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ANATOMY &

PHYSIOLOGY of the EYE

马 静
郑州大学第一附属医院眼科教研室
The First Affiliated Hospital
of Zhengzhou University
Contents

 The Eye Ball


 The Orbit
 The Ocular Adnexa
 The Visual Pathway
 Blood and Nerve Supply
一、 the Eye Ball
 The Wall :
Outer Layer —— cornea & sclera

Middle Layer ——Iris 、 Ciliary body 、 Choroid

Inner Layer —— Retina

 The Contents :
Aqueous, Lens, Vitreous body
The Outer Layer of the Eye
Ball
Function : protecting
maintain the shape of the
eyeball
 cornea:
anterior 1/6
transparent
 sclera:
posterior 5/6
white , opaque
 limbus
Cornea
 Insert into the sclera at limbus
 Average 0.52mm thick in the
center, 0.65mm at the periphery
 anterior 1/6
 transparent
Five distinct layers :
Epithelium
Bowman’s layer
Stroma
Descemet’s membrane
endothelium
 Tear membrane
Cornea
 Physilogical function :
Refracting media: +43D
Transparent:
Avascularity
Tear membrane: lubrication, keeping wet, protecting,
nutrition
The epithelium: regeneration
The endothelium: maintaining the essential deturgescence
of the stroma, susceptible to injury, undergoing loss of cells
with age, its repair is limited to enlargement and sliding of the
existing cells
Bowman’s layer: could not regenerate, haze
Sclera
 The fibrous outer layer,
consisting almost entirely of
collagen,
 Dense and white,
 Continuous with the cornea and
the dural sheath of the optic
nerve
 Inserted or penetrated by
rectus mucles, posterior ciliary
arteries and nerves, vortex
veins, anterior ciliary arteries
and veins
 Lamina cribrosa: the
posterior scleral foramen were
acrossed by bands of collagen
and elastic tissue, between
Sclera
 Three layers :
episclera: contains blood vessels
Stroma:parallel and interlacing collagen
bundles
lamina fusca: brown pigment layer on the
inner face
 Physiologic Function
protection
maintaince
nuitrition
limbus
The place that cornea insert into
sclera
Anterior
chamber
angle
 Schwalbe’s

line
 Schlemm’s

cannal
 Trabecular

meshwork
 Scleral spur

 Collect

channels and
aqueous veins
C I A
Middle layer
一、 iris
 Anterior extension of
the ciliary body
 A flat surface with a
centrally situated
round aperture---the
pupil
 Lies in contiguity with
the anterior surface
of the lens
 sphincter and dilator
muscles in the stroma
 Two havily pigmented
layers on the
posterior
surface:represent
anterior extensions of
Iris frontal view

Iris
 Function:
Controls the amount of light
entering the eye
Pupillary size is principally
determined by a balance between
constriction due to parasympathetic
activity transmitted via the third
cranial nerve and diation due to
sympathetic activity
Middle layer
二、 Ciliary body
 Roughly triangular in
crosssection
 Extends forward from
the anterior end of
the choriod to the
root of the iris
 a corrugated anterior
zone: pars
plicata(2mm)
 A flattened posterior
zone: pars
plana(4mm)
 Two layers of
epithelium:
internal
nonpigmented layer
Ciliary body function
 The ciliary processes and their covering
epithelium are responsible for the formation of
aqueous
 The ciliary musles: composed of a combination
of the longitudinal, circular and radial fibers; to
contract and relax the zonular fibers, this alters
the tension on the capsule of the lens, --- focus
adjustment
 The longitudinal fibers insert into the trabecular
meshwork to influente its pore size --- adjusting
the IOP
 nutrition
Middle layer
三、 choroid

 The posterior segment


of the uveal tract,
between the retina
and the sclera
 Composed three
layers of choroidal
blood vessels,
suprachoroidal space,
Bruch’s membrane
 Function:
make the “dark room”
nourish the retina
adjust the temperature
Inner layer——Retina

Ten layers : ILM


neuroretina
GC
RPE NF
GCL Müller
Special structure : IPL Amacrine
Bipolar
macula INL horizont
optic disc OPL rod
Function : ONL cone
receiving light stimuli
OLM
forming visual
impulse
R&C
RPE RPE
Choroid
Optic disc &
Macula
黄斑的分区和组织学
黄斑的分区和组织学
Intraocular Space and
Contents

