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CORROSION

Any process of chemical or


electrochemical decay or destruction of a
metal due to the action of surrounding
medium is called corrosion
Corrosion is naturally spontaneous process
Metal in combined state
(oxides, sulfides etc)
Pure Metal
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Metallurgical
processes
Corrosion
SoWhy Study Corrosion?
Metals are precious resources
Engineering design is incomplete without knowledge
of corrosion
Corrosion contaminate products such as
pharmaceutical, food and dairy products or luxury
items like soap
Applying knowledge of corrosion protection can
minimize disasters
Artificial implants for the human body!!!
Environment/atmosphere surrounding metals can be air, water,
sea water, acids, alkalies, steam, gases, other molten metals,
soils, etc.
Metals come in contact with all these corrosion influencing
factors at varying temperatures ranging from room
temperature to working temperature of the various processes.
This contact results in gradual transformation of metal into its
compounds. This is also known as weathering of metals or
weeping of metals
Due to corrosion,
(i) Metal loses its efficiency and many of its useful properties get
altered.
(ii) Maintenance cost and cost of material increases while
production rate decreases.
(iii) Purity of the product gets affected.
Knowing these destructive effects of corrosion, it becomes
essential to understand the mechanism of corrosion.
Corrosion
Dry/Atmospheric
Corrosion
due to
Oxygen
Corrosion due to
other gases
Wet/Electrochemical
Evolution of
Hydrogen
Absorption
of Oxygen
Dry/Atmospheric corrosion
Presence of Oxygen
Metallic surfaces exposed to air undergoes oxidation
2M + O
2
2MO, where M is a metal
Metallic oxide (MO) formed on the surface of the
metal is in form of a thin film
Stable film: Porous Na
2
O, K
2
O; Non-porous
Oxides of Al, Ni, Cr
Unstable film: Oxides of noble metals
Volatile film: Oxides of Mb
Nature of
Oxide film
stable unstable volatile
porous
Ex. Iron Oxide
(FeO)
Non porous
Oxides of Al
Ni, Cr
Oxides of noble metals i.e.
Au, Ag etc.
Oxide of
molybdenum
If oxide film is porous in nature, the rate of further corrosion is
not reduced much.
These pores give free access to oxygen, which attacks the
underlying pure metal. Thus, corrosion does not stop till pure
metal is available.
Gold does not get corroded on oxidation
There is a formation of unstable oxide film
Oxide layer formed decomposes back into metal and
oxygen
Consequently, oxidation corrosion is not possible,
thus Ag, Au, Pt do not undergo oxidation corrosion
12
Metal oxide
Volatile oxide film ex. Molybdenum oxide
Corrosion due to other Gases
Corrosive effect of gases depends on chemical
affinity of the metal for gases
Cl
2
, H
2
S, SO
2
, CO
2
, etc add to the corrosive effect to
the metal
Gases react with metals to form films of
corresponding compounds get deposited on the
metal surface
This film may be porous (non-protective) or non-
porous (protective)
Ag + Cl
2
(dry gas) AgCl (protective film)
Ag + H
2
S Ag
2
S (corrosive)
Contd
Gases like H
2
attacks the metal at ordinary
temperature and is called hydrogen embrittlement
Fe + H
2
S FeS + 2[H] (nascent hydrogen)
Nascent hydrogen diffuses into the metal and form
voids/ holes
Nascent hydrogen atoms combine to form molecular
hydrogen
[H] + [H] H
2
(g)
Molecular hydrogen leaves metal in form of gas
leaving a cavity in the metal
When maximum number of H
2
molecules are
evolved, metal loses its tensile strength, ductility and
malleability becomes weak

