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Voice over IP (VoIP) chops-up your voice into

small chunks.
1. Sends these small chunks as packets over the
Internet (IP).
2. The far-end plays back the IP packets back
into voice.
Some general notes
The quality of VoIP depends on the
compression method (CODEC) and the
network conditions.
It ranges from toll quality to Cell Phone
What Is VOIP
What Is VOIP?
IP Network
Internet
VoIP
Gateway
Analog or
Digital voice
circuit
VoIP
Gateway
IP Packets with Voice Samples
Analog or
Digital voice
circuit
Voice and Data Transmission
Networks
Requirements
- real-time (critical)
- small bandwidth
(narrow band)
- constant bit rate
Circuit Switched Networks
- fixed allocation of
bandwidth
- fixed size of channels
(64 kbps)
PSTN/ISDN- Network
Voice
Data
Requirements
- non real-time
- enormous bandwidth
(broad band)
- variable bit rate
Packet Switched Networks
- no allocation of
bandwidth
- flexible use of
bandwidth
IP/ATM/FR- Networks
Features of Circuit Switched Networks
Appropriate for real time applications
Small and predominantly constant delay times
Connection-oriented
Fixed allocation of bandwidth (n*64 kbit/s)

Circuit Switching
Traffic between Phone 2 and Phone 3
Traffic between Phone 1 and Phone 4
Phone 1
Phone 2
Phone 3
Phone 4
Switch
Switch Switch
Features of Packet Switched Networks
hardly appropriate for real-time applications
highly variable delays (depending on the load level)
for the most part connectionless
flexible use of bandwidth
Packet Switching
PC Client 2
PC Client 1
Server a
Server b
Traffic bw. PC 2 and Server a
Traffic bw. PC 1 and Server b
Router
Router Router
Voice over IP - History
Februar 1995: first VoIP-solution on the market
(Fa. VocalTec/IL)
January 1996: IETF standardizes RTP (RFC1889)
May 1996: ITU-T adopts H.323
VoIP PC
VoIP PC-to-PC
IP-Netz,
z.B. LAN
VoIP PC
or IP-Phone
or IP-Phone
VoIP Media Gateways
allow access for subscribers connected to external networks
act as a kind of interpreter,
for example between IP and PSTN networks
calls from the (cheaper) data network can be forwarded at
the PSTN
VoIP PC
VoIP PC-to-Phone
IP-Network

MG
PSTN-Network
PSTN-
Telephone
VoIP
Media
Gateway
MG
VoIP Phone-to-Phone
IP-Network

MG
PSTN-Network
PSTN Telephone
PSTN-Network

PSTN Telephone
Gatekeeper
centralized control of call set up and release
supplementary functionality:
- address resolution
- control of bandwidth resources
- charging
Features:
- knocking
- to act as a broker
- etc.
VoIP PC
VoIP Gatekeeper
IP-Network,
e.g. LAN
VoIP PC
Gatekeeper
Real-time requirements for data
network
short distances
high-speed network elements (Router, Switches)
necessary bandwidth must be available

Solutions: I) Over Provisioning
II) QoS-Mechanisms
(IntServ, DiffServ, MPLS)
Characteristic of
Voice and Data Traffic
Voice traffic profile (schematic)
0
0,25
0,5
0,75
1
1,25
159
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3
1
7
2
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2
9
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3
Time
V
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u
m
e
Data traffic profile (schematic)
0
0,25
0,5
0,75
1
1,25
159
1
3
1
7
2
1
2
5
2
9
3
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1
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3
Time
V
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u
m
e
Why do need VOIP?
Utilizing the existing IP network infrastructure
and providing integrated services (Data +
Voice)
Reducing costs of calls including international,
national and local calls
Advantages of VoIP
for network operators
more efficient use of the network
- silence detection
- compression
low costs
- a unique network
(Administration, Operation, Maintainence)
high innovation pace
- open interfaces allow seamless and quick integration of
innovations from different manufactureres (between
Gatekeeper and transmission technique)
Integration of voice and data services (Multimedia)
Advantages for users and
subscribers
unique Infrastructure (one communication technique)
only one network access
new innovative services (Click-to-Call, etc.)