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Parameters for evaluation:

Total marks-20
Presentation each one has to present at least for a min,
application of the topic-3
The presentation has to be very attractive with video (not
more than 1 min duration) or relevant photographs, full
attendance-2 marks
How you handle the questions? 3 marks
Language, body language and humor 2 marks
Q and A -3-5 min
Lets discuss..
1. Which theory of leadership this case relates with and
Situational leadership- which behaviors should be
Charismatic leadership
Leader participation model- the way the leader makes the
decision is as important as what she or he does
Transformational leadership-they are able to increase
follower self-efficacy, giving the group a can do

Do you think leaders , which
ever field they belong to, exhibit
the same qualities?
Do you think leaders in other contexts (business, sports, religion) exhibit the same
qualities as great Indian prime ministers?
Answer: Yes, similar characteristics are important regardless of the leadership
How important do you think charisma is to a prime ministers greatness?
Answer: : Yes charisma is an extremely important characteristic for prime
Do you think being in the right place at the right time could influence prime
ministerial greatness?
Answer: Yes being in the right place at the right time is a key to many peoples
success in moving up in the hierarchy of socioeconomic status.
Trait theories
Compute your LPC score by totaling all the
numbers you circled. Enter that score below:
LPC = _____
This leads Fiedler to his contingency views, which
suggest that the key to leadership success is finding
(or creating) good matches between style and
situation. If your score is 64 or above, you are
considered a relationship-oriented leader. If your
score is 57 or below, you are considered a task-
oriented leader. If your score is 58to 63, you are a
mixture of both, and it is up to you to determine
which leadership style is most like yours.

Leadership and
Leadership is the ability to influence a group
toward the achievement of a vision or set
of goals.
Not all leaders are managers nor are all
managers leaders.
Nonsanctioned leadership -the ability to
influence that arises outside the formal
structure, is often as important or more
important than formal influence.

Define leadership and contrast
leadership and management
Strong leadership and strong management
are needed for optimal effectiveness.
Leaders are needed today to challenge the
status quo, create visions of the future,
and inspire organizational members to
want to achieve the visions.
Managers formulate detailed plans, create
efficient organizational structures, and
oversee day-to-day operations.

Various theories and related
1. Trait theories
2. Behavioral theories
3. Contingency leadership, path-goal, leader-
participation model
4. Leader member exchange theory
5. Charismatic leadership
6. Transformational leadership
7. Authentic leadership
8. Servant leadership
9. Mentoring

trait theories of leadership
Trait theories of leadership focus on
personal qualities and characteristics.
The search for personality, social, physical,
or intellectual attributes that differentiate
leaders from nonleaders goes back to the
earliest stages of leadership research.
Ex-Buddha,Napolean, Mao, Churchill,
Roosevelt, Reagan
trait theories of leadership
A breakthrough, of sorts, came when
researchers began organizing traits around
the Big Five personality framework (see
Chapter 5).
Most of the dozens of traits in various
leadership reviews fit under one of the Big
Five (ambition and energy are part of
extraversion, for instance), giving strong
support to traits as predictors of leadership.

The trait approach contd
The trait approach does have something to
Leaders who like being around people and are
able to assert themselves (extraverted), who
are disciplined and able to keep commitments
they make (conscientious), and who are
creative and flexible (open) do have an
apparent advantage when it comes to
leadership, suggesting good leaders do have
key traits in common.

Leadership and EI-trait which is indicative of
Another trait that may indicate effective
leadership is emotional intelligence (EI).
Advocates of EI argue that without it, a person
can have outstanding training, a highly
analytical mind, a compelling vision, and an
endless supply of terrific ideas but still not
make a great leader.
A core component of EI is empathy.

Conclusions based on the latest findings.

Contrary to what we believed 20 years ago and
thanks to the Big Five, we can say that traits can
predict leadership.
Traits do a better job predicting the emergence of
leaders and the appearance of leadership than
actually distinguishing between effective and
ineffective leaders.

Behavioral theories
Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate
leaders from nonleaders
Ohio State Studies found two behaviors that accounted
for leadership behavior
Initiating structure-the extent to which a leader is
likely to define and structure his or her role and those
of employees in the search for goal attainment.
Consideration is the extent to which a persons job
relationships are characterized by mutual trust,
respect for employees ideas, and regard for their
Behavioral theory In detail
Initiating ex-A leader high in initiating structure
is someone who assigns group members to
particular tasks, expects workers to maintain
definite standards of performance, and
emphasize the meeting of deadlines
Consideration-such a leader helps employees
with personal problems, is friendly and
approachable, treats all employees as equals,
and expresses appreciation and support.
Michigans Survey Research
centers studies
University of Michigans objectives also came
up with two behavioral dimension
The employee-oriented leader emphasized
interpersonal relationships by taking a personal
interest in the needs of employees and accepting
individual differences among them.
The production oriented leader emphasized the
technical or task aspects of the job, focusing on
accomplishing the groups tasks.

