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BELL JAR/ RIB CAGE

BRONCHUS
BALLOON/LUNG
RUBBER SHEET/DIAPHRAGM
TRACHEAE
PROCEDURE OBSERVATION
The rubber sheet is
pulled downwards
The balloon inflate
and expand
(INHALATION)
The rubber sheet is
pushed upwards and
inwards into the bell
jar
The balloon deflate
and contract
(EXHALATION)
EXPLAIN HOW YOU CAN RELATE THE ACTION PULLING
AND PUSHING THE RUBBER SHEET TO THE PROCESS
OF INHALATION AND EXHALATION IN THE HUMAN
BREATHING MECHANISM
When the rubber sheet is pulled downwards,
The air pressure inside the bell jar is lowered
This causes the balloon to expand
This action represents the inhalation process in breathing
mechanism
ANSWER
When the rubber sheet is pushed upwards,
The air pressure inside the bell jar is increased,
This causes the balloon to contract
This action represents the exhalation process in the
breathing mechanism
STERNUM
BACKBONE
BACKBONE
RIB CAGE
EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL MUSCLE AD
BC INTERNAL INTERCOSTAL MUSCLE
SITUATION A
SITUATION B
RUBBER BAND A
RUBBER BAND B
When rubber band A is elongated by being
pulled down,
Rubber band B is shortens
Causing X and Y to move downwards

When the external intercostal muscle relax
(A is elongated and extended),
The internal intercostal muscle (B is
shortened),
This action causes the ribs (X and Y) to move
downwards and inwards.
This stimulates the process exhalation
When rubber band B is elongated by being pushed
up,
Rubber band A shortens,
Causing X and Y to move up

When external intercostal muscle contract (A is
shortened)
The internal intercostal muscle (B is elongate and
extended)
This causes the ribs to move upwards and
outwards
This stimulates the process of inhalation
EFFECTS BEFORE AFTER
Temperature (C) 27 C 32 C
Colour and smell of
cotton wool
Clear, no
smell
White
Very strong
smell
Brown
Colour of hydrogen
carbonate indicator
Red Yellow
Colour of universal
indicator
Green Yellow
1. Why is cotton wool used in this experiment? What
analogy can you draw by using the cotton wool?
to make it easy to observe the color changes.
cotton wool represents the alveoli/lung tissues
1. What is the function of the universal indicator?
to determine whether the content of cigarrete
smoke is acidic or alkaline
3.Explain the changes in the temperature, smell and colour
of the cotton wool and the colour of the universal indicator
after the cigarrete is lighted.
After the experiment the temperature will increase
due to the heat released by the lighted cigarrete
The color of the cotton wool changes from white
to yellow ish/brownish because the tar from the
cigarrete smoke condenses on the cotton wool.
The cotton wool emits a strong nicotine smell.
The colour of universal indicator changes from
yellow because oxides of nitrogen in cigarrete
smoke dissolve in it and make it acidic

4. How do these changes affect the respiratory system and the body
tissues of a person who smokes?

The heat released by the burning cigarette
increases the body temperature and damages
the tissue lining in the alveoli in the respiratory
tract
Tobacco tar from the cigarrete deposits on the
lungs to become blackish
The acidic condition corrodes and damages the
ephitelial tissues of the lungs
Length of air column(inhaled air) = x cm
Length of air column upon adding the alkaline potassium
hydroxide solution = y cm
Length of air column upon adding the potassium pyrogallate
solution = z cm
Length of air column occupied by carbon dioxide = ( x-y ) cm
Length of air column occupied by oxygen = ( y-z ) cm

Percentage of carbon dioxide in inhaled air = (x-y) cm x 100%
x cm
= P%

Percentage of oxygen in inhaled air = ( y-z ) cm x 100%
x cm
= Q%


1. Why is it necessary to use potassium hydroxide solution
before the potassium pyrogallate solution?
Potassium hydroxide solution absorbs only carbon dioxide
while alkaline potassium pyrogallate solution absorbs both
oxygen and carbon dioxide
1. Compare the percentages of carbon dioxide in
inhaled air (P) and exhaled air ( R ) and the
percentages of oxygen inhaled air (Q) and
exhaled air (S). Which samples have a higher
percentage ? Explain why.
The percentage of carbon dioxide in inhaled air
(P%) is lower than the percentage of carbon
dioxide in exhaled air (R%) while the percentage
of oxygen in inhaled air (Q%) is higher than the
percentage of oxygen in exhaled air (S%)
This is because inhaled air has a higher oxygen
content but a lower carbon dioxide content as
compared to exhaled air which has a lower
oxygen content but a higher carbon dioxide
content
3. What inferences can you make from these
experiments?



Content Inhaled air Exhaled air
Oxygen 21.09% 16.4%
Carbon
dioxide
0.03% 4.1%
Water
vapour
Variable Saturated
Temperature Room
temperature
Body
temperature