Wet/ Immersed/Electrochemical Corrosion
Based on Nernst theory -- Occurs at solid-liquid
interface
Occurs when
Metals are in contact with moist air/ liquid medium
Two dissimilar metallic articles are dipped in a solution,
then out of two, one acts as the anode and the other acts
as the cathode
Anode gives of ions in the solution and gets corroded
Cathode accepts ions and forms a protective coating
and does not get corroded
Corrosion brought about by ionic reactions in presence
of moisture or solution (as conducting medium) is
called Electrochemical corrosion
Electrochemical Corrosion
Evolution of Hydrogen
Steel tank is filled with acidic water
Small piece of Cu is placed at
bottom of the steel tank
At the junction where Cu is in
contact with steel tank, metallic Fe
gets corroded
Fe Fe
2+
+ 2e
--
Electrons flow from anode to
cathode, H
+
ion are eliminated as
H
2
;
2H
+
+ 2e
--
H
2
(g)
Fe + 2H
+
Fe
2+
+ H
2
(g)


Absorption of Oxygen
Steel plate is coated with an
oxide film
Entire coated steel plate acts
as cathode
Imagine a crack on one point
of oxide film
Fe is exposed to atmosphere
and this point acts as anode
Fe Fe
2+
+ 2 e

O
2
+ H
2
O +2 e

2OH
--


Differential Aeration Corrosion
It is the most common type of corrosion, and it occurs when
one part of the metal is exposed to a different air concentration
from the other part.
This causes a difference in potential between differently
aerated areas.
Poorly oxygenated parts are anodic and rest are cathodic.
Consequently, differential aeration of metal causes a flow of
current, called differential current.
Differential aeration accounts for the corrosion of metal
partially immersed in a solution or water just below the level
line of corresponding solution or water.
Differential Aeration
Concentration cell corrosion
Due to electrochemical attack on metal surface
exposed to electrolyte of varying concentration/
varying aeration
Zn Zn
2+
+ 2e

(oxidation)

1/2O
2
+ H
2
O + 2e

2OH

(reduction)
Iron corrodes under the drop of water
Areas covered under the drop of water or salt solution have less access
to oxygen and turn anodic than the remaining parts of the metal which is
large cathodic area
Oxygen concentration cell hence increases corrosion rate
Waterline corrosion
It is a classic type of differential oxygen concentration corrosion
It is found that the maximum amount of corrosion takes place
along a line just beneath the level of water meniscus. The area
above the waterline is more oxygenated and thus acts as a cathode
and remains completely un-affected by the corrosion.
Waterline corrosion occurs in ships at a very high rate. Here, the
aquatic plants from sea also play a major role as they get attached
to the bottom of the ships.
Contd
In ships floating on the sea water, the portion of it in contact
with marine water gets corroded, if there is a difference in the
materials used in assembling the ship.
If metal iron or brass alloy is used together to join various
parts, due to difference in potential, a galvanic cell gets set,
leading to corrosion.
In such cases all along the surface of metal small galvanic cells
are set up, where area of high potential acts as an anode and
the one with lower potential acts as a cathode.
Portion of metal acting as anode, deteriorates and at cathode
the cathodic product gets evolved/deposited.
In such type of environment, on metal surface small anodic
and cathodic areas are formed. Here, cathodic area is slightly
larger and hence rate of corrosion is comparatively higher. The
mechanism of corrosion in slightly alkaline medium, proceeds
as,
At Anode M M
2+
+ 2e
At cathode O
2
+ H
2
O + 2e 2OH
M
2+
+ 2OH M(OH)
2

If the metal is exposed to acidic medium the mechanism at
cathode proceeds to form H
2
gas, while anodic reactions
remain the same.
To avoid the formation of galvanic cells,
a) Metals should be as pure as possible.
b) The materials used to assemble the different parts should be of
same potentials.
c) Moisture and other electrolytic/aqueous medium, if present,
other corrosion controlling methods may be used.
Active or
Anodic
Noble
Or cathodic
Galvanic Series
Pitting Corrosion
Localized accelerated attack
Similar to differential aeration
concept
Resulting in formation of
cavities in metal due to dirt,
deposits, cracked oxide film
Occurs in form of pinholes, pits/
cavities
Bottom of pit-- less oxygenated
Result in cracking of protective
film on metal at specific points
forming small anodic & large
cathodic areas
Intergranular Corrosion (IGC)
Microstructure of metals are made of grains separated by grain
boundaries
Corrosion occurs along grain boundaries (less noble) than grain
centres (noble)
Corrosive attack is localized at these less noble areas

