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Amity School of Business

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Amity School of Business
BBAGEN, SEMESTER II
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR (BBAHR-10201)
MODULE 3
Ms. Kushi Sharma
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Motivation
Examine three terms

Motive an inner state that energizes, activates or moves and that directs
behavior towards goal.
Motivating a term that implies that one person induces another to
engage in action by ensuring that a channel to satisfy the motive becomes
available and accessible to the individual.
Motivation While a motive is an energizer of action, motivating is the
channelisation and activation of motives, motivation is the work behavior
itself.







Motive Motivating Motivation
Need in individuals
Activating needs &
providing need
satisfaction environment
Engagement in
work behavior
Relationship between motive, motivating & motivation
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Defining Motivation
Motivation
The set of processes that arouse, direct, and
maintain human behavior toward attaining a goal.
Key Elements

Arousal: The drive/energy behind our actions.
I want to meet my sales Quota.
Direction: Way towards goal .
Work Late, Make extra calls,Study Product Line.
Maintenance: Persistence, how long a person tries.
One week, a month and so on, not giving up easily.

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Motivation refers to the way in which
urges, drives, desires, aspirations,
striving or needs direct, control or explain
the behavior of human being
McFarland.

Motivation is the process that account
for an individuals intensity, direction and
persistence of effort toward attaining a
goal-Stephen P. Robbins.
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Importance of Motivation
Motivation is important to organizations
because in conjunction with ability and
environment it determines performance.
P=f(M, A, and E).
P-Performance.
A-Ability.
M-Motivation.
E-Environment/Opportunity( favourable).
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MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE
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Some of the benefits of motivated
employees/significance of motivation
1. Motivated employees are quality-driven.
2. They are more productive than apathetic
workers.
3. It ensures retention of good employees.
4. It promotes creativity, spontaneity and
innovative behaviour at work.

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5.The workforce will be better satisfied if
management provides them with opportunities to
fulfill their physiological and psychological
needs.
6.The workers will cooperate voluntarily with the
management.
7.The rates of labor turnover (attrition) and
absenteeism will be low.
8.There will be good human relations at work as
frictions will decrease.
9.The number of complaints and grievances will
come down.
10.Low accident rate and wastage and scraps will
also be less.

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Individual Motivation and Job
Performance
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What Motivates Employees?
Clear Expectations & Goals
Materials and Resources
Accurate/timely feedback
Interesting work
Challenges
Responsibility
Recognition
Respect
Being Informed
Being Listened to
Being Treated fairly
Opportunities for growth/advancement
Autonomy
Participation in decision-making
Being a Member of team
Incentives and benefits
Training opportunities

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S
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
i
o
n

Amount and
schedule of
contingent
extrinsic
rewards
Net amount
of valent
intrinsic
rewards
Equity
comparison
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

M
o
t
i
v
a
t
i
o
n

Work
effort
needed
Individual
attributes
Organizational
support
An Integrated Model of Individual
Motivation to Work
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Making work interesting increases the
likelihood of employees giving work their
full attention and enthusiasm.
Some ways to make work more interesting
are
job rotation,
Job enlargement and job enrichment,
MBO,
Empowerment.
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Job rotation
Job rotation involves moving employees from
job to job so as to give them more variety.
Job rotation requires that employees have relatively
broad skills.
This means the supervisor and organization must
provide for cross-training or training in the skills
required to perform more than one job.
The opportunity to learn new skills can in itself motivate
employees.

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Job enlargement
Job enlargement means that duties are
added to a job.
For example, in a factory a machine operator
may be given the added task of setting up the
machine.

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Job enrichment
Job enrichment is the incorporation of
motivating factors into a job.
The kinds of factors that are considered to
enrich a job are the ones Herzberg called
motivators.
Specific factors include
giving employees more responsibility to make decisions,
more recognition for good performance, and
making jobs more challenging.
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Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process
of negotiating periodic performance objectives
between superiors and subordinates in an effort
to cascade top managements wishes throughout
an organization. Frequently, objectives (MBOs)
are set using numeric targets with deadlines for
key process metrics, or just deadlines for
projects.
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EMPOWERMENT
Employee empowerment is a strategy and
philosophy that enables employees to make
decisions about their jobs.
Employee empowerment helps employees own
their work and take responsibility for their
results.
The work organization has the responsibility to
remove barriers that limit the ability of staff to act
in empowered ways.
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Factors that affect work motivation include:
Individual differences are the personal needs,
values, and attitudes, interests and abilities that
people bring to their jobs.

Job characteristics are the aspects of the position
that determine its limitations and challenges.

Organizational practices are the rules, human
resources policies, managerial practices, and
rewards systems of an organization.


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Motivation And Behavior
Motivation causes goal directed behavior.
Feeling of a need by an individual generates a
feeling that he lacks something.
This lack of something creates tension in the
mind of the individual.
Since the tension is not an ideal state of mind,
the individual tries to overcome this by engaging
himself in a behavior through which he satisfies
his needs.
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Goal directed behavior leads to goal
fulfillment
The individual succeeds in fulfilling his
needs.
He overcome his tensions in the favorable
environment.
Behavior ends the moment tension is
released.
Satisfaction of one need leads to feeling of
another need.

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Need Tension
Goal directed
behavior
Goal fulfillment/
need satisfaction
Favorable environment
Goal directed behavior
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Non satisfaction
of need
Frustration
Aggression
Externalized
Internalized
Towards source
Towards others
Flight (external withdrawal)
Lack of serious purpose
APATHY
( Internal Withdrawal)
Person
Inanimate
object
Reaction to non satisfaction of needs