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Social Cognitive Theory

Group 7
Afini Isma Hidayati 101211131006
Dica Ayu Oktavia 101211131030
Dimas Nindy Pratama 101211133002
Hanifa Fatmaningtyas 101211132008
Mega Restria Nindya M 101211132103
Putri Ayu Anggraeny 101211133046
Originally known as Social Learning Theory
o Based on the work of Miller and Dollard in 1941 concerning learning in the
social context
o They posited that individuals who are motivated to learn a behavior will
learn it through clear observation
The Social Cognitive Theory is relevant to health communication.
o First, the theory deals with cognitive, emotional aspects and aspects of
behavior for understanding behavioral change.
o Second, the concepts of the SCT provide ways for new behavioral research
in health education.
o Finally, ideas for other theoretical areas such as psychology are welcome to
provide new insights and understanding.
Renamed as Social Cognitive Theory
o Integrated concepts of Cognitive Psychology
o Focus on the importance of learning from experience, observational
learning, and symbolic communication
SCT emphasizes reciprocal determinism in the interaction
between people and their environments.
Most behavioral and social theories focus on individual,
social and environmental factors that determine
individual or group behavior (for example: barriers,
rewards and punishments, and social norms portrayed in
mass communication).
SCT posits that human behavior is the product of the
dynamic interplay of personal, behavioral, and
environmental influences.
NB : yang di cetak miring merupakan konsep dalam SCT

Social Cognitive Theory
Sees human behavior as produced by the interplay of
personal, behavioral, and environmental influences
Recognizes the influences of environment on behavior, but
focuses on the ability of the individual to alter environments
to their own advantage as well as the capacity for collective
action
Personal
determinants
Behavioral
determinants
Environmental
determinants
Components of
Social Cognitive Theory
Psychological Determinants of Behavior
Observational Learning
Environmental Determinants of Behavior
Self Regulation
Moral Disengagement
Psychological determinants of behavior
Outcome expectations: beliefs about
outcomes of behaviors and the perceived value of
these outcomes
Social outcome expectations: expectations about how
people will evaluate our behavior
Self-evaluative outcome expectations: how we
expect to feel about ourselves if we perform a
particular behaviour


NB : yang di cetak miring merupakan konsep dalam SCT
Observational Learning
Learning to perform new behaviors by exposure
to modelling of that behavior
4 key processes in Observational Learning :
1. Attention
The value of the expected outcomes determines
what is attended to
2. Retention
Intellectual capacity to process and retain
information
3. Production
Processing the skills to perform the model
behaviours
4. Motivation
Determined by outcome expectations
NB : yang di cetak miring merupakan konsep dalam SCT

Observational Learning divide into :
Peer modelling
Copying model or behavior from someone
Coping models
Models struggle with similar challenges and
barriers that the observer faces and overcomes
these

NB : yang di cetak miring merupakan konsep dalam SCT

Environmental determinants of
behavior

Recognizes the powerful influence of
environment on behaviour
Reciprocal determinism viewpoint stresses
that no amount of observational learning will
lead to change unless the environment
supports the new behaviour

NB : yang di cetak miring merupakan konsep dalam SCT

Environmental determinants of
behavior (continued)
Approaches in environmental determination
Incentive motivation
Providing rewards or punishments to modify
behaviors
Facilitation
Providing new structures or resources that
enable behaviors

NB : yang di cetak miring merupakan konsep dalam SCT


Self-Regulation
Human capacity to endure short-term
negative outcomes in anticipation of long-
term positive outcomes
Requires concrete skills for self management
Controlling one self through self monitoring,
goal-setting, feedback, self reward, self-
instruction, and enlistment of social support

NB : yang di cetak miring merupakan konsep dalam SCT

6 Key Processes:
1. Self-monitoring: Observing ones own behavior
2. Goal-setting: Deciding on short-term and long-term
objectives
3. Feedback: Receiving information on the quality of
performance
4. Self-reward: Tangible and non-tangible
reinforcement for positive change
5. Self-instruction: Talking to one-self for
encouragement or motivation
6. Enlisment of Social Support : is achieved when a
person finds people who encourage her efforts to
exert self-control

