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UMTS KPI-Optimisation

and Tools

Sanjay Kumar/Hemal Doshi
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008
Before we start:
We will first look at the general optimisation process, RF aspects, call
flow alongwith the KPIs. After that we will see the Optimisation
techniques by means of Drill down analysis and all the UMTS Tools used
for the optimisation for TNZ network.

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General Optimisation Process:
Pre-Optimization is an optional phase and might be required especially for new network
deployment or network extensions. This phase might incorporate tasks such as hardware
functionality checks (proper integration), coverage verification, adjustments for initial
antenna tilts, creation of initial neighbour lists, and RF parameter declaration. Other
optional tasks in this phase may include initial scanner drive test for coverage and
neighbour list verifications.
The objectives of the Service Measurement Based Optimization and the Drive Test Based
Optimization are to assess and improve network performance and quality. Both
optimization phases are independent of each other
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Primary RF Optimisation objectives:
Minimize Call Setup Failures
Minimize Drop Calls
Maximize Voice Quality
Maximize Data Throughput
Ensure defined system service coverage
Maximize reliability of IRAT handover

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Overview of RF Optimisation process:
Service Measurement based optimisation to be carried out based on report analysis.
Pre-optimisation is mainly covered during the planning phase of the network.
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Importance of Scanner Measurement in Drive Test:
Scanner Measurement Tools measure the UMTS physical layer. The system performs
absolute and relative channel power measurements of the Primary Synchronization
Channel (PSCH), Secondary Synchronization Channel (SSCH) and the Primary Common
Pilot Channel (P-CPICH). These three channel measurements can be performed
simultaneously for multiple scrambling codes. Scanners are able to perform power
measurements on the GSM DCS or PCS bands at the same time. The UMTS and/or GSM
channel power measurements are executed without using a UMTS/GSM test terminal.
Required key measurement capabilities are:
Scrambling Code Power Ec and Ec/Io (CPICH)
Scrambling Code Group and Scrambling Code Number
RSSI (Io)
Power measurements on GSM, DCS or PCS channels

Scanner measurement tools are used for pilot coverage surveys to analyze pilot
coverage, best server and pilot pollution, and to identify missing neighbors and non-
UMTS interference.
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Service Measurement Based Optimization:
Service measurement tools must be utilized during the Service Measurement Based
Optimization. These tools are used primarily after network launch when live traffic
exists. Network performance data are collected at the OMC level.
Specific quality and performance criteria, within a UMTS network, are assessed by
certain measures and events. These specific measures and events are performance
metrics that are composed of a series of quality indicators. Since there is a large
amount of quality indicators used for functional and performance tests, a subset of Key
Performance Indicators (KPIs) is chosen that best represent the quality and
performance of a UMTS network.
The network performance is in general verified by the following factors:
Call Availability (i.e. successful Set-up of the Call or Accessibility)
Call Reliability (i.e. Successful Maintenance of the Call as opposed to Dropped Call)
Call Quality
Call Mobility
A Call refers to both Circuit Switched Call and Packet Switched Call (Session).


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Each of the classes listed above can be measured by specific KPIs as following:
Call Availability: Successful Radio Resource Control (RRC) Connections Establishment
Rate, Dropped RRC Connections Rate and Total Radio Access Bearer (RAB)
Establishment Success Rate.
Call Reliability: Total RAB Dropping Rate.
Call Quality: Uplink and Downlink Block Error Rate (BLER).
Call Mobility: Intra and Inter RNC Soft Handover Success Rate, Relocation Preparation
(for UMTS to GSM HO) and UMTS to GSM Handover Success Rate, Location Area (LA)
Update Success Rate, and Routing Area (RA) Update Success Rate.
Now we will see the basic RF UMTS optimisation/problem aspects, WCDMA call flow to
understand the performance counters in more detail.