IGC is the result of sensitization of the material due to
inadequate heat treatment during welding.
In presence of carbon in steel, chromium reacts with
carbon during heat treatment to produce Cr-carbides
23Cr + 6C Cr
23
C
6

Stress Corrosion
Combined effect of metal stresses & corrosive environment
Similar to intergranular corrosion
Localized electrochemical attack
For stress corrosion to occur:
Presence of stressed metal
Specific corrosive environment is necessary (caustic alkali)
Presence of stress produces strains (anodic), thereby possess
higher electrode potential becomes chemically active easily
attacked by corrosive environment
Example: Metals and alloys when subjected to
welding and bending
Results in stress of the metal
At the stress portion, atoms in the stressed region
get displaced becomes anodic corrosion

Soil Corrosion

Affected Facilities:
Underground storage tanks, pipes, cables
Factors affecting soil corrosion
Aeration: More air results in lesser corrosion
Water retention: More water = More electrolyte = More
corrosion
Dissolved Salt content: More salts = higher conductivity
= greater corrosion

Soil acidity : Greater acidic soils, greater the rate
of corrosion, passive in neutral/ alkaline soils
Ionic species & microbes : Halide ions and
active bacteria produce an acidic environment
Greater corrosion of the metals
Microbiological Corrosion
Corrosion influenced due to microorganisms
Microorganisms utilize nutrients for their metabolic activites
that influences corrosion
O
2
-consuming bacteria (eg, Thiobacillus sp.) present in water
decreases conc of O
2
in the medium in contact with the metal
this results in differential aeration Metal corrodes
Fe-oxidizing bacteria : Gallionella, Sphaerotilus (nuisance
aerobic bacteria) form biofilms form slime in the pipeline
pitting corrosion
Factors Influencing Corrosion
Nature of the Metal
Nature of Corroding Medium
Position in Galvanic series
Relative areas of anodic, cathodic parts
Purity of Metal
Physical state of metal
Nature of surface film
Passive Character
Solubility & volatility of corrosion products
Temperature
Humidity
Impurities in atmosphere
pH
Conductance of corroding
medium
(a) Electrode potential and position of metal in the galvanic
series : This is a major factor for corrosion of metals. If two
dissimilar metals are in corroding environment, the metal
having higher electrode potential and position in the galvanic
series undergoes corrosion, i.e. it acts as an anode. Amongst
the two metals in contact, greater the difference in the
electrode potential, higher is the rate of corrosion
(b) Purity of the metal :If the metals are impure, then the
impurities present in them cause heterogeneity, which gives
rise to small electro-chemical cells at the sites where metal and
impurities are exposed, to the corrosive environment and thus,
the corrosion starts, which then affects the entire metal.
Example : Iron Pillar
(c) Areas occupied by the anode and cathode :If two dissimilar
metals are in contact, one forming anode while another
forming cathode, then the corrosion of the anodic metal (part)
is directly proportional to the ratio of the areas occupied by the
cathode and anode.
Thus, corrosion at anode = area of cathode/ area of anode
Hence, if cathode is large and anode is small, then
corrosion at anode is higher.
Bcz the current density is much greater in small anodic area &
the demand of electrons by large cathodic areas can be met by
smaller anodic area only by undergoing brisk corrosion.
(d) Nature of corrosion product : If corrosion product is soluble
in corroding medium , corrosion proceeds at much higher rate.
But if product is insoluble further corrosion is suppressed. For
example formation of PbSO
4
in case of Pb in H
2
SO
4
medium.
Similarly if product is volatile it causes rapid n continuous
corrosion. Ex MoO
3
.
(e) Physical state: Smaller the grain size of metal or metal alloys
greater will be its solubility & hence corrosion.
Nature of surface film: In aerated atmosphere practically all
metals get coated with thin metal oxide film. The ratio of
volumes of metal oxide film to metal is known as specific
volume ratio.
Greater the specific volume ratio lesser is oxidation corrosion
rate. For ex for Ni, Cr & W it is 1.6, 2.0, 3.6 respectively.
Consequently the rate of oxidation corrosion of tungsten is
least even at elevated temperatures.
II) Working Condition/Environment of the metal:
Working conditions of metals also govern the rate, extent,
mechanism of corrosion.
These conditions can be summarized as :
(a) Percentage of oxygen and humidity in air.
(b) Temperature
(c) pH of the medium
(d) Presence of other gases/suspended particles.
(e) Conductance of corroding medium
(f) Polarisation of electrodes
In air, if availability of oxygen is higher, the rate of
corrosion is higher. This is because of formation of oxygen
concentration cells. Thus, the part of the metal having less
availability of oxygen, becomes anodic and undergoes
corrosion, while the other part with more content of oxygen
acts as a cathode and remains unaffected.
The corrosion also is found to enhance in humid air as
compared to in dry air. This is because, humid air/moist air has
tendency to dissolve gases such as O
2
, CO
2
etc. and also the
acidic vapours from industries.
Due to this, it becomes easy to set up an electrochemical cell
on the surface of metal.
Some metals like Mn, Cr, Fe, Mg etc. get corroded in moist
air, even in the absence of oxygen, forming few other
compounds.
The rate of corrosion is greater at higher temperature,
because diffusion of gases increases with the rise in
temperature.
In acidic, pH, the rate of corrosion is higher, because the
mechanism of electrochemical corrosion proceeds by
evolution of hydrogen gas at cathode.
In alkaline or neutral electrolytic medium the electrochemical
corrosion occurs by following the mechanism of absorption of
oxygen; thereby forming an oxide film as a cathodic product.
Such a film gets adhered to the surface of the metal and further
rate of corrosion is governed by nature of the corrosion
product.
If in air certain other gases or suspended particles are present,
the rate of corrosion increases.
Example : Gases like SO
2
, H
2
S or fumes of HCl, H
2
SO
4
,
adjacent to a metal surface tend to increase the electrical
conductivity of the metals, thereby increasing corrosion.
Presence of suspended particles such as NaCl , (NH
4
)
2
SO
4

