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Session 5 6

BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW


FOUNDATION
Course : S0484/Foundation Engineering
Year : 2007
Version : 1/0

SHALLOW FOUNDATION
Topic:
General
Terzaghi Model
Meyerhoff Model
Brinch Hansen Model
Influence of multi layer soil
Influence of ground water elevation
Shallow Foundation Bearing by N-SPT
value
TYPES OF SHALLOW FOUNDATION
TYPES OF SHALLOW FOUNDATION
TERZAGHI MODEL
Assumptions:
Subsoil below foundation structure is
homogenous
Shallow foundation Df < B
Continuous, or strip, footing : 2D case
Rough base
Equivalent surcharge
TERZAGHI MODEL
FAILURE ZONES:
1. ACD : TRIANGULAR ZONES
2. ADF & CDE : RADIAL SHEAR ZONES
3. AFH & CEG : RANKINE PASSIVE ZONES
STRIP FOUNDATION
q
ult
= c.Nc + q.Nq + 0.5..B.N
SQUARE FOUNDATION
q
ult
= 1.3.c.Nc + q.Nq + 0.4..B.N
CIRCULAR FOUNDATION
q
ult
= 1.3.c.Nc + q.Nq + 0.3..B.N

( )
( )
|
|

| t
| t
|
| | t
| | t
tan 1
cos 2
1
2 4
cos . 2
1
2 4
cos . 2
cot
2
2
tan 2 / 4 / 3 2
2
tan 2 / 4 / 3 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
=

py
K
N
e
Nq
e
Nc
Where:
c = cohesion of soil
q = . Df ; Df = the thickness of foundation
embedded on subsoil
= unit weight of soil
B = foundation width
Nc, Nq, N = bearing capacity factors

TERZAGHI MODEL
(GENERAL FAILURE)
BEARING CAPACITY FACTORS
GENERAL
FAILURE
BEARING CAPACITY FACTORS
GENERAL
FAILURE
TERZAGHI MODEL
(LOCAL FAILURE)
STRIP FOUNDATION
q
ult
= 2/3.c.Nc + q.Nq + 0.5..B.N
SQUARE FOUNDATION
q
ult
= 0.867.c.Nc + q.Nq + 0.4..B.N
CIRCULAR FOUNDATION
q
ult
= 0.867.c.Nc + q.Nq + 0.3..B.N

( )
( )
' tan 1
' cos 2
1
2
'
4
cos . 2
1
2
'
4
cos . 2
' cot
2
2
' tan 2 / ' 4 / 3 2
2
' tan 2 / ' 4 / 3 2
|
|

| t
| t
|
| | t
| | t
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
=

py
K
N
e
Nq
e
Nc
| = tan
-1
(2/3. tan|)
Where:
c = cohesion of soil
q = . Df ; Df = the thickness of foundation
embedded on subsoil
= unit weight of soil
B = foundation width
Nc, Nq, N = bearing capacity factors

BEARING CAPACITY FACTORS
LOCAL FAILURE
BEARING CAPACITY FACTORS
GROUND WATER INFLUENCE
GROUND WATER INFLUENCE
CASE 1
0 s D
1
< D
f
q = D
1
.
dry
+ D
2
.

CASE 2
0 s d s B q =
dry
.D
f
the value of in third part of equation is
replaced with
= + (d/B).(
dry
- )

FACTOR OF SAFETY
FS
q
q
FS
q
q
u net
net all
u
all
) (
) (
=
=
Where:
q
u
= gross ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundation
q
all
= gross allowable bearing capacity of shallow foundation
q
net(u)
= net ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundation
q
all
= net allowable bearing capacity of shallow foundation
FS = Factor of Safety (FS > 3)
f
u u net
D q
q q q
.
) (
=
=
NET ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACITY
PROCEDURE:
1. Find the developed cohesion and the angle of friction



2. Calculate the gross allowable bearing capacity (q
all
)
according to terzaghi equation with c
d
and |
d
as the
shear strength parameters of the soil



3. Find the net allowable bearing capacity (q
all(net)
)
shear
d
FS
c
c =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

shear
d
FS
|
|
tan
tan
1
FS
shear
= 1.4 1.6
Ex.: q
all
= c
d
.Nc + q.Nq + .B.N
Where Nc, Nq, N = bearing capacity factor for the friction angle, |
d

q
all(net)
= q
all
- q
EXAMPLE PROBLEM
A square foundation is 5 ft x 5 ft in plan. The soil
supporting the foundation has a friction angle of
| = 20
o
and c = 320 lb/ft
2
. The unit weight of soil,
, is 115 lb/ft
3
. Assume that the depth of the
foundation (D
f
) is 3 ft and the general shear
failure occurs in the soil.
Determine:
- the allowable gross load on the foundation with
a factor of safety (FS) of 4.
- the net allowable load for the foundation with
FS
shear
= 1.5
EXAMPLE SOLUTION
Foundation Type: Square Foundation
EXAMPLE SOLUTION
GENERAL BEARING CAPACITY EQUATION
i d s qi qd qs ci cd cs u
F F F N B F F F Nq q F F F Nc c q

