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STRUCTURE OF ATOM

CHAPTER 5
Introduction
Substance are made of molecules or atoms
Atom is smallest, indivisible particle having
independent existence
John Dalton gave this concept.
What we will see this chapter?
How concept of atom changed over time?
How the different components of atom were
found?
Various experiments that evolved Atomic
theory
Isotopes
Radioactivity

Chronology
Cathode Rays & Discovery of Electrons
X-Rays (1896)
Alpha, Beta, Gamma Rays
Idea of Proton
Thomsons Atomic Model
Rutherfords Atomic Model
Bohr model electron arrangement
Neutron discovered Chadwick (1932)
DISCOVERY OF ELECTRONS
Discharge tube experiment &
Discovery of Electrons
The line diagram of electric discharge tube is
given
Vacuum is created in this tube
Two metal plates in tube are Cathode (-ve)
and Anode (+ve) terminals
On joining with battery, Cathode rays are
produced from cathode
They have negative charge
They move towards the Anode
These are actually the flow of Electrons
J J Thomson and Crookes proved that Cathode
rays were in fact flow of Electrons
Electron discovery in Cathode ray tube
X RAY AND RADIOACTIVITY
Hi, Im Rontgen
I discovered X Rays in
1896
They are also
called Rontgen
rays after me
In cathode ray tube, cathode rays were
travelling in straight line
They were made to strike the walls of tube
New type of rays formed
They travelled in straight line and were not
deviated in strong Electromagnetic field
Could pass through opaque substances like
black paper
They affected photographic plates
He named them X -rays
Cathode rays is beam of electrons
X rays are electromagnetic waves having
very short wavelength

If electrons having very high velocity are
stopped by putting some type of resistance
(anti- cathode) the X rays are produced
X ray machine
Uses of X- rays
In medical science
To detect fracture in bones
To observe lung defect
To diagnose cancer of oesophagus
To diagnose physical disabilities
ALPHA, BETA & GAMMA RAYS
In 1889, Ernst Rutherford found Alpha and
Beta rays from radioactive atom like Uranium
Later, Willard discovered Gamma rays.
Alpha rays Positive electric charge
Beta rays Negative electric charge
Gamma rays do not possess electric charge

Gamma rays electromagnetic rays , have
highest penetration power
Conclusions of Rutherford
Atoms must have at least two types of
particles
Some should have +ve charge, some ve
Number of particles having +ve charge should
be equal to number of particles of ve charge
Atom is electrically neutral
+ve charge ---- protons
-ve charge ---- electrons
Neutrons
still not
discovered
Ernst Rutherford
Rutherfords model of atom showing Proton in
centre (nucleus) and electrons around it
So how does the atom look???
This question was attempted by three people
1) J. Thomson
2) Rutherford
3) Neil Bohr
THOMSONS ATOMIC MODEL

Atom is like a spherical ball
Positive electric charge is uniformly spread on
its total volume
Protons possessing +ve electric charge and
Electrons possessing ve electric charge are
arranged at definite places
Limitations of Thomsons Model
The positive and negative particles being
together would attract each other and
become chargeless
It could not explain the chemical properties of
different elements
RUTHERFORDS GOLD FOIL
EXPERIMENT
The proton is 1836 times heavier than
electron
How are they arranged?
This is what Rutherford tried to answer.

He made Alpha rays obtained from radioactive
Polonium (Po) fall on one side of a very thin
(0.004mm thick) gold foil
If the atom is like a sphere (Thomson model)
then all Alpha rays should return back after
striking foil.
But,
Rutherford observed that most rays passed
straight through and only very few got
deviated or got thrown back
Proportion of Alpha rays returning and those
passing through was 1 : 1200

Mr. Thomson you are wrong!!!
Rutherfords conclusions
Centre of atom must be very small, heavy and
positively charged
He named it Nucleus
Around nucleus, electrons with negligible
weight and possessing negative charge must
be arranged
The atom must be very hollow
Atomic nucleus was 10
5
times smaller than
total area of atom
If atom size is this stadium then,
Nucleus is size of a Peanut
put at centre
To summarize..
Atom is hollow
Centre heavy, very small, positively charged
nucleus
Electrons negligible mass, negatively
charged are arranged around nucleus
How are electrons arranged, Mr.
Bohr???
ATOMIC MODEL OF BOHR
Proposed model in 1912
Electrons moving around nucleus in atomic
levels at fixed distance from nucleus
This level is called Energy level or Orbit
Electrons continuously move in these orbits
They do not lose energy, so orbits are
stationary orbits
Energy of orbit nearest nucleus is least
As u go away from nucleus, energy of orbit
increases
Arrangement of electrons around
nucleus
i) 1
st
orbit (K orbit) 2 electrons
ii) 2
nd
orbit (L orbit) 8 electrons
iii) 3
rd
orbit (M orbit) 18 electrons
iv) 4
th
orbit (N orbit) 32 electrons

2
nd,
3
rd
and 4
th
orbit have sub-orbits called
Orbitals
First electrons fill 1
st
orbit then go stepwise to 2
nd
,
3
rd
and 4
th
orbits
Bohrs model of atom
Atomic Number
Number of protons or electrons in the
neutral atom of an element
Symbol : Z
VALENCE ELECTRONS & VALENCY
Electrons arranged in different orbits having
increasing energy around the nucleus
Electrons in outermost orbit are responsible
for emission spectra and chemical properties
They are called Valence electrons

Valency = number of electrons in valence orbit
DISCOVERY OF NEUTRONS
Rutherford had suggested in 1920 that the
element Helium (He) after Hydrogen (H) has 2
protons, so its mass should be double than
Hydrogen
But it was later found that He mass was 4
times mass of Hydrogen
Why was this so?
There must be something else in the atom (i.e.
in nucleus) apart from proton and electron
These particles would have mass almost equal
to that of protons (electrons have negligible
mass)
These particles also would have no electric
charge
They were named Neutrons (n)

In 1932, Chadwick discovered Neutrons
Properties of neutrons
Do not possess any electric charge
It is neutral
Mass almost equal to mass of proton
1838 times more mass than electron
Chadwicks model of atom
Atomic mass
Total mass of atom = mass of proton +
neutron + electron
But electron have negligible mass compared
to proton and neutron
So mass of atom = mass of proton + mass of
neutron
A = p + n
ISOTOPES & RADIOACTIVITY
Some elements have more than one mass
They are called Isotopes
Now, A = p + n
If the number of protons remain same (atomic
number) but number of neutrons vary than
the element will have different masses
Atomic masses different but chemical
properties similar (same element)
Iso same
Topes place
Thus the atoms of elements whose position in
the periodic table is same are called Isotopes
O
16
, O
17
, O
18

Isotopes of Uranium
U
235
92
U
232
92
U
238
92
Radioactivity
The isotopes of elements having high atomic
masses possess the property of radioactivity
Not all high mass elements are radioactive
Eg. Lead is not radioactive
As atomic number increases, number of
protons also increase
If no. of neutrons also increase the atom
becomes unstable
This unstable atom will emit alpha, beta and
gamma rays
It is radioactive
Normally,
If the ratio of neutrons to protons exceeds 1.6,
the property of radioactivity is acquired
Radioactivity Symbol
Use of radioactive isotopes
Determining age of old trees
Age of fossils
Radiometric dating
Medical treatments
Industries
Treatment of diseases like cancer, etc.