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RF Optimisation Aspects:
The most common challenges of RF Optimization are Coverage, Pilot
Pollution/Interference, Around-the-Corner-Problem and Missing Neighbours. Additional
aspects such as Cell Breathing, Inter/Intra System Handover, Near Far Problem and
HSxPA should also be checked for overall improvement.
1) Radio Coverage: Radio coverage is defined as an area where the Link Budget
condition, in particular the limited traffic channel path loss (UL or DL) for a service
type is met.
Poor RF coverage is typically characterized as:
Coverage Hole or Outer Coverage Area Area with insufficient pilot RSCP signal
strength
No Dominant Pilot Area Area with sufficient pilot RSCP signal strength but no
dominant Ec/Io pilot. Usually the case when many equal strength pilots are measured
that lower the overall signal-to-interference.

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2) Pilot Pollution: Multiple pilot receptions in the same area increase the overall level
of interference. Pilots not used by the terminals cause interference to the ongoing
communication, which in the worst case may cause a call failure. Typically the term
pilot pollution describes the existence of too many pilots in an area, which arent
required to sustain the call. Pilot pollution occurs when the following conditions take
place:
Number of present pilots are larger than the Active Set Size
Present pilots have similar signal strengths
Present pilots have poor Ec/Io ratios
Polluted area shows usually good RSSI values

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3) Near-Far problem: The Near-Far problem occurs when an UE transmits on high power
near the cell site, thus creating excessive interference for another UE located far away
from the cell site. The goal of the cell site is to receive all UEs at equal signal
strengths. Therefore fast closed loop power control is needed to direct mobiles to
power up/down very quickly.




The optimization goal is to ensure that all power control algorithms are working
properly. Power control parameters are tuned only when there are obvious power
control failures.

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4) Cell Breathing: A spread spectrum system like UMTS has the characteristic of cell
breathing, which is dependent on the network loading. An increase of the network load
is associated with an increase of the network interference, which means more power is
transmitted by the network cells and users. High interference lowers the quality of
service at the initial cell coverage border and thus shrinks the effective coverage area.
Inversely, low load leads to low network interference, which increases the effective
cell coverage

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5) Missing Neighbors: Missing Neighbours are pilots that are not defined in the
neighbour list. These pilots are measured with an adequate receive level but cause
interference because they cannot be added to the active set.
It is important that all received UMTS sectors are either eliminated if not required to
sustain the communication or declared in the neighbour list. An un-optimized
neighbour list has a big impact to the quality and performance of connection. The
practise shows that mostly missing neighbour relations are encountered around RNC
borders.
Neighbour list are pre-optimized during the radio network design stage. Scanner data
can be used to automatically compute a neighbour list for an initial network rollout.
Furthermore, root cause analysis of drive test failures will also provide information on
missing neighbour relations. In all cases extensive drive test are required. Another
possibility to optimise neighbour lists is to use the performance management counters
(handover matrix) once commercial traffic is present.


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6) Intra System Handover: Unnecessary delays in intra system handovers (soft/softer
handovers) may cause uplink/downlink interference. Quick intra system handovers are
required for rapid changes in path loss between the UE and the sector due to fading.
Also, unnecessary handovers due to non-contiguous UMTS coverage or pilot pollution
require additional signalling resources, and increase downlink interference.


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7) Inter RAT Handover: The Inter Radio Access Technologies handover (Inter RAT or
IRAT) covers the transfer of a connection from a UTRAN system to another system
technology. The transition from UMTS to another technology should usually occur at
the UMTS coverage border. The optimization tasks cover:
Definition of sharp transition borders to avoid unnecessary handovers
Underlying system should provide continuous stable coverage
Idle mode parameters should also be considered and harmonized to avoid ping-pong
effects
The optimization of the IRAT handover may require the modification of the UMTS
coverage to achieve sharp boarder and reliable radio conditions. This can be realized
through antenna configuration changes (tilt, azimuth) and/or parameter settings. The
performance of the IRAT handover depends mainly on the design of the IRAT
neighbours. The practice shows that reliable IRAT handover is achieved through the
RSCP threshold criteria for border cells, while core sites may find Ec/Io criteria in
better defining the handover regions.
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8) HSDPA: High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a major feature of the 3GPP
Release 5 providing enhancements to the downlink transmission capacity (higher end-
user data throughput). New physical channels such as HS-PDSCH (downlink), HS-SCCH
(downlink), and HS-DPCCH (uplink) are required to be traced and analyzed.
The End-to-End optimization strategy for HSDPA applies following considerations:
Plan drive/indoor/walk-testing activities to cover HSDPA cells and collect HSDPA
relevant data.
Define all Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) according to a precise methodology, which
makes KPIs comparable throughout the measurement campaigns.
Definition of a methodology to correlate test results with relevant network
performance counters.
Monitoring capabilities on the interfaces to collect the relevant traces on UTRAN and
Core Network.