. . . . . ). 5 . 0 ( . . . . . . . . + + =
Df
Meyerhofs Theory
BEARING CAPACITY FACTOR
( )
|
|
|
| t
tan ) 1 ( 2
cot 1
2
45 tan
tan . 2
+ =
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Nq N
Nq Nc
e Nq
SHAPE, DEPTH AND INCLINATION FACTOR
EXAMPLE 2
2 m
GWL

dry
= 13 kN/m
3

sat
= 18 kN/m
3
c = 1 kg/cm
2
| = 20
o

P = 73 ton
Tank
Foundation
Determine the size (diameter) circle foundation of tank structure as
shown in the following picture
With P is the load of tank, neglected the weight of foundation and use
factor of safety, FS = 3.5.
EXAMPLE 3
DETERMINE THE FACTOR OF SAFETY FOR:
-CASE 1 : GWL LOCATED AT 0.3m (MEASURED FROM THE SURFACE
OF SOIL)
-CASE 2 : GWL LOCATED AT 1.5m (MEASURED FROM THE SURFACE
OF SOIL)

dry
= 13 kN/m
3

B = 4m
SQUARE FOUNDATION
ECCENTRICALLY LOADED FOUNDATIONS
ECCENTRICALLY LOADED FOUNDATIONS
ONE WAY ECCENTRICITY
Meyerhofs step by step procedure:
Determine the effective dimensions of the foundation as :
B = effective width = B 2e
L = effective length = L
Note:
if the eccentricity were in the direction of the length of the foundation, the value
of L would be equal to L-2e and the value of B would be B.
The smaller of the two dimensions (L and B) is the effective width of the
foundation
Determine the ultimate bearing capacity


to determine F
cs
, F
qs
, F
s
use effective length and effective width
to determine F
cd
, F
qd
, F
d
use B
The total ultimate load that the foundation can sustain is
Q
ult
= q
u
.B.L ; where BxL = A (effective area)
The factor of safety against bearing capacity failure is
FS = Q
ult
/Q
Check the factor of safety against q
max
, or,
FS = q
u
/q
max

i d s qi qd qs ci cd cs u
F F F N B F F F Nq q F F F Nc c q

. . . . . . 5 , 0 . . . . . . . . + + =
EXAMPLE PROBLEM
A Square foundation is shown in the following figure.
Assume that the one- way load eccentricity e = 0.15m.
Determine the ultimate load, Q
ult

EXAMPLE SOLUTION
With c = 0, the bearing capacity equation becomes

TWO-WAY ECCENTRICITY
TWO-WAY ECCENTRICITY CASE 1
TWO-WAY ECCENTRICITY CASE 2
TWO-WAY ECCENTRICITY CASE 3
TWO-WAY ECCENTRICITY CASE 4
BEARING CAPACITY OF LAYERED SOILS
STRONGER SOIL
UNDERLAIN BY
WEAKER SOIL
BEARING CAPACITY OF LAYERED SOILS
H
B
K
H
D
H
B
H c
q q
s
f
a
b u 1
1
2
1
tan
2
1
2

|

|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
) 2 ( 2 ) 2 ( 2 2
) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( 1 1
2
1
2
1

BN N c q
BN N c q
c
c
+ =
+ =
( )
) 2 ( ) 2 ( 2 ) 2 ( ) 2 ( 1 ) 2 ( ) 2 ( 2
2
1
s qs q f cs c b
F BN F N H D F N c q

+ + + =
BEARING CAPACITY OF LAYERED SOILS
t
s
f
a
b u
q H
B
K
H
D
H
B
H c
q q s
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1
1 2
1
tan
2
1
2

t
s
f
a
b u
q H
B
K
H
D
L
B
H
B
H c
L
B
q q s |
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
1
1 2
1
tan
2
1 1
2
1
|

Rectangular Foundation
( )
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1
) 2 ( ) 2 ( 2 ) 2 ( ) 2 ( 1 ) 2 ( ) 2 ( 2
2
1
2
1
s qs q f cs c t
s qs q f cs c b
F BN F N D F N c q
F BN F N H D F N c q




+ + =
+ + + =
) 2 ( 2 ) 2 ( 2 2
) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( 1 1
2
1
2
1

BN N c q
BN N c q
c
c
+ =
+ =
BEARING CAPACITY OF LAYERED SOILS
SPECIAL CASES
TOP LAYER IS STRONG SAND AND BOTTOM
LAYER IS SATURATED SOFT CLAY (|
2
= 0)
TOP LAYER IS STRONGER SAND AND BOTTOM
LAYER IS WEAKER SAND (c
1
= 0 , c
2
= 0)
TOP LAYER IS STRONGER SATURATED CLAY (|
1

= 0) AND BOTTOM LAYER IS WEAKER
SATURATED CLAY (|
2
= 0)
Find the formula for the above
special cases
BEARING CAPACITY FROM N-SPT VALUE
A square foundation BxB has to
be constructed as shown in the
following figure. Assume that =
105 lb/ft
3
,
sat
= 118 lb/ft
3
, D
f
= 4
ft and D
1
= 2 ft. The gross
allowable load, Q
all
, with FS = 3
is 150,000 lb. The field standard
penetration resistance, N
F
values
are as follow:
Determine the size
of the foundation
SOLUTION
Correction of standard penetration number
(Liao and Whitman relationship)
SOLUTION