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A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF NEUTRON COLLIMATOR IN THE

THERMAL COLUMN OF KARTINI RESEARCH REACTOR FOR


BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY
Nina Fauziah
What?
What? Why? Where? How?
Why?
What? Why? Where? How?
to be captured by Boron-10 released from fission
reaction in reactor core
Neutron energy spectrum
output of collimator
some energy needed for
penetrating cells or tissues
covering the tumour
Certain design of collimator is clearly needed.
Where?
What? Why? Where? How?
How?
Step 1: Reactor Modelling (100 kW)
Step II: Collimator Designing
MCNP5 Simulations
What? Why? Where? How?
Conclusions
Top sections
Top sections Side sections Results
Side sections
Top sections Side sections Results
Results
Gained Value Desired Value
K
eff

1,007 + 0,000

th
in Ring B
(14,30 + 0,00) x 10
11
n.cm
-2
.s
-1
K
eff

1,000 + 0,010

th
in Ring B
(12,45 + 0,23) x 10
11
n.cm
-2
.s
-1

Top sections Side sections Results
Beam Criteria (IAEA)
Parameter Nomenclature Value
Epithermal beam intensity
epi
(n.cm
-2
.s
-1
) > 1,0 x 10
9

Fast neutron dose per
epithermal neutron

f
/
epi
(Gy.cm
2
.n
-1
) < 2,0 x 10
-13

Gamma dose per epithermal
neutron

/
epi
(Gy.cm
2
.n
-1
) < 2,0 x 10
-13

Ratio between thermal flux and
epithermal flux

th
/
epi
< 0,05
Ratio between neutron current
and neutron flux
J /
epi
> 0,7
Criteria Materials Setting Results
Materials
1.Wall : Ni
2.Moderator : Al
3.Filter :
60
Ni
4.Gamma-ray shielding :
Bi
5.Beam delimiter:
6
Li
2
CO
3
-polyethylene


2 3
1
4
5
Criteria Materials Setting Results
Primary Setting
Collimator length: 100 cm
Collimator outer diameter: 54 cm
Collimator outlet diameter: 3 cm
Beam delimiter thickness: 3 cm
Criteria Materials Setting Results
Wall (Ni)
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

e
p
i

(

x

1
0
9

n
.
c
m
-
2
.
s
-
1
)

Wall thickness (cm)
Wall Moderator Filter Shieldin
g
Aperture Graphite add.
Moderator (Al)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 20 40 60 80 100

f
/

e
p
i

(
x

1
0
-
1
3

G
y
.
c
m
2
.
n
-
1
)

Moderator thickness (cm)
Wall Moderator Filter Shieldin
g
Aperture Graphite add.
Moderator (Al)
Moderator
Thickness (cm)
epi

(x 10
9
n.cm
-2
.s
-1
)
f / epi
(x 10
-13
Gy.cm
2
.n
-1
)
55
1,33 5,79
60 1,27 4,07
65
1,21 3,58
70 1,11 3,04
75
1,06 2,63
80
0,98 2,33
Wall Moderator Filter Shieldin
g
Aperture Graphite add.
Filter (
60
Ni)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

f
/

e
p
i

(
x

1
0
-
1
3

G
y
.
c
m
2
.
n
-
1
)

Filter thickness (cm)
Wall Moderator Filter Shieldin
g
Aperture Graphite add.
Filter (
60
Ni)
Wall Moderator Filter Shieldin
g
Aperture Graphite add.
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

t
h
/

e
p
i

Filter thickness (cm)
Gamma-ray shielding (Bi)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

e
p
i

(
x

1
0
-
1
3

G
y
.
c
m
2
.
n
-
1
)

Shielding thickness (cm)
Wall Moderator Filter Shieldin
g
Aperture Graphite add.
Aperture size
Aperture diameter (cm) 1 2 3 4 5

epi
(n.cm
-2
.s
-1
) 7,55x10
8
7,61x10
8
7,48x10
8
7,65x10
8
7,57x10
8

f
/
epi
(Gy.cm
2
.n
-1
) 1,80x10
-13
1,85x10
-13
1,80x10
-13
1,76x10
-13
1,81x10
-13