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The HSDPA performance depends, in general, on radio channel coverage condition,
traffic type (VoIP, Streaming, HTTP), user classes (different subscription levels), and
available downlink resources. HSDPA related metrics are round trip time (RTT),
throughput per user, HS-DSCH cell change success rate, and HS-DSCH data interruption
time during cell change.
The cell change procedure does not support soft/softer handover for the downlink HS-
DSCH.
The hard handover constrains on the HS-DSCH require the following radio
optimization aspects to be considered to maximize HSDPA performances (throughput)
and avoid degradation, including eventual drops:
Optimize soft/softer handover boundaries to avoid excessive sector coverage overlap
Create clear dominant pilot coverage through antenna configuration tuning (tilt,
azimuth) to avoid unnecessary handovers
Remove existing over shooters which create interference and possible instable radio
conditions
Minimize pilot pollution areas


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Cell change should be performed not too late, when the UE has already moved into the
area of the new best cell to avoid radio link quality as well as throughput degradation.
On the other hand cell change should not be performed too early to avoid ping-pong
effects by switching back to the previous best cell if the radio conditions vary.
Local optimization is initially done through the tuning of the parameters hysteresis and
time-to-trigger (e.g. in dense urban environment).

9) HSUPA: High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is aimed to improve throughput,
reduce delay and enhance the capacity of a release 6 compliant 3GPP UTRAN. Unlike
HSDPA, mobility is supported through soft handovers.

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Call Flow WCDMA

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Metrics
1. Accessibility Voice =

2. Accessibility HSPA =


3. Retainability Voice =

4. Retainability HSPA = 1-((AbnormalReleaseRequest_HSDPA) /
(IuAbnormalReleaseRequest_HSDPA + RadioBearerReleaseSuccess HSDPA +
HSDPAToDCHTransitionSuccess+ IF((AODownsizingStep1Success_AO012_C_HSDPA -
AOUpsizingSuccess_AO014_C_HSDPA > 0),
AODownsizingStep1Success_AO012_C_HSDPA - AOUpsizingSuccess_AO014_C_HSDPA,
0.0))
_HSPA RABAttTrch
rch_HSPA RABSucEstT
*
_HSPA FRRCConreq
st_HSPA RRCSucConE
ce RABAtt_Voi
Voice RABSucEst_
_Voice FRRCConReq
st_Voice RRCSucConE

