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The Cell


What Cells Do?

Cells are the basic units of all living

Cells make up bones, muscles, skin,
and blood.
Cells make up leaves, roots, stems,
and flowers.
As the organism grows, the cells must
Cell reproduction is called mitosis.
Cells: Prokaryote vs Eukaryote
Animal Cell Vs Plant Cell
Structure Animal cells Plant cells
cell membrane Yes yes
nucleus Yes yes
nucleolus yes yes
ribosomes yes yes
ER yes yes
Golgi yes yes
centrioles yes no
cell wall no yes
mitochondria yes yes
cholorplasts no yes
One big vacuole no yes
vacuole Usually no yes
• cell membrane and cell wall
• Nucleus
• Mitochondria
• Endoplasmic reticulum
• Golgi body
• Chloroplast
• Lysosomes
Plant Cell wall
The nucleus is bounded
by double membrane,
the Nuclear Envelope,
that is continuous with
the ER (RER).
The openings in the
Nuclear Envelope
that allow the passage
of material in and
out of the nucleus
are called
Nuclear Pores
Small Molecules can diffuse freely through the Nuclear Pore,
Larger molecules require active transport

Arrows: red = anterograde transport steps

blue = retrograde transport steps
green = endocytic transport steps
Lysosomes are
a specialized
compartment of
the secretory pathway
that acts as a
A specific sugar acts as a sorting signal to target proteins to
the lysosome
The Steps of Vesicle
Every Vesicle Transport step requires:
1) Coat proteins to generate the vesicle on the 1st compartment
2) Fusion proteins to allow the vesicle to fuse with the
acceptor compartment
Mitochondrial structure

• Two membranes
• Inner membrane invaginated
• Numbers of mitochondria per cell
vary but usually 100s/cell

Matrix contains the TCA cycle

(and other) soluble enzymes

Inner membrane contains

metabolite transporters and
the electron transport chain
Overview of
Mitochondria have their own DNA and Ribosomes
Mitochondria have some of their own DNA, ribosomes, and can make many
of their own proteins. The DNA is circular and lies in the matrix in structures
called "nucleoids". Each nucleoid may contain 4-5 copies of the
mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).

Chloroplast structure
• Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in all higher
plant cells containing chlorophyll, hence provide the green
• A chloroplast is bounded by two membranes enclosing a fluid-
filled stroma that contains enzymes.
• Within the stroma are other membrane structures - the
thylakoids and grana (singular = granum) where
photosynthesis takes place.
• Membranes inside the stroma are organized into thylakoids
that house chlorophyll.
• Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy and carbohydrates are made
in the stroma.
e RuBisCO

Stro ma

Ch loro p lats

Photosystem I I Cytoc hrom e 6bf / PhotosystemI ATP sy

Lu mne


Mitoch o nria

Com pl
exI Com pl
ex II Com pl
ex III Com pl
ex VI Com pl
ex V
Interm emran
b eSp ace
A vacuole is a membrane organelle which is present in all plant cells.
Vacuoles are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with fluid
such as water or various enzymes, though in certain cases they may contain
solids which have been engulfed.

The majority of vacuoles are formed through the fusion of multiple

membrane vesicles. The organelle has no basic shape or size, instead
varying its structure according to the needs of the cell.
In general, vacuole functions include:

Isolating materials that might be harmful or a threat to the cell

Containing waste products
Maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure within the cell
Exporting unwanted substances from the cell