Intraocular space :
Anterior chamber
Posterior chamber
Vitreous cavity

Contents :
Aqueous
Lens
Vitreous body
Aqueous

Formation : ciliary processes and their covering


epithelium
Function :
1 maintain the IOP 2 metobolism 3
refraction
Aqueous drainage circle : ciliary body→posterior
chamber→pupil→anterior chamber→trabecular meshwork
→Schlemm’canal →collector channels→aqueous
veins→episcleral venous system → blood circle
Lens

 Biconvex, avascular
colorless and almost
completely transparent
 4mm thick and 9mm in
diameter
 Suspended behind the iris
by zonule, which connects
it with the ciliary body
 Aneterior: posterior:
lens
Subcapsular
epithelium
Lens capsule, cortex,
nucleus,
The lens gradually
becomes larger and
less elastic
throughout life
Long concentric
lamellae form suture
lines by end-to-end
joining their fibers:Y-
shaped
Vitreous body
 A clear, avascular,
gelationous body
 Comprises two-thirds of the
volume and weight of the eye
 Bounded by the lens, retina,
and optic disk
 Hyaloid membrane
 The base of the vitreous
 99% of water, gel-likeform
The Anatomy Outside the
Eyeball
 Orbit
 Extraocular Musles
 Visual Pathway
 Conjunctiva
 Eyelids
 Lacrimal Aparatus
 Blood and Nerve Supply
Orbit
 A pyramid shape of four walls
 The optic nerve located at the top point
 The medial walls of the two side are
parallel and are separated by the nose
 The lateral and the medial walls forma
an angle of 45 degrees
 A right angle between the two lateral
walls
 The eyeball occupies 1/5 of the orbit
volume, the other space is tamponed
by fat and musles
Orbit
 7 bones : frontal,
sphenoid, zygomatic,
maxilla, palatine, ethimoid,
lacrimal
 4 walls : Roof, Lateral,
Floor, Medial
 Neighbours:
frontal lobe of brain
frontal, maxillary, ethmoid
and sphenoid sinus
 Fossa of lacrimal sac
 Lacrimal fossa
 Trochlear fovea
Orbital Apex: The entry portal for all
nerves and vessels, and the site of origin of all
extraocular muscles
Optic foramen & Optic
cannal: optic nerve, oph. artery,
sympathic
Superior orbital
fissure:Between the body and
the greater and lesser wings of
the sphenoid bone. Superior
oph.vein, lacrimal,frontal and
trochlear nerves; superior and
inferior divisions of the
oculomotor nerve, abducens,
nasociliary nerve,
inferior orbital
fissure:between the lateral and
floor of the orbit. Maxilla nerve,
inferior orbital vessels, etc.
annulus of Zinn: ring tondon,
Extraocular
musles

 4 rectus:
superior(7.5mm),
lateral(7mm),
inferior(6.75mm),
medial(5.5mm)
 2 oblique: superior,
inferior
 Functions:
Eye movement: adduct,
abduct, depress,
elevate, torsional
synergic and
antagonistic
movement
Stereoscopic vision

Visual Pathway
Optic nerve:
Consists of about 1X106 axons that arise from the
GCs of the retina. About 40mm long.
Including 4 courses: intraocular(1mm), orbital (25-
30mm), intracanalicular (4-9mm) and intracranial
(10mm) segment.
The sheaths of the ON emerges from the posterior
surface of the globe, and ends at the intracranial
segment after a short distance within the cranium. It
divides the ON fibers into bundles. Fulfilling the
Visual Pathway