As imp as traits and behaviors are in identifying
effective or ineffective leaders, they do not
guarantee success. The context matters too.
Global leadership and organizational
behavior effectiveness-GLOBE
The GLOBE study suggests there are
international differences in preference for
initiating structure and consideration.
Based on the values of Brazilian employees, a U.S.
manager leading a team in Brazil would need to be
team oriented, participative, and humane.
Leaders high in consideration would succeed best in
this culture.

The Fiedler
Contingency Model
of leadership
Contingency Theory-Fiedler Model-leadership style is
fixed.Key factor is individuals leadership style(task or
relationship oriented) and the favorableness of the
Situational favorableness was described by Fiedler in
terms of three empirically derived dimensions:
1. The leader-member relationship, which is the
most critical variable in determining the
situations favorableness.
2. The degree of task structure, which is the
second most important input into the
favorableness of the situation

Fiedlersmodel contd..
Evaluate the situation
Leader-member relations-good or bad
Task structure- high or low
Position power-strong or weak

Fiedlers model
3. The leaders position power obtained through formal authority,
which is the third most critical dimension of the situation.
Situations are favorable to the leader if all three of the above
dimensions are high.i.e if the leader is generally accepted by the
followers,(high first dimension), if the task is very structures(high
second dimension), and if a great deal of authority and power is
formally attributed to the leaders position(high third dimension),
if the opposite exists(all three are low), the situation is unfavorable for
the leader. Fiedler was convinced that the favorableness of the
situation in combination with the leadership style determines
1. Under very favorable and very unfavorable
situations, the task-oriented, or hard-nosed
type of leader was most effective.
2. However when situation was only
moderately favorable or unfavorable (the
intermediate)the human relations, or lenient
type of leader was most effective.
Why is the task-directed leader successful in
very favorable situations?
Ans in a very favorable condition in which the
leader has power, informal backing, and a
relatively well-structured task, the group is
ready to be directedand the group expects to
be told what to do.
Ex.Consider the captain of an airliner in its final
landing approach. We would hardly want him
to turn to his crew for a discussion on how to
Leader-member exchange
Situational leadership
1. Followers are unable and unwilling-needs to
give clear directions
2. Unable and willing-leader should display
high task orientation
3. Able and unwilling-needs to be supportive
4. Able and willing-??/

charismatic and
transformational leadership
Training individuals for charismatic behavior.
A three-step process is suggested.
Develop the aura of charisma by maintaining an
optimistic view; using passion as a catalyst for
generating enthusiasm; and communicating with
the whole body, not just with words.
Creating a bond that inspires others to follow.
Brings out the potential in followers by tapping into
their emotions.

The Dark Side of Charismatic

Dont necessarily act in interest of companies.
Many have allowed their personal goals to override
the goals of the organization.
Research has shown that individuals who are
narcissistic are also higher in some behaviors
associated with charismatic leadership.
Some charismatic leaders are too successful
convincing followers to pursue a vision that can be

Mentoring program
Must watch movies on
Lawrence of Arabia
12 oClock High
9 to 5
The Memphis Belle
Saving Private Ryan

Wining today is not enoughyou need
to win today and tomorrow
Be great leaders!!!!

Wish you a very Happy Diwali

Organizational culture
Dr. Smita
Must read books on
Organizational culture:
Toyota Culture the heart and soul of the
Toyota Way.
By Jeffrey K. Liker and Michael Hoseus, Tata
McGraw Hill edition

Definition :
A pattern of basic assumptions that are
considered valid and that are taught to new
members as the way to perceive, think, and
feel in the organization.

Organizational culture

Organizational Culture
A common perception held by the
organizations members; a system
of shared meaning
Seven primary characteristics
1. Innovation and risk taking
2. Attention to detail
3. Outcome orientation
4. People orientation
5. Team orientation
6. Aggressiveness
7. Stability

The implication :
As culture is not understood at its face value
and as it is far deep rooted inside the
organisation it needs some time for someone
to understand the organization.
E:\vignette on toyota culture.docx
Understanding corporate culture
Change leaders are seeking to make
more fundamental shift in the capabilities
of their organizations
They are not looking for marginal
improvements; their goal is to reinvent
Reinventing lies not in marginally
changing the current way of doing
business, but in creating totally new
approaches, new technologies and new

Organizational culture
Changes improving quality, increasing
innovation, adopting a customer orientation-
are so fundamental that they usually mean
changing the organizations culture.