which are hygroscopic in nature, absorb moisture and act as a
strong electrolyte, thereby increasing the rate of corrosion.
If charcoal particles are present in atmosphere, they have a
tendency to absorb SO
2
and H
2
S or moisture and thereby
increase the corrosion of metal.
Corrosion Control
Protection of Corrosion
The methods for corrosion control vary from condition to
condition. Few methods to prevent the corrosion are
1) Selection of the material
2) Proper designing
3) Use of alloys/Pure metal.
4) Modifying the environment
5) Use of inhibitors
6) Cathodic and Anodic protection methods.
7) Application of protective coatings.
Selection of the material
a) Avoid the contact of dissimilar metals especially if the working
environment is corrosive.
Example : Joining of different parts to build a ship. Here if
metal strips are used to join the wooden parts together, and if
screws used are of brass (Cu and Zn alloy) then the localized
corrosion enhances tremendously when ship floats on marine
water, and highly active metal (zinc) starts acting as anode.
b) If it is unavoidable, to choose two dissimilar metals, then area
of anodic metal should be larger than that of cathodic metal.
c) If two dissimilar metals are to be selected, then metals should
be chosen in such a way that they are as close as possible in
the galvanic series.
d) If two dissimilar metals are to be used, the current flow should
be reduced by introducing an insulator to cut off the contact
between these metals.

