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The Goal of a Transmission

Cars need transmissions because of the physics of the

IC engine
First, any engine has a redline -- a maximum rpm
value above which the engine cannot go without
Second, engines have narrow rpm ranges where
horsepower and torque are at their maximum
The transmission allows the gear ratio between the
engine and the drive wheels to change as the car
speeds up and slows down
You shift gears so the engine can stay below the
redline and near the rpm band of its best performance
Manual Transmission
Also known as stick shift or standard
transmission uses different sets of gears to
change the gear ratio

The manual transmission locks and unlocks
different sets of gears to the output shaft to
achieve the various gear ratios

They allow a greater proportion of the engine's
power to be used, and because they give
drivers the greatest possible degree of control
over the operation of the vehicle's power
Types of Gear Boxes
Crash mesh or Sliding mesh gear

Constant mesh gear box

Synchromesh gear box
Sliding mesh gear box
1. drive shaft
from engine
2. counter
3. main shaft
4. I gear
5. II gear
6. III gear
7. top speed
Sliding mesh gear box
I gear position
Sliding mesh gear box
II gear position
Sliding mesh gear box
III gear position
Sliding mesh gear box
reverse gear position
Sliding mesh gear box
Only Straight cut (Spur) can be used. So
more wear
Straight-cut gears had to be matched in
speed before being brought into mesh
together. The result was a horrible
grinding noise - crashing the gears, as it
was known
changing gear requires considerable skill
Double de-clutching
This is to match the speed of the rotating parts of the
gearbox for the gear you wish to select to the speed of
the input shaft driven by the engine. Once the speeds are
matched, the gear will engage smoothly..
To perform it, the clutch is pressed and the gearbox
shifted into neutral gear. The clutch is released, the
throttle is "blipped" which applies power to the
disengaged gearbox, thus speeding it up internally. The
clutch is pressed for the second time and the gear lever
moved (smoothly) to the desired gear. The clutch is
released again, and the drive continues. This operation is
suitable for a down change.
For an upchange, it is usually sufficient to allow the gear
lever to rest momentarily in neutral and no "blip" is

Constant mesh gear box
Constant mesh gear box
Constant-mesh gearboxes are quieter
and slicker, also less wear because of
Helical gears
More frictional losses due to meshing of
all gears all time
But you still have to match the spinning
speeds before you could engage the
chosen gear, i.e. need for double-de-

Synchromesh gear box
In a synchromesh gearbox, gears
can freely rotate or be locked to
the shaft
It consists of a sliding collar
which bridges between two
circular rings with teeth on
them - one travels with the
gear, one with the shaft. When
the rings are bridged, the gear
is locked to the shaft. To match
the speed of the gear to that of
the shaft as the gear is engaged,
the collar initially applies a
force to a cone shaped clutch
which is attached to the gear.
This spins the gear up or down
in speed to match the shaft
prior to engagement of the