ice_Cell RelComp_Vo
oice_Cell AbRelReq_V
1
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Performance Analysis - Approach
Adopt Top down analysis approach
Filter out HW alarms before in depth analysis
Monitor one/two week of busy hour data (busy hr defined on traffic).
Identify sub metrics for drill down.
Identify the counters impacting the performance metric.
If parameter changes required implement in cluster, monitor the
performance & backup with drive data, for any degradations before
implementing global change.
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Performance analysis - Monitoring Methodology
All Metrics Taken in Busy hour
Average at busy hour over two weeks is compared with 1, ie the blocking exists if there is on average one blocking event per day
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Performance analysis - Call flow - RB allocation Counters
8 -> VS.RadioBearerSetupSuccess -
#1650
VS.RadioBearerSetupUnsuccess -
#602
Sub-Counter #0: timeout
Sub-Counter #1:
RADIO_BEARER_SETUP_FAILUR
E
Sub-Counter #2: Any other failure
causing a RB setup procedure to be
unsuccessful. See
details under 'Triggering Event'.
RAB.FailEstab.CS - #2629 2631 PS
RAB.FailEstab.CS.ULLoad
RAB.FailEstab.CS.DLPwr
RAB.FailEstab.CS.CodeStarv
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RLFailOther
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RLFailNodeBErr
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RLFailNodeBRes
ource
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RLReconfigExp
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RBSetupFail
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RBSetupExp
1 -> VS.RadioBearerSetupRequest - #1652
2/3 -> VS.RadioBearerEstablishmentUnsuccess - #1629
4 -> VS.RadioLinkReconfPrepReq - #56
5 -> VS.RadioLinkReconfigurationPrepareSuccess - #50
VS.RadioLinkReconfigurationPrepareUnsuccess - #40
Sub-Counter #0:
RADIO_LINK_RECONFIGURATION_FAILURE
Sub-Counter #1: Timeout nbap
Sub-Counter #2: Rrm refusal
Sub-Counter #3: Iub Layer Congestion
Sub-Counter #4: NodeB (CEM) lack of L1 resources
Sub-Counter #5: Lack of Transport Identifier (CID or
UDP Port) on the Iub
Sub-Counter #6: Lack of bandwidth on the Iub
Sub-Counter #7: INode refusal
Sub-Counter #8: NodeB out of order (No answer)
6 ->
VS.RadioBearerSetu
pRequest - #1652
7 -> VS.RadioLinkReconfigurationCommit - #51
VS.RadioLinkReconfigurationCancel - #26
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Performance analysis Blocking phases, Bottlenecks
Blocking phases
Call admission
Call reconfiguration
Mobility
Bottlenecks:
Air interface power, codes, load
Node B resources CEM, CCM, Licensing
Backhaul Iub BW
RNC CPU

Blocking Cause:
VS.RadioBearerEstablishmentUnsuccess - #1629
Sub-Counter #0: invalid RAB parameters value
Sub-Counter #1: unavailable dl code resources
Sub-Counter #2: unavailable dl power resources
Sub-Counter #3: Unspecified
Sub-Counter #4: RL failure or RLC error
Sub-Counter #6: CAC RNC Processing resources
Sub-Counter #7: NodeB (CEM) lack of L1 resources
Sub-Counter #8: Lack of transport identifier on the Iu
Sub-Counter #9: Lack of bandwidth on the Iu
Sub-Counter #10: Lack of transport identifier on the Iur
Sub-Counter #11: Lack of bandwidth on the Iur
Sub-Counter #12: Lack of transport identifier on the Iub
Sub-Counter #13: Lack of bandwidth on the Iub
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Performance analysis - RB allocation bottle neck Counters
1 -> VS.RadioBearerSetupRequest - #1652
2/3 -> VS.RadioBearerEstablishmentUnsuccess - #1629
4 -> VS.RadioLinkReconfPrepReq - #56
5 -> VS.RadioLinkReconfigurationPrepareSuccess - #50
VS.RadioLinkReconfigurationPrepareUnsuccess - #40
Sub-Counter #0: RADIO_LINK_RECONFIGURATION_FAILURE
Sub-Counter #1: Timeout nbap
Sub-Counter #2: Rrm refusal
Sub-Counter #3: Iub Layer Congestion
Sub-Counter #4: NodeB (CEM) lack of L1 resources
Sub-Counter #5: Lack of Transport Identifier (CID or UDP Port) on the Iub
Sub-Counter #6: Lack of bandwidth on the Iub
Sub-Counter #7: INode refusal
Sub-Counter #8: NodeB out of order (No answer)
6 -> VS.RadioBearerSetupRequest - #1652
7 -> VS.RadioLinkReconfigurationCommit - #51
VS.RadioLinkReconfigurationCancel - #26
8 -> VS.RadioBearerSetupSuccess - #1650
VS.RadioBearerSetupUnsuccess - #602
Sub-Counter #0: timeout
Sub-Counter #1: RADIO_BEARER_SETUP_FAILURE
Sub-Counter #2: Any other failure causing a RB setup procedure to be unsuccessful. See
details under 'Triggering Event'.
RAB.FailEstab.CS - #2629 2631 PS
RAB.FailEstab.CS.ULLoad
RAB.FailEstab.CS.DLPwr
RAB.FailEstab.CS.CodeStarv
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RLFailOther
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RLFailNodeBErr
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RLFailNodeBResource
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RLReconfigExp
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RBSetupFail
RAB.FailEstab.CS.RBSetupExp