Proper Designing
Designing of the parts should be such that it avoids sharp
bends, stresses, etc. or as far as possible the use of screws,
nuts, bolts should be avoided, rather welding should be
preferred; or the material selections should be in such a way
that potential difference does not exist to greater extent.
The surfaces of two joining parts should be as smooth as
possible, so that crevices are as thin as possible, which avoids
accumulation of the corrosive liquids, suspended particles,
dust. dirt, grit stagnation of water, free circulation of air, etc
Use of alloys / pure metal
If the metal used to manufacture machine parts is 100% pure,
the corrosion resistance is more as compared to the impure
metal. Thus, use of pure metal or purifying the metals prevents
corrosion. This method is useful only if corrosion proceeds by
electrochemical mechanism.
Corrosion resistance of metals can be improved by alloying the
metals. Alloying can help to greater extent, if it gives
homogeneous product.
Example : Iron can be alloyed with chromium and carbon to
give steel, which has better corrosion resistance. Here,
chromium metal has a tendency to form an oxide which gets
adhered to the surface. Also, this oxide film, if broken gets
healed immediately.
Thus, steels containing 13% chromium are normally used to
make cutlery, surgical instruments, springs, etc. while higher
percentage of chromium such as upto 25% are used to prepare
turbine brackets, heat resisting parts etc.

Cathodic protection
Sacrificial anodic protection
Metallic structure to be protected is connected by a
wire to a more anodic metal
Structure to be protected is made cathodic
External anode will give off ions & get corroded --
sacrificial anodic protection
Impressed current cathodic protection
We know that metal in electrolyte anodic and
cathodic areas are developed
Anode gives off ions & cathode is protected
So anode & cathode has certain effective potential
This potential is the current local action
current/corrosion current
Local action current is nullified or counter-balanced
by applying current in opposite direction
This is called the impressed current dc source

Impressed current from dc source is applied
such that anode and cathode will possess the
same/similar potential
Application of protective coatings :
This method is most easy and effective because it can provide
a continuous barrier between the metal surface and the
corrosive environment. The problem of localized corrosion
starts only when the protective coat gets broken, due to friction
or by any other wear and tear of metal surface.
Types of protective coatings : There are two types of
protective coatings.
(a) Metallic coatings
(b) Non-metallic coatings (Organic Coatings)
Metallic Coatings : This type of coatings are either anodic or
cathodic depending upon the electrode potential of base metal
and coating metal.
For example, metals like Zn, Al or Cd, if coated on iron or
steel, serve as anodic coatings, because their electrode
potentials are higher than the base metal.
Here, as long as coat layer is intact, the corrosion of base metal
is totally under control, but in case any pores, cuts or breaks
occur, there is a formation of galvanic cell, between the coated
metal portion and the exposed base metal portion.
Metallic coatings
Hot dipping
Metals like Zn, Sn, Pb have low melting points
Aim: Base metal X has to be coated with any one of the
above metals
Above metal (say Zn) is placed in a furnace which is
maintained at temperature just above their melting
points
We get molten form of the metal (say Zn)
Base metal (X) is dipped in molten form (Zn) and one
gets the desired coating
Contd..
Metal coatings anodic to base metal is called anodic coating
(Zn on Iron)
Metal coatings of a more noble metal wrt base metal is
cathodic coating (Sn on Iron)
Anodic coating: In case of
galvanized steel, where Zn is
coated on iron (steel), if
coating of zinc is broken due
to stress or friction, galvanic
cell originates.
As Zn is anodic to iron, it dissolves and hence iron is protected
even though cell is set up and iron remains protected till entire
amount of zinc gets dissolved.
In case of cathodic coatings, a coat of more noble metal is
applied on the base metal surface. As the electrode potential of
the noble metal is lower, they protect the base metal.
e.g. Application of Sn coating on iron surface.
Cathodic coating can provide complete protection to the base
metal till the coat layer is intact. But the moment this layer is
broken, the base metal get exposed.
Since the electrode potential of base metal is higher than that
of the coated metal, a galvanic cell is set up where anode is
small (exposed base metal) and cathode is larger (coated
metal). This gives rise to severe corrosion of base metal.
Example : Tin coating on iron surface. In this case, tin coating
can provide protection to iron surface only till the coated layer
is without any breaks.
If, due to any external factors, the coated layer is punctured,
immediately there is formation of galvanic cell where base
metal (iron) acts as an anode and the coated metal (tin) acts as
a cathode.
Since, cuts are normally minute, the anode is small and
cathode is large. Thus, in corroding environment, the rate of
corrosion is very high.
This continues, till coated layer is repaired to be intact again.
Galvanizing
Application of a coat of Zn metal on the surface of
the base metal X