What is organizational culture?
System of shared values and beliefs that
interact with an organizations people,
structure, and systems to produce behavioral
norms(the way things are done around here)

What constitutes organizational
(ref- HBRS 10 Must Reads)
1. The three imp factors:
As successful companies mature, employees come to
assume that the processes and priorities theyve used
so successfully so often are the right way to do their
Once that happens and employees begin to follow
processes and decide priorities by assumption rather
than by conscious choice, those processes and
values come to constitute the organizations culture
In the last class we saw
contrasting organizational cultures:
Manufacturing firm A
Managers are expected to fully
Creativity and risk taking are
not encouraged
There are extensive rules and
Theory X type of mangers????
Manufacturing firm B
Obviously not

Are rewarded and
Few rules and regulations
Managers practicing theory
Y approach or may be even
theory Z

Corporate culture-Defined
An interdependent set of beliefs, values,
ways of behaving, and tools for living that
are so common in a community that they
tend to perpetuate themselves,
sometimes over long periods of time. This
continuity is the product of a variety of
social forces that are frequently subtle,
bordering on invisible, through which
people learn a groups norms and values,
are rewarded when they accept them,
and are ostracized when they are not.
Levels of organizational culture:
Artifacts (visible but often not decipherable)
1.Personal enactment, 2. Ceremonies and rites,3.Stories, 4.Rituals
and 5.Symbols

Values (greater level of awareness)
Testable in the physical environment and Testable only by social

Basic assumptions (taken for granted , invisible preconscious)
Relationships to environment, nature of reality, time, and space,
nature of human nature, nature of human activity, nature of
human relationships

Three levels of organizational
..\s 2012 teaching\three levels of org
..\s 2012 teaching\toyota culture.pdf
Organizational culture:
Kaizen: We improve our business operations
continuously, always driving for innovation
and evolution.
Genchi Genbutsu: We practice Genchi
Genbutsu- believing in going to the source to
find the facts to make correct decisions, build
consensus, and achieve goals at our best

Stages in the Socialization Process
The period of learning prior to a new employee joining the
The stage at which the new employee sees what the
organization is really like and confronts the possibility that
expectations and reality may diverge
The stage at which the new employee changes and adjusts to
the work, work group, and organization

How Organizational Cultures Form
Organizational cultures are derived from the
They are sustained through the selection
process, managerial action, and socialization
The Taj Case:

How an Indian hotel chains organizational culture
nurtured employees who were willing to risk their lives
to save their guests ..
1.The case itself, the Tata legacy, Taj Mumbais historic
roots,Indias ancient culture of hospitality (the stories)
2.The STAR )(special thanks and recognition system) ,
the MDs club,and COOs club, the gold , platinum and
silver levels( performance levels)
3.Ranked number 20 by Conde Nast Traveler (in the
overseas business hotel category).
4.The general manager in the lobby to receive guests-
personal enactment.

Taj case contd..
Assumptions- happy employees lead to happy

The Taj case continued..
What determines Organizational culture at Taj?
the assumption-they recruit from the hinterland
because thats where traditional Indian values
still hold sway.
The respect and empowerment of people- the
training programs which not only motivate
employees, but also create a favorable
organizational culture. Mr. H.N. Srinivas
notes: if you empower employees to take
decisions as agents of customer, it energizes
them and makes them feel in command.
Taj case:
Values ?
Espoused and enacted are they in sync
Vision and mission statements of Taj can be studied .
Is OCTAPACE reflected in the culture of Taj?
Confrontation-crucially at the end of each day(pg 6middle
column) , a STARS committee comprising each hotels
general manager . HR manager, training manager and
the concerned department head review all the
nominations and suggestions
Trustpg 5 third column a senior executive told us that
an irate guest swore he would never stay at the Taj
Mumbai because

Taj case:
Authenticity-the congruence between what one
feels, says and does.
people don't resist change, they resist being changed!
Howard Schultz
I want to work with people who dont
leave their values at home but bring them
to work, people whose principles match
my own. Our first priority was to take care
of people because they were the ones
responsible for communicating our
passion to our customers. If we did that
well, wed accomplish our second priority,
taking care of customers
Sam Walton Founder of Walmart
It takes week to two weeks for
employees to start treating customers
the same way the employer is treating
the employees
What determines Organizational
The vision
The values
The technology

