You are on page 1of 9

CLASSIFICATION OF TESTS

MA. LEA A. RONDA, PhD


1
CLASSIFICATION OF TESTS
The American Psychological Association (APA) suggests
a classification of tests according to levels of complexity.
LEVEL A
Tests/aids which can be adequately
administered, scored and interpreted with the
aid of a manual
They have a general orientation to the kind of
organization
Ex. Educational achievement tests, teade and vocational
proficiency tests
They may be given and interpreted by non-
psychologists like principals and business executives

2
LEVEL B
Tests/aids which require technical knowledge of
test construction and use
Supported by other fields such as statistics,
psychology of adjustment, personnel
psychology, and guidance
Examples: tests of general intelligence, special
aptitude tests, interests inventories, personality
screening inventories
They can be used by persons who had suitable
psychological training or are employed and are
authorized to use them in their place of
employment

3
LEVEL C
Tests/aids which require substantial
understanding of testing and supporting
psychological topics, together with supervised
experience in the use of these devices
Examples: clinical tests of intelligence and
personality tests
Use by individuals with at least a Masters degree
in Psychology, or a person with at least one year
of supervised experience, or other psychologists
who are using tests for research or self-training
purposes with suitable precautions

4
L. J Cronbach classified the tests procedures
into:
Psychometric
testing adheres to the
belief that people
possess the same traits
but in different
amounts.
Since those traits exist
in some amount, they
can therefore be
measured.

Impressionistic testing
on the other hand, is not
satisfied with working how
much ability an individual
has.
It concerns itself with how
the examinee expresses his
ability, the kinds of errors
he or she makes, and why.
The advocates of this
type of testing are
interested in the totality
of the person.
Psychometric testing
Use of Standardized tests
Impressionistic Testing
Use of Projective Techniques
Obtains numerical
estimates of single aspects
of performance
Favors structured tests
All subjects interpret the
task in the same way

Concern itself with the
tangible aspect of
performance, answers
given


Intuitive, depends on
observations and personal
judgment
Favors free-response-
permit observations
which illuminate the
observed aspects of
performance
watches subject af work to
form a general opinion,
believes that observations
more important than the
score obtained

6
Psychometric testing Impressionistic testing
Formal scoring plays a large
part, concentrates on
measurable variables

Numerical scores accompanied
by a warning regarding the
error of measurement (.05 or
.01 level of significance)

Aims to reduce analysis of
individual differences to a
routine technical procedure-to
lessen the need for
professional psychologists
Formal scoring plays a minor
part, character description is
preferred rather than the
score
Less likely to carry validation
studies-satisfied with
comparing impressions based
on one procedure with
impressions gained from
another
Does not deny bias or random
error but would narrow focus
on numerical score
disregarding important
psychological information

7
The psychologist is advised to consider the merits of
both styles and eclectic in ones approach.
Psychometric testing
Impressionistic testing
Psychometric testing is
more objective and uses
statistical procedures in
test interpretation, it is
believed that users with
substantial training can
utilize it equally well.
Impressionistic approach
places responsibility on the
examiner.
He must have a deep
understanding of the
dynamics of personality, must
be observant, and skilful in
conveying his impressions.
8
Source: Cronbach, L..J. Essentials of Psychological Testing
Birion, J. Handbook of Psychometricians
Examples of Psychometric
tests:
Examples of Projective
Techniques:
Sixteen Personality Factor
Questionnaire(16PF)
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
SRA Verbal Form
Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence
Scale
Ravens Progressive Matrices
Differential Aptitude Test (DAT)
Flanagan Industrial Test
Edward Personal Preference
Schedule
NEO PI-R, MBTI

Rorschach Inkblot Test
Draw-A-Person-Test
Thematic Apperception Test
Sacks Sentence Completion
Test
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt
Test
House-Tree-Person Test
9