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Metric Classification
1. Performance metrics
Accessibility / Retainability

2. Mobility Metrics
Avg no of RL per user / Soft handoff success rate / Inter freq / Inter RNC

3. Traffic metrics
Erlangs / Traffic in Mbytes

4. Quality metrics
Throughput per sub / BLER



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Drill down Analysis - Accessibility
Accessibility
< target
Identify Top N
cells
Identify Worst
period
RF
Conditions
RRC
Congestion
Alarm
Correlation
High nb
unspecified
Ctg
Qual-Air-Uplink RSSI (dBm)
Qual-Air-Ec/No Distribution
Qual-Air-RSCP distribution
Cap-RRC-Congestion-DlCode rate
Cap-RRC-Cogestion-DlPower rate
Cap-RRC-Congestion-RSSI rate
Cap-RRC-Congestion-Quality rate
Cap-RRC-Congestion-Overload rate
Cap-RRC-Congestion-Timeout
Cap-RRC-Congestion-ALCAPfail
Cap-RRC-Congestion-ManOvld
Cap-RRC-Congestion-NodeBPrb
Cap-RRC-Congestion DCH
Cap-RRC-Congestion CRNTI
Cap-RL-SF128 Code Channel Usage
RRC RAB SCCP
Perf-CN-Iu SCCP Connection success rate CN
SCCP RNC
analysis
Perf-RAB-RAB establishment success rate
Per-fRRC-RRC establishment success rate (UE
perspective)
RNC-Alarms
Node B alarms
CN Alarms
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Drill down Analysis - Retainability
Retainability
< target
Identify Top N
cells
Identify Worst
period
RF
Conditions
Alarm
Correlation
Mobility
Qual-Air-Uplink RSSI (dBm)
Qual-Air-Ec/No Distribution
Qual-Air-RSCP distribution
Qual-Air-BLER-AMR
Qual-RL-SIR
Qual-Nb-Thermal noise
RL Analysis OAM
OAM
Reasons
RNC-Alarms
Node B alarms
CN Alarms
UE Prob
Qua-lRL-call drop RL
Mobility Success
rates
RFO Traces
CORE
CORE
Network
issues
Outages
Overload
Forced releases
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Drill down Analysis - Traffic
Traffic
Metrics
Identify Top N
cells
Identify Worst
period
RF
Conditions
Alarm
Correlation
RL Analysis HW
OAM
Reasons
RNC-Alarms
Node B alarms
CN Alarms
CORE
CORE
Network
issues
Outages
Overload
Forced releases
Throughput
Total Calls
Idle activity
Call holding times
Call duration
RNC
RNC/RAB
resources
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Drill down Analysis - Quality
Quality
Metrics
Identify Top N
cells
Identify Worst
period
RF
Conditions
Alarm
Correlation
RL Analysis HW
OAM
Reasons
RNC-Alarms
Node B alarms
CN Alarms
UE Prob
RFO Traces
CORE
CORE
Network
issues
Outages
Overload
Forced releases
Uplink
Downlink
BLER
Noise rise
Power used
EcNo distribution
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UMTS RF Parameters:
RF Optimization may require the adjustment of various RF parameters. Some of those
have complex interactions with one another affecting the system in terms of coverage,
capacity and call quality. Therefore, it is important to prioritize the parameters
depending on their ability to improve performance with minimal complexity and trade-
offs.
Regarding their tuning occurrence the RF parameters can be classified into three
classes: Primary, Secondary and Fixed parameters.
Primary Parameters
These parameters may require frequent adjustments, often from one cell site to
another. These include:
Neighbour Lists
Antenna Parameter (antenna tilt, azimuth, height and type)
Pilot Channel Power