After the photoreceptors (rods and cones)


receive the light stimulation , they change the light
power into the membrane electric potential and
form the visual impulses. Then the neural impulses
are transferred to the bipolar cells, then ganglion
cells. The impulses were send to the lateral
geniculate body along the axons of the ganglion
cells which travels by the optic chiasm and the
optic tract. At the lateral geniculate body, a
changing of neuron would be done. Then the new
axons reaches the visual center at the occipital
lobe via optic radiation.
Visual pathway &
Light reflection
The Pupil Reflex Pathway

 light reflex
one side photoreceptors---visual pathway---lateral
geniculate body---arm of superior colliculus---pretectal
nuclei(change neurons)---both sides E-W nuclei---
oculomotor nerve---ciliary ganglion(change neurons)---
short ciliary nerve---sphincter
 Near Reflex
one side photoreceptors---visual pathway---visual
center--- both sides E-W nuclei and medial rectus
muscle nuclei---oculomotor nerve---sphincter, ciliary
muscle and medial rectus muscle
Eyelid (Palpebrae)
 The palpebrae are
modified folds of
skin that can close
to protect the
anterior eyeball
 Blinking helps
spread the tear
film, protect the
cornea and
conjunctiva from
dehydration
 The posterior lid
margin is in close
contact with the
globe, with small
orifices of
meibomian glands
supplying lid for
the tear
membrane :
Eyelid

 Structures of eyelids
Skin layer: thin, loose,
ealstic
Orbicularis Oculi Muscle:
For the close of lids, supplied
by facial nerve
Areolar Tissue:
Tarsal Plates:main
supporting structure, dense
fibrous tissue, attached to
orbital margin by palpebral
ligaments, contains
meibomian gland
Palpebral Conjunctiva:
mucous membrane, adheres
Movement of the Eyelid

 Opened by Lid Retractors:


Formed by a musculofascial complex, with both striated and
smooth muscle components
Levator palpebrae superioris and Müller’s musle in upper lid
Inferior rectus muscle in lower lid
 Closed by Orbicularis Oculi Muscle:
the portion over the orbital septum id eht preseptal portion, the
segment outside the lid is called the orbital portion
Eyelid

眼轮匝肌正面观
Conjunctiva
 Thin transparent mucous membrane that covers the postrior surface of
the lids (the palpebral conjunctiva)and the anterior surface of the
sclera(the bulbar conjunctiva)
 Palpebral conjunctiva:firmly adherent to the tarsus
 Bulbar conjunctiva: loosely attached to the orbital septum in the
fornices and is folded many times, this allow the eye to move.
 Superior and inferior fornics:
 Semilunar Fold(located at the inner canthus) and caruncle:
 Accessory lacrimal glands(Krause, Wolfring) resemble the lacrimal gland
in structure
 Goblet cells in the conjunctival epithelium secret mucus, which is
necessary for proper dispersion of the prexorneal tear film
Conjunctiva

 7 骨: 额、蝶、筛、腭、
泪、上颌、颧
 4 壁: 上、下、内、外
 主要结构:
视神经孔和视神经管
眶上裂
眶下裂
眶上切迹
泪腺窝
滑车窝
泪囊窝
Lacrimal Apparatus
 Lacrimal Gland :
Orbital portion: in the lacrimal
fossa in the anterior upper
temporal sgement of the orbit
Palpebral portion located above
the temporal segment fo the
superior conjnctival fornix
Lacrimal secretory ducts open to
the superior conjunctival fornix
 Accessory lacrimal glands
 Lacrimal Passage: upper and
lower puncta, canaliculi, lacrimal
sac, nasolacrimal duct
 Lacrimal punctum: at the medial
end of the posterior margin of the
lid, a small elevationwith a central
small opening , serve to carry the
tears down through the
cannaliculue to the lacrimal sac
Artery supply of the eye
Central Retinal A.
Lacrimal A.
Long posterior ciliary A.
Internal carotid A.---Ophthalmic A.--- Short posterior
ciliary A.
Muscle branchs
Supraorbital A.
Dorsal nasal A.
Angular A.
External carotid A. ---Facial A.--- Superficial temporal A.
Infraorbital A.




Nerve Supply of the Eye
 Motor N. : III 、 IV 、 VI 、 VII cranial nerve
(oculomotor, trochlear, abducent and facial
nerve)
 Sensory N.:
1. Optic N. Long C. N.
Nasociliary N. Long root of C.G.
C.G. Short C. N.
2. Ophthalmologic N. Lacrimal N.
Frontal N.
 Parasympathetic N.: E.W.nuclei oculomotor short root
of C.G. Sympathetic N.: Cervical sympathetic plexus
Thank you !