You are on page 1of 23

Tools for

Problem Analysis
Outline
Cause-and-effect chart
Root cause analysis
Scatter chart

Cause and effect chart
Classical and most widely used tools in quality
management
Main purpose is to identify possible causes for an
effect
Effect analyzed can be:
An experienced problem
Future hoped-for state
Chart can be used for:
Finding causes for problem
Planning how to reach a state where problem no longer
occur
Types:
Fishbone chart
Process chart

Dimension
errors
Employees
Low
motivation
Poor
training
Methods
Unsuitable
process
route
Unsuitable
hardening
Environment
Wrong
coolant
Often
temperature
too low
Equipment
Poor
maintenance
Too infrequent tool
sharpening
Cause and
Effect Chart
Fishbone
Chart
Process
Chart
Fishbone Chart
Traditional way of constructing cause-and-
effect charts
Main product is a chart that resembles a
fishbone
Two ways of creating the chart:
Dispersion analysis: effect being analyzed is
drawn on the right side of the chart and
groups of possible causes are identified

Cause enumeration: where all possible causes
are simply brainstormed and listed in the order
they are generated
Fishbone chart with dispersion analysis
1. The chart gives better result when
created in group first step, assemble a
suitable group possessing the necessary
knowledge about the area to be analyzed
2. Describe the effect for which causes are
sought e.g. low performance
3. Draw the effect at the end of a large
arrow

4. Identify main categories of possible
causes place at branches emanating
from the large arrows

For physical processes
main categories:
People
Machines and equipment
Materials
Methods
Measures
For service processes
main categories:
People
Machines and equipment
Frame conditions
Work environment

5. Brainstorm all possible causes and place these in
the suitable area of the chart
Brief and succinct description
Proceed through the chart one main category at
the time but include surfacing suggestions
Causes that belong to more than one category
are placed in all relevant position

6. Analyze the identified causes to determine the
most important ones

Example
Identifying the causes of dimension errors
Dimension
errors
Employees
Low
motivation
Poor
training
Methods
Unsuitable
process
route
Unsuitable
hardening
Environment
Wrong
coolant
Often
temperature
too low
Equipment
Poor
maintenance
Too infrequent tool
sharpening
Process Chart
Variant of Cause and effect chart that
directly aimed at improvement of business
process

Main steps in the process to be improved
are drawn

For each step of the process believed to
create problems or contribute to low level
performance a fishbone chart is
constructed

Low level of work-in-progress
How? Maintain no stock of finished goods
How? Short manufacturing time
How? Run small batch sizes
How? Frequent and swift deliveries from the suppliers
How? Extremely good relationships to the suppliers
Root cause analysis
Also known as why-why chart and five
whys

The purpose is to find the true root cause
of a problem

Can be used in connection with cause-
and-effect chart to ensure if each
identified cause really is the root cause of
the problem
Root cause analysis procedure
Determine the starting point, either a problem or a
high-level cause that should be further analyzed

Use brainstorming to find causes at the level below
the starting point

For each identified cause, pose the question, why is
this a cause for the original problem?

For each new answer to the question, ask the
question again and again until no new answer results.
This will probably be one of the root causes for the
problem usually requires five rounds of the
question why

If the question is twisted slightly to asking how
instead of asking why the technique can be used to
find root means for reaching a desired state or effect
Example
Finding means for reducing the amount of work-in-
progress in a manufacturing company
Low level of work-in-progress
How? Maintain no stock of finished goods
How? Short manufacturing time
How? Run small batch sizes
How? Frequent and swift deliveries from the suppliers
How? Extremely good relationships to the suppliers

x
x
x x
x x x
x
x
x x
Customer waiting time
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

c
o
m
p
l
a
i
n
t
s

Scatter chart
Used to show the relationship between
two variables
The variables can be process
characteristics, performance measures, or
other conditions
Usually measured at specified time
intervals

Relations in scatter diagram
When one of the factors increases, the other can
either also:
Increase
decrease or
display random variation

If the two variables seem to change in
synchronization it might mean that they are
related and impact each other
Number of defects increases in proportion with the
amount of overtime used

Synchronized variation does not always mean
that there is a cause-and-effect relationship
between variables!
Different Degrees of Correlation
Strong positive correlation
Strong negative correlation
No correlation
Possible positive correlation
Possible negative correlation
Developing a scatter chart
Select the two variables, one independent and
one dependent, to be examined
For each value of the independent variable, the
corresponding value of the dependent value is
measured
Typically, should be at least 30
Preferrably more than 100 data pairs
Draw the chart itself placing the independent
variable (the expected cause) on the x axis, and
the dependent (effect) on the y axis
Plot the collected data pairs on the chart and
analyze it

Interpreting scatter chart
If chart indicates a relationship
variables should be analyzed further to
confirm the relationship


Chart showing no relationship should not
automatically lead to a conclusion that no
relationship exists
Using Scatter chart
x
x
x x
x x x
x
x
x x
Customer waiting time
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

c
o
m
p
l
a
i
n
t
s

Diskusikan bersama satu
teman:
Jika anda adalah seorang
pengambil keputusan
apa yang akan anda
lakukan setelah melihat kedua
diagram ini?
0
2
4
6
8
10
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
temperature (C)
Number of defects
Aktivitas
Kumpulkan data tinggi dan berat masing-
masing anggota kelas

Tentukan dependent variable (Y) dan
independent variable (X)

Petakan setiap data dalam sumbu X dan Y

Apa yang dapat anda simpulkan?