Galvanising :
The process involves simply dipping of base metal articles in
the molten mass of zinc, i.e. the coating metal.
To avoid irregular coating, normally the base metal surface is
cleaned to wash away by treating it with H
2
SO
4
, by picking
method, or by using dil. H
2
SO
4
, for removing any scales, rust
(oxide) and any other impurities.
Such surfaces are washed with water and dried properly,
followed by dipping into a molten mass of metal, which is
covered with flux solution generally NH
4
Cl which prevents
oxide formation (because clean metal surface immediately tends
to form oxide by reacting with atmospheric oxygen).
The coated layer is levelled to desired thickness by passing
article (pipe, sheet or wire) through the pairs of hot rollers,
fixed at desired thickness apart, thereby removing excess of
zinc coated unevenly.
The coated metal is then subjected to annealing at lower
temperatures and finally cooled slowly.
Galvanised iron is used for making water pipelines, roofing
sheets, wires, nails, screws, bolts, nuts, tubes, etc.
Galvanised iron sheets cannot be used to make containers to
store food stuffs (especially acidic food items) because coated
metal (zinc) gets dissolved in acidic medium forming zinc
compounds which are highly poisonous, if consumed.
Tinning :
It is similar to the previous process i.e. the base metal say iron
is cleaned by dil. H
2
SO
4
, then washed clean with water and
dried properly. Then the article is passed through ZnCl
2
flux
and dipped in the molten mass of tin (m.p. 260 C).
After the dipping process, the article is taken out and then
layer of coated tin is levelled by passing the article through a
pair of hot rollers set at particular thickness.
Excess of tin coated on base metal is scraped off. Later the
coated article is annealed slowly to bring down to the room
temperature.
The rollers are normally kept under the layer of palm oil. The oil
protects the freshly applied layer of tin from oxidation.
Tinning is advantageous, because it is resistant to atmospheric
corrosion and action of organic acids.
Tinned sheets are used to manufacture containers to store food
stuffs, oils, ghee, pickles, pharmaceuticals, because there is no
danger of poisonous product formation as in case of galvanized
articles.
Tinning
Application of a coat of Sn metal on surface of the base
metal X

260C
Electroplating: In this method, freshly cleaned base metal is
made cathodic to set up a galvanic cell is suitable bath
(electrolytic solution) containing solution of the compound of
the metal to be coated on base metal.
Anode is the coating metal. The method is highly useful to
produce coatings of metals such as Cu, Zn, Sn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb,
Ag, Au, Pt and various alloys.
To achieve highly uniform coating, certain precautions are to be
taken
i) Current density should not fluctuate.
ii) Composition of electrolytic solution should be consistent.
Electroplating
Cathode: Base metal (to be electroplated)
Anode: Coating metal
Electrolyte: Soluble salt of coating metal in the electrolytic cell
iii) Temperature should not fluctuate.
iv) Rates of anodic and cathodic reactions should be same
It is experienced that during electroplating, maintaining
consistency in above parameters is very tedious and it requires
skilled supervision.
Hence, electroplating method is used for the articles where it is
unavoidable, such as anodizing a particular metal or plating of
noble metals where layer has to be as thin as possible without
wastage etc.
Organic coatings
Organic coatings are liquid formulations of different
ingredients mixed in appropriate proportions.
Any organic coating can give high protection from corrosion
depending upon its chemical inertness in the corroding
medium, adhesion with the underlying surface non-porous
nature, etc. These qualities are influenced by the method used
for these coatings to be applied.
Generally, the thickness of coating should be adequate,
particularly at bends, crevices or edges, which helps to sustain
the wear and tear due to abrasion or friction.
The adhesion of the coating with underlying surface can be
enhanced by using properly cleaned surfaces for application of
coatings.
If the surface is covered with certain impurities, contact with
the coating is interrupted; and thus leads to poor adhesion.
Subsequently, such a coating undergoes cracks at an early
stage.
Organic coatings such as paints, varnishes, enamels, lacquers
etc. provide good corrosion resistance against temperature.