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Secondary Parameters
The secondary parameters can be used for further fine-tuning, especially in specific
problem areas and include:
Handover parameters (inter + intra RAT)
Access parameters
Cell Selection / Re-selection parameters
HSDPA parameters
HSUPA parameters


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Fixed Parameters
The fixed parameters are not typically adjusted during the RF Optimization. Changing
those parameters can create complex interactions in key system performance such as
coverage, capacity, voice quality, data throughput, etc. The impact is not easily
characterized or predictable, and can vary from network to network or within a
network. These parameters should be adjusted only after consulting the subject matter
experts, e.g. system engineering (SAE). These parameters include:
Power Control parameters
Load Control parameters
Common Channel powers (e.g. AICH, P+SSCH, BCH)
Access parameters which are not part of the secondary parameters
Handover parameters that are not part of the secondary parameters
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Tools used:
1) CPV (Cell Performance Viewer): This tool is used for basic KPI monitoring &
performance reporting tool. It has a client-server architecture:
CPV CLIENT: A user-friendly GUI to report on the RAN performance & capacity history
of the Telecom NZ CDMA network.
CPV SERVER: A SQL database containing configuration and performance data based on
regular Prospect CDMA reports
Sample reports available from CPV are as below:

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2) RFO (RF Optimizer) is used for Call trace analysis.






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3) NPO: NPO (9359) offers a full range of tools for multi-standard QoS Monitoring and
radio network optimization facilities for UMTS and GSM networks. NPO enables you to
optimize using:
QoS analysis
Configuration
Parameters tuning
Availability and alarming.

4) WiPS (Alcatel Lucent 9352 Wireless Provisioning System): This tool is for making audit
and changes in the network. This tool is similar to ALU PRC generator in GSM.


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5) SPAT3G (System Performance Analysis Tool):
SPAT3G is a performance analysis tool used to quickly troubleshoot and improve
wireless network performance. The tool supports 2G/3G1X CDMA, 1xEV-DO, and UMTS
technologies. SPAT3G enables effective and efficient performance analysis by providing
the user with intuitive analysis reports in the form of tables, trends, and geographical
maps. It is used to troubleshoot and analyze the performance of a live network using
data sources including Service Measurements, Per Call Measurement Data (PCMD), ROP,
Translations, Neighbour list data (Handoff Matrix, Undeclared Neighbour List).
6) Actix: This is the drive test Post-Processing Tool used here in TNZ.
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7) WQA (Wireless Quality Analyzer): This is a web based tool and is used for neighbour
analysis. WQA (Wireless Quality Analyser-an ex Nortel product) is part of the UTRAN
performance management portfolio(eg. NPO, RFO) for performance monitoring,
optimization and troubleshooting.









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Key modules of WQA
Neighbor Tuning Module (CTn)- Tune neighbor list based on 3G-2g handover,
softhandover, HSxPA, inter-frequency, ping-pong triggers, including handoff failure
analysis based on system wide call trace. Similar to UNL+Handoff Matrix in the SPO
space with the addition in HSxPA, ping pong and advanced interfrequency analysis
Call Failure Trace Module(CFT-based on Ctg) - call trace reporting based on call trace
snapshots. Filters, with the option of drilling down to per mobile(IMSI) analysis(daily
granularity). More than 100 causes in CFT vs. 20 at Counter level. Covers all types of
failures in LCAP, NBAP, RANAP, RNSAP, RRC, RNC Internal Causes,etc.
Call Trace Analysis Module(CTx=Ctb/Ctg) - This feature allows customers to optimize
UTRAN sub system, mainly the radio aspects, without requirement of drive tests.
RSCP,Ec/No behaviour(radio coverage analysis). Distance based analysis.







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8) A9155: (also known as 9155) It is Alcatel-Lucents re-branded version of ATOLL. The
9155 working environment provides a comprehensive and integrated set of tools and
features that allow you to create and define your radio-planning project in a single
application.

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Thank You