Moral Disengagement
Describes ways of thinking about harmful behaviors
that make the infliction of suffering acceptable

Humans have the capacity to learn moral standards
for self-regulation, but also the capacity to violate
these standards through moral disengagement
Ways of thinking about harmful behaviors and the
people who are harmed that make infliction of
suffering acceptable by disengaging self-regulatory
moral standards

NB : yang di cetak miring merupakan konsep dalam SCT

Self-Efficacy
How to help people change/manage
unwanted behaviours :
1. Self-efficacy: a persons belief about their
capacity to influence events that affect their
life
Collective efficacy: a groups shared belief
in their capacity to influence events


NB : yang di cetak miring merupakan konsep dalam SCT

2. Self-regulatory personal change
Break up challenging behaviors into smaller
and easily mastered steps
Therapist or professional provides the tools,
resources, and guidance to help the individual
achieve these goals at first
Gradually, the individual learns how to self-
direct his/herself toward the desired
behaviour


NB : yang di cetak miring merupakan konsep dalam SCT

How to Increasing Self-Efficacy ?
1. Mastery Experience
Enabling the person to succeed in attainable, but
increasingly challenging performances of desired
behaviours
Experiencing performance mastery has the strongest
influence on self-efficacy belief

2. Social Modelling
Showing the person that others like themselves can
do it
This should include detailed demonstrations of the
small steps taken in the attainment of a complex
objective.
3. Improving physical and emotional states
Making sure people are well-rested before
attempting a new behaviour
eg. reduce stress/depression, increase positive
emotions
4. Verbal Persuasion
Telling the person that he or she can do it.
Strong encouragement can boost confidence
enough to induce the first efforts toward
behavior change.
Applications to Health Promotion
SCT provides a comprehensive and well-
supported conceptual framework for
understanding the factors that influence
human behavior and the processes through
which learning occurs.



These newly emerging areas of application for SCT have
been small in scale, and evaluations have been lacking or
incomplete.
Much of the research is descriptive or qualitative, particularly with respect
to the concept of moral disengagement.
SCT is very broad and ambitious, in that it seeks to
provide explanations for virtually all human phenomena
(Bandura, 1986).
However, because it is so broad, it has not been tested
comprehensively in the same way that some other health
behavior theories have been tested.
SCT is very broad, therefore testing has not been
comprehensive.
Self-efficacy has been validated numerous times, but this does
not validate the entire theory

Limitation of SCT
CASE STUDY
American Cancer Society Telephone
Counselling for Smoking Cessation
June 2000 American Cancer Society (ACS)
offered a telephone conselling service to help
smokers quit by providing guidance in self-
regulation
More than 250,000 smokers have received
assistance
CASE STUDY
American Cancer Society Telephone Counselling for Smoking Cessation
Six self-regulatory processes:
1. Self monitoring: Have clients keep simple records of their smoking and the context
and cues that werepresent when they smoked,before making an attempt
2. Goall Setting: Initial objective for a smoker trying to quit:a single day ofnot smoking
3. Feedback: Informative feedback from counsellors helped smokers learn tha
trelapses are caused by stress and learned touse relaxationtechniques
4. Self-Reward: Clients are encouraged toset aside part of their savings from not
buying cigarettes for weekly pleasures
5. Self-Instruction: Clients are guided through multiplerehearsals of acombination of
deep-breathing and self-instructionto help them cope with stress and reduce
cravings for tobacoo
6. Enlistment of Social Support: Clients are sked to identify sources of support and
touse them during the counselling process

REFERENCE
Boeree, Dr George C, Shippensburg University,
Personality Theories: Albert Bandura,
accessed Mei 2013, (www.ship.edu).
York University, Canada, Theories used in IS
Research: Social Cognitive Theory, accessed
Mei 2013, (www.istheory.yorku.ca).