Organic
Coating
Definition Constituent Functions
Paints
Mechanical
dispersion mixture
of one/more
pigments in a
vehicle
Drying oil/ vehicle
(linseed oil, fish oil)

Help pigments to hold on surface,
Provide dry film by oxidation,
Provide tough, durable, water
resistant film
Pigments
(white pigments: ZnO,
TiO
2
; colored:
chromes)
Provide opacity, color strength,
protection, resistance to abrasion
Minimize cracking on drying
Thinners
(turpentine, spirit,
kerosene)
Increase elasticity of paint film,
reduce viscosity of paint to suitable
consistency, helps drying of paint
Driers (oxygen carrier
catalysts like
resinates & tungstates
of Co, Mn, Zn)

Improve quality of oil film,
accelerate drying process of the oil
film thro oxidation, polymerisation
and condensation
Extenders/Fillers
Inert materials that improve the properties of the
paint, eg, gypsum, chalk, talc, silica, etc
They serve to fill voids in the paint film
Reduce cracking of paint after drying & improve
durability of the paint film

Plasticizers: To give elasticity to the paint film and
prevent cracking
Characteristics of a good paint
Should be fluid enough to spread easily over the protected
surface
Possess high covering power
Form tough, uniform, adherent and impervious film
Film should not get cracked on drying
It should protect painted surface from corrosion effects of the
environment
Color of the paint should be stable to effects of the atmosphere
Consistency should be adequate so that it can be spread easily
Organic
Coating
Definition Constituent Functions
Varnish
Colloidal
dispersion of
natural/
synthetic
resins in oil
Resin
(shellac, phenol, urea,
polymers)

Provide high resistance to
weathering, chemical action, water
Provides hardening to dried films
Drying oil/ vehicle
(linseed oil, fish oil)
Helps in drying varnish films by
oxidation & polymerization
Thinners
(turpentine, spirit,
kerosene)
Adjust/ reduce viscosity of varnish
to suitable consistency
Driers (Pb, Co, Mn,
linoleates)

Improve quality of oil film,
accelerate drying process of the oil
film thro oxidation, polymerisation
and condensation
Antiskinning agents
(tertiary amyl phenols)
Helps film to get adhered to
underlying surface
Characteristics of good varnish
Produce protective film hard, tough, durable and
resistant film to wear and tear
Dry quickly
Aesthetic appeal of the film
Does not crack/ peel off on drying
Color stable to exposure to atmosphere
Varnishes are of two types :
Oil varnishes
Spirit varnishes

Oil Varnishes Spirit Varnishes
These are formed by
dissolving resins in oil
These are formed by dissolving
resins in spirits
They dry very slowly They dry very quickly
They leave a tough film They leave brittle film
Organic
Coating
Definition Constituent Functions
Enamel
Pigmented
varnish that on
drying gives
lustrous, hard,
glossy finish
Drying oil/ vehicle
(linseed oil, fish oil)

Help carrying pigments & other
constituents
Pigments
(TiO
2
+CaSO
4
-white;
black:
asphalt+linseed)
Helps to get color shades as
desired
Thinners
(turpentine, spirit,
kerosene)
Adjust consistency of enamel
Driers (oleates of
Co, Mn, Zn)

