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Chapter 12

Metal Casting: Design,


Materials, & Economics
Design Considerations
Developed over many years
Established though practical experience
Analytical methods
Process modeling
CAD
Manufacturing techniques

Improving productivity

Cost savings
Design for expandable-Mold Casting
Corners, angles, and section thickness

Flat areas

Shrinkage

Parting line

Draft

Dimensional tolerances

Machining allowance

Residual stresses
Casting design modifications
Fig : Suggested design
modifications to avoid
defects in castings.
Note that sharp corners
are avoided to reduce
stress concentrations.
Design for expandable-Mold Casting Cont
Fig : Examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections
in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities
Avoiding shrinkage cavities
Fig : Examples of design modifications to avoid shrinkage cavities in castings.
Chills
Fig : The use of metal
padding (chills) to
increase the rate of
cooling in thick regions
in a casting to avoid
shrinkage cavities.
Normal Shrinkage Allowance for some Metals Cast in
Sand Molds
Metal Percent
Grey Cast Iron 0.83 1.3
White Cast Iron 2.1
Malleable cast Iron 0.78 1.0
Aluminum alloys 1.3
Magnesium alloys 1.3
Yellow Brass 1.3 1.6
Phosphor bronze 1.0 1.6
Aluminum bronze 2.1
High-manganese steel 2.6
Solidification Contraction of various Cast
Metals
Parting Line
Fig : Redesign of a casting by
making the parting line
straight to avoid defects.
Casting Design Modifications
Special consideration
Draft angle
Galling



Eamples of casting design
modifications.
Desirable and Undesirable Die-Casting Practices
Examples of undesirable and
desirable design practices
for die-cast parts. Note that
section-thickness uniformity
is maintained throughout the
part.
Nonferrous Casting Alloys
Aluminum-based alloys

Magnesium-based alloys

Copper-based alloys

Zinc-based alloys

High-temperature alloys
Ferrous Casting Alloys
Cast Irons
Gray cast iron
Ductile iron
White cast iron
Malleable iron
Compacted graphite iron

Cast steels

Cast stainless steels
The Economics of Castings
Casting Processes
Some involve more labor than others
Some take a more time than others
Some more time to produce
Cost of a product
Materials
Labor
Tooling
Equipment
Cost of casting process
Sand casting little cost
Die-casting
Materials
Machining
Preparation
Melting and pouring of molten metal
Cost for furnaces
Related machinery
Cost of finishing the casting
Heat treating
Cleaning
Inspecting


THE END