/
epi
(Gy.cm
2
.n
-1
) 1,47x10
-13
1,45x10
-13
1,44x10
-13
1,34x10
-13
1,32x10
-13

th
/
epi
0,010 0,010 0,009 0,009 0,008
J /
epi
0,72 0,72 0,73 0,72 0,73
Wall Moderator Filter Shieldin
g
Aperture Graphite add.
With graphite addition
Aperture diameter (cm) 1 2 3 4 5

epi
(n.cm
-2
.s
-1
) 1,60x10
9
1,63x10
9
1,64x10
9
1,68x10
9
1,65x10
9

f
/
epi
(Gy.cm
2
.n
-1
) 1,56x10
-13
1,69x10
-13
1,61x10
-13
1,61x10
-13
1,59x10
-13

/
epi
(Gy.cm
2
.n
-1
) 1,25x10
-13
1,18x10
-13
1,24x10
-13
1,26x10
-13
1,16x10
-13

th
/
epi
0,006 0,007 0,007 0,007 0,007
J /
epi
0,73 0,73 0,72 0,72 0,72
Wall Moderator Filter Shieldin
g
Aperture Graphite add.
Collimator conceptual design
Conceptual design Beam characteristics
Ni
Al
60
Ni
Air
Bi
6
Li
2
CO
3
-polyethylene
C
Core
radial
reflector
Reactor pool Barite concrete
60 15
97
5
54 70 44
8
95
Beam characteristics







With addition of 8 cm thick of graphite surrounding the
collimator, higher
epi
could be reached up to 1,68 x 10
9
.

Parameter Gained Value Desired Value

epi
(n.cm
-2
.s
-1
) < 7,65 x 10
8
> 1,0 x 10
9

f
/
epi
(Gy.cm
2
.n
-1
) > 1,76 x 10
-13
< 2,0 x 10
-13

/
epi
(Gy.cm
2
.n
-1
) > 1,32 x 10
-13
< 2,0 x 10
-13

th
/
epi
> 0,008 < 0,05
J /
epi
< 0,73 > 0,7
Conceptual design Beam characteristics










Thank you
Appendices
Cross
Sections
Ni
60
Ni
Bi
Price Half-life
2 1 3
Appendices
LET Q Wr Formula
Intensity
Mean free
path
Radiations
Characteristic
s
2 1 3
Appendices
Monte
Carlo
Old
Design
Other
Designs
Reacto
r
D-T
generato
r
KURR
2 1 3
Ni

60
Ni

Bi

Cross sections

Materials Cross section
Pb ~13
Bi ~ 9
Ni ~30
Price of Materials
Materials Price (per 100 gram) Price (per 100 cm
3
)

Pb $ 2,45 $ 28
PbF
2
$ 0,1 $ 0, 8
Bi $ 39 $ 383
Ni $ 7,7 $ 69
Meterials Half life
Materials Reaction Half-life

58
Ni
58
Ni(n,p)
58
Co 70 days
60
Ni

60
Ni(n,p)
60
Co 10,5 minutes
27
Al
27
Al(n,)
26
Na 15 hours
27
Al(n,p)
27
Mg 9,5 minutes
209
Bi
209
Bi(n,)
210
Po 5 days
6
Li
6
Li(n,)
3
H 12 years
12
C
12
C(n,2n)
11
C 20 minutes
1
H
1
H(n,)
2
D 10 seconds
LET Q and W
R
of Radiations
Type LET (keV/m) Q

W
R
X and -rays < 3,5 1 1
-rays

< 7 1,7 1
-particles 53 10 20
Recoil nuclei > 175 20 20
Neutrons
~1 keV < 7 2 5
10 keV 7 < x < 23 2,5 10
100 keV 23 < x < 53 7,5 10
1 MeV 53 < x < 175 11 20
20 MeV 23 < x < 53 8 5
Intensity
Mean free path
Monte Carlo Method Application
Old Design - using PbF
2
- no shielding

Aperture diameter (cm) 3 4 5

epi
(n.cm
-2
.s
-1
) 2,65x10
8
2,65x10
8
2,67x10
8

f
/
epi
(Gy.cm
2
.n
-1
) 2,90x10
-13
3,03x10
-13
3,04x10
-13

/
epi
(Gy.cm
2
.n
-1
) 1,60x10
-13
1,61x10
-13
1,60x10
-13

th
/
epi
0,0190 0,019 0,020
J /
epi
0,73 0,73 0,72
Reactor
D-T generator
Kyoto Univ. Research Reactor
Kyoto Univ. Research Reactor

MIT Research Reactor

Materials for Neutron Detector

Existing Therapy Facility vs BNCT