Accelerate drying process
Organic Coating Definition Constituent Functions
Lacquers
Colloidal
suspension
of cellulose
derivatives,
resins, and
plasticizers
in solvent &
diluents
Cellulose derivatives

Provide water proofness,
hardness, durability to the film
Resins (phenol aldheyde) Increase thickness of film, retain
original gloss, increase adhesion
of film
Plasticizers (castor oil,
tricresyl phosphate)
Improve adherence, reduce
brittleness of film
Solvents (ethyl acetate, butyl
acetate)

Helps to dissolve film forming
substances like cellulose
derivatives
Diluents (benzol, naphtha) Adjust consistency/ viscosity of
lacquers
Modifying the environment/Electrolyte-
Corrosion control
Removal of harmful constituents or neutralization of the
harmful effects of any such constituents from the electrolyte.
Generally, the percentage humidity, oxygen, other gases,
liquids, suspended particles etc. are responsible for the
environmental corrosion. Thus, depending upon the affecting
constituents, methods to modify the same can be selected.
Few modifications are discussed here.
a) De-humidification
b) De-aeration
c) Neutralization of acids present in environment.
De-humidification
It is a process by which percentage humidity in the
environment/corrosive medium can be controlled. In the
atmospheric corrosion, if percentage of moisture in air is
minimized, then the amount of water which might get
condensed on the surface of the metal can be negligible.
To achieve this, the substances capable of absorbing the
moisture are kept in vicinity. Like silica gel or alumina can be
used.
Such methods can be adopted in small closed areas in shops,
foundaries, etc. By frequently changing silica gel or alumina
corrosion can be minimised.
De-aeration
It is a process in which only percentage of oxygen from the
corrosive environment is controlled. Due to this, the
electrochemical corrosion by absorption of oxygen can be
controlled.
The reduction in oxygen content can be achieved by adjusting
the parameters like temperature or pressure, or with
mechanical stirring/agitating to expel dissolved gases like O2
and CO2 etc.
Example : In steel pipelines carrying steam from boilers, by
de-aeration method, dissolved O2 as well as CO2 can be
expelled out, and thus corrosion can be reduced.
Alkaline neutralisation :
Prevention of corrosion by neutralization of the acidic
character of corrosive environment. (due to the presence of
gases such as H
2
S, HCl, CO
2
, SO
2
etc.)
This can be achieved by using NH
3
, NaOH, lime, etc which
are generally injected in the system.
Use of inhibitors
Substance which inhibits the corrosion, when added in the
corrosive environment.
Inhibitors are generally organic or inorganic substances,
soluble in the corrosive environment, but capable to form a
protective layer on either anodic or cathodic areas. Inhibitors
are anodic or cathodic.
a) Anodic inhibitors :
Chromates, phosphates, tungstates or other ions of transition
elements generally with high oxygen content are capable of
suppressing the anodic reaction and thereby preventing the
dissolution of metal acting as an anode.
These inhibitors normally form a sparingly soluble compound
with metal ion formed at anode due to anodic reaction (i.e. loss
of electrons).
This compound gets adsorbed on the surface of metal and
forms a protective film; thereby reducing corrosion rate.
This method is highly effective, but for only one drawback,
that sometimes if entire surface does not get covered by the
protective film formed, the unprotected area forms a small
anode, which invites severe local attacks.
Hence the method is rarely used.
b) Cathodic inhibitors : This type of inhibitors are used in both,
acidic as well as neutral solution.
In acidic solutions the cathodic reaction is evolution of
hydrogen.
2H
+
+ 2e H
2

In neutral solution, the cathodic reaction is due to the
absorption of oxygen gas and formation of OH ions as
H
2
O + O
2
+ 2e 2OH
Mg and Zn salts combine with hydroxide ions forming
corresponding metal hyroxides which are insoluble barriers
towards corrosion at the cathode.