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Practical Application of Finite Element

Analysis to the Design of Post-Tensioned and


Reinforced Concrete Floors
Jonathan Hirsch, P.E.
Computer Assisted Design of
Concrete Floors

Types of programs available

Advantages of each

Why specialized finite element software is
necessary for PT design
Computer Assisted Design of
Concrete Floors

The design process using 3-D finite
element analysis

Project examples
Types of Programs Available

2-D strip method

3-D finite element method
Linear elastic
Non-linear
2-D Strip Method
Structure analyzed with one model per
beam, one-way slab, or two-way slab bay
Equivalent frame method used for two-
way slabs
Easy to understand behavior
Good for highly repetitive structures
Flat Plate Example
Transverse direction
Longitudinal direction
3-D finite element method

Visual modeling / input

Accuracy
continuity effects (elastic reactions)
load path
complicated loads (including lateral)
restraint effects
torsion
3-D finite element method

Graphical presentation of results

Less cumbersome work with one model
instead of numerous

Easier to incorporate changes
Loadings
Concrete geometry
Construction Issues
Low Concrete Strength
Broken Strands
Las Olas River
Condominiums
43 Story
Fort Lauderdale, FL
Suncoast Post-
Tension
Visual modeling / input

Speed

CAD like interface

Reduce chances for input error

Automatic mesh generation
River City Apartments, Brisbane
1650 mm Transfer Slab
River City Apartments Tendons
Robert Bird and Partners
Accuracy of 3-D FE Analysis
Continuity Effects

Load Path

Complicated Loads

Generally leads to more optimal
design





Accuracy of 3-D FE Analysis

Restraining Effects

Torsion




Continuity Effects
Continuity Effects
Beam and Slab:
Relatively straightforward load path
Beam and Slab:

More difficult load
path
Prestress tendon profile variations
Bending moments
Loads ..
Self weight is automatically calculated
Superimposed loadings easily input
Straightforward
line load
Complicated
point and
line loads
Restraining Effects

Normally ignored by 2-D programs

Can be calculated and accounted for by 3-D
finite element programs

Important for serviceability of structure

Important for strength of structure (hyperstatic
effects)
Torsion

Normally ignored by 2-D programs
(potentially creating a conservative
design)

Can exist in 3-D finite element model and
therefore should be designed for
Torsion
Torsion
Graphical Presentation of Results
Graphical Presentation of Results
Finite Element Basics
Using shell elements to model concrete floors

In plane forces

Out of plane forces

Related in irregular slabs (change of centroid)
In Plane Forces
Out of Plane Forces
Plate Considerations

Resolution of Txy

Integrated forces in equilibrium with nodal loads


Interaction of In Plane/Out of Plane
Fx = Fx
Vxy = Vxy
Vxz = Vxz
My = My - Fx d
Mxy = Mxy - Vxy d
Using Shell Elements to Model
Beams

Deep beam behavior

Torsion stiffness of beams using shell elements

Transfer of moment through large step
Deep Beam Behavior
Deep Beam Behavior
Torsion Stresses
Moment Transfer Through Step Beam
Orthotropic Element Properties
Hyperstatic (Secondary) effects ..
Hyperstatic effects
Hyperstatic effects ..
Hyperstatic effects ..
Complete Secondary (Hyperstatic) Effects
Allan Bommer
PTI Journal - January 2004
Post-Tensioning Loadings

Balance Loading

Hyperstatic Loading

The 3-D Finite Element Design Process
Model the structure
Apply the loads
Lay out the tendons (if PT)
Draw design strips (define cross-sections)
Perform the design
Process results
Model the Structure
Model the Structure
Model the Structure
Apply the Loads (Dead Loads)
Apply the Loads (Live Loads)
Lay Out Tendons (Banded)
Lay Out Tendons (Distributed)
Lay Out Tendons
Deflection With Initial Tendon Layout
Draw the Design Strips
Draw the Design Strips
Draw the Design Strips
Draw the Design Strips
Draw the Design Strips
Draw the Design Strips
Perform the Design
Perform the Design
Perform the Design
Perform the Design
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Process Results
Special Considerations
Lateral Analysis / Design

Punching Shear Analysis / Design

Restraining Effects

Pour Strips, etc.

Mat Foundations

Punching Shear
Punching Shear
SR=1.25
Punching Shear ..
stress ratio exceeds unity
Punching Shear ..
without penetrations, stress ratio
< 1
Mats
Mats
48 Mat: DL + LL + WL
Bearing pressure
Max = 2560 psf
Min = 690 psf
24 Mat: DL + LL + WL
Bearing pressure
Max = 3450 psf
Min = 0 psf
(10 iterations)
24 Mat: DL + LL + WL
Bearing pressure
Max = 3450 psf
Min = 0 psf
(10 iterations)
Bridgewater Place, Leeds
Mixed Use:
Office / Residential
Connell Mott McDonald
Matthew Consultants
Minneapolis Institute of Arts
.Soffit view
Top view
Sheraton Keauhou Bay Resort
Keauhou Kona, Hawaii
Structural Systems
(UK) Ltd
Westbridge Wharf
Leicester

Strongforce / Laing ORourke
3 residential buildings
9 levels each
Westbridge Wharf
St. Lucia Luxury
Condominiums
Destin, Florida
Suncoast Post-Tension
St. Lucia Luxury
Condominiums
Destin, Florida
Suncoast Post-Tension
Royal Palm Plaza
Boca Raton, FL

Tendon Systems,
Inc.
Royal Palm Plaza
Boca Raton, FL

Tendon Systems,
Inc.
Opus
Architects and Engineers
Jonathan Hirsch, P.E.
Jonathan.Hirsch@bentley.com