

The techniques are sometimes referred to by the term high-frequency
sampling since, when used for the measurement of short-cycle work,
they use fixed short-time intervals with the observer in constant
attendance.

They are very close to time study but have the advantage that the
observer can cover the work of the group. Group sampling techniques
may make use of rating.

Consider a very simple example of three workers each producing the
same parts by a process that involves only hand tools. The sampling
is carried out at 0.5 minute intervals and involves the categories of
working and not working only.

The sampling observations have been rated and this is an example of
both rated activity sampling and group sampling.

The sampling sheet would look as shown in table 14.
198
199
Predetermined Motion Time Systems

Predetermined motion time system (PMTS) is a work
measurement technique whereby times established for basic
human motions are used to build up the time for a job at a defined
level of performance.

PMTS also called predetermined time system (PTS), is a
database of basic motion elements and their associated normal
time values, together with a set of procedures for applying the
data to analyze manual tasks and establish standard times for the
tasks.

The PMTS database is most readily conceptualized as a set of
tables listing time values that correspond to the basic motion
elements, the lowest level in our hierarchy of manual work activity

They include motions such as reach, grasp, move, and release.

200
The Predetermined Motion Time Systems
Concept
Likewise, a job is also considered to consist of elements, the
total of which is the sum of the elements.
In formal words, the assumption is that each job element is
independent and additive; that is, each element does not
affect what happens before or after it - independence and
additivity.
The concept is similar to constructing a building. A building is
composed of elements-Doors, walls, beams, bricks, plumbing.
The structure is the sum of the elements.
201
What are Predetermined Motion Time
Systems?
A collection of basic motion times.
Technique for obtaining a standard time by:
Analyzing and subdividing a task into elemental
motions
Assigning pre-set standard times for motions and
summing these to obtain a standard time for the whole
task.
202
Popular Predetermined Motion Time
Systems
Methods -Time Measurement
Work-Factor
Predetermined Time Standards
Systems Meyers
MOST
203
Methods Time Measurement (MTM)
MTM is a procedure which analyzes any manual
operation or method into the basic motions required to
perform it, and assigns to each motion a
predetermined time standard which is determined by
the nature of the motion and the conditions under
which it is made.
MTM gives values for the fundamental motions of:
reach, move, turn, grasp, position, disengage, and
release.
204
Methods Time Measurement (MTM)
Most predetermined motion time systems use
time measurement units (TMU) instead of
seconds for measuring time. One TMU is defined
to be 0.00001 hours, or 0.036 seconds. These
smaller units allow for more accurate
calculations without the use of decimals. 1 hr =
100,000 TMU
205
MTM studies provided the following kinds of information
Developing effective work methods prior to production
Improving existing methods to increase production and
decrease labor cost per unit
Establishing time standards as basis for wages and incentive
plans
Developing time formulas or standard data for future use
Guiding product design for most efficient manufacture
Developing effective tool designs for most efficient
manufacture
Selecting effective equipment for most efficient manufacture

206
Advantages of PMTS systems
PMT systems offer a number of advantages over stop-
watch time study. With PMT systems one time is
indicated for a given motion, irrespective of where
such a motion is performed.
A PMT system, which avoids both rating and direct
observation, can lead to more reliability in setting
standard times.

PMT systems are not too difficult to apply and can be
less time consuming than other methods.

PMT systems are particularly useful for very short
repetitive time cycles such as assembly work in the
electronics industry.
207
PMTS Levels and Generations
Chronologically, first-level PMT systems were the
first to be developed, and then second - and
higher - level systems were subsequently
constructed based on the first-level systems.
Because of this chronological development of the
systems, the level of the system usually
corresponds to the generation of the system.
First-level PMT systems are called first generation
systems, and the subsequent systems are second
and third generations.
For example, MTM-1 is first generation MTM-2 is
second generation and is based on MTM-1. MTM-
3 is a third generation MTM system.
208
Characteristics of PMT system levels
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and
Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
rights reserved.

209
MTM-1
In our hierarchy of work activity, MTM-1 operates at the
basic motion element level, as illustrated in Figure 14.1.
Most of the MTM-1 basic motions involve hand and arm
movements, although elements are also provided for eye,
leg, foot, and body actions.

MTM was developed by studying motion pictures of work
activity, and the time units for MTM were originally defined
as the time per frame of motion picture film, and defined
as

1 TMU = 0.00001 hr = 0.0006 min = 0.036 sec
100,000 TMUs in 1 hour,
1667 TMUs in 1 min, and
27.8 TMUs in 1 sec.

Table 14.3 defines the MTM-1 motion elements, and Table
14.4 presents a tabulation of their time values.
210
Figure 14.1 The position of MTM motion elements in our work
hierarchy.
211
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and
Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
rights reserved.

212
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and
Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
rights reserved.

213
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and
Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
rights reserved.

214
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and
Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
rights reserved.

215
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and
Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
rights reserved.

216

217
Other MTM Systems
Other members of the MTM family satisfy various user needs.

MTM-2 Second-level PMTS in which basic motion elements are combined into motion
aggregates
GET combines Reach and Grasp
PUT combines Move and Position

MTM-3 Third-level PMTS which has four motion categories
1. Handle
2. Transport
3. Step and foot motions
4. Bend and arise

Table 14.5 lists many of these MTM systems with a brief description of each.
218

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and
Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
rights reserved.