Functions of an organizational
1. Provides a sense of identity and increases their
2. It provides a way for employees to interpret the
meaning of organizational events. Ex. Symbols are
used either to show continuity in changing times or
change and mean that the culture is changing-IMT N
3. It reinforces values in the organization and it serves
as a control mechanism for shaping behavior.
4. Norms that guide behavior are a part of culture.
Leaders role in shaping and
reinforcing culture.
The five most important elements in managing
culture are
1. What leaders pay attention to
2. How leaders react to crises-ashok leyland
lay off strategy-seeing the true colours of the
3. How leaders behave
4. How leaders allocate rewards
5. How leaders hire and fire individuals
The OCTAPACE profile by Udai
Use for HRD:
This instrument can be used to increase
openness, collaboration and creativity.
People can discuss in groups on the weak
values and how widely each belief is shared in
the organization.
First session on culture and this
session combined explains:
Will help you understand if the person-
environment (organization) fit exists or not.
Having understood steps to improve may follow
Organization socialization is the process
through which newcomers are transformed
from outsiders to participating, effective
members of the organization.

Levels of
Artifacts symbols of
culture in the physical
and social work environment
Espoused: what members of
an organization say they value
Enacted: reflected in the way
individuals actually behave
Assumptions deeply held
beliefs that guide behavior and tell
members of an organization how
to perceive and think about things
Organizational culture

Artifacts symbols of
culture in the physical
and social work environment
Espoused: what members of
an organization say they value
Enacted: reflected in the way
individuals actually behave
Assumptions deeply held
beliefs that guide behavior and tell
members of an organization how
to perceive and think about things
Visible, often not
Greater level
of awareness
Taken for granted,
Invisible, Preconscious
Organizational culture
What it is and why it is difficult to assess ?
Edgar Scheins model (1984) shows three
levels of pryamid /culture:
1. Artifacts and behavior-what we see
2. Norms and Values-what they say
3. Underlying assumptions-what they deeply
believe and act on

1. [Anticipatory Socialization] all of
the learning that takes place prior to the
newcomers first day on the job
2. [Encounter] newcomer learns the
tasks associated with the job, clarifies
roles, and establishes new relationships
at work
3. [Change and Acquisition] newcomer
begins to master the demands of the job

[Socialization Process]
The individual-organization-
fit issue
Pg 510 of your book, third para:
Individual-organizational fit- that is whether the
applicants or employees attitudes and
behavior are compatible with the culture-
strongly influences who gets the job offer, a
favorable performance review, or a promotion.
Its no coincidence that Disney theme park
employees appear almost universally
attractive, clean, and with bright smiles. The
company selects employees who will maintain
that image.
Why were you required to learn
about Organizational culture?
1. Mergers have an unusually high failure rate,
and its always because of people issues
Acquisition of Flakt by ABB failed also because
there was a culture clash. Laid back culture
of Flakt vs more dynamic culture of ABB.
The employees of Flakt were accused of
lethargy and a negative attitude.
They were told that they cannot be trusted.

Functions of Organizational Culture
Culture provides a sense of identity to members
and increases their commitment to the
Culture is a sense-making device
for organization members
Culture reinforces the values
of the organization
Culture serves as a control
mechanism for shaping

Culture as an Intervening Variable
Employees form an overall subjective
perception of the organization based on
these objective factors mentioned in the

Organizational culture contdd.
Spirituality and org culture
The recognition that people have an inner life
that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful
work that takes place in the context of
Presentations in the last two
Group of ten
Five groups
Gp 1- Leadership (relate theory with the
Gp2- leadership
Gp3- organizational Culture
Gp 4- Conflict and Negotiation
Gp 5- Managing change
Tem min each plus five min discussion

Another Case on organizational
Conflict and Negotiation
For Mr. Chetan Tolias session -Please read
(His slides are already circulated)

Case-Mount Everest
1. Why people climb?
2. Guide had to prove as he had two defeats
3. Achievers feel they can achieve anything
4. Price of the climbing in dollars

We begin with Yoga
Shitalikaran Meditation of the 32 parts of the body
Kapalabhati (sometimes known as Shatkriya), the yogic system
of body cleansing techniques. The word kapalbhati is made up of
two words: kapal meaning 'skull' (here skull includes all the organs
under the skull too) and bhati meaning 'shining, illuminating.' Due
to the process, the organs under the skull mainly the brain and the
small brain are influenced in a good manner. Hence the word is
used in that way. It is intended mainly to the cleaning of the cranial
sinuses but has many other effects. The Technique of Kapalabhati
involves short and strong forceful exhalations and inhalation
happens automatically.

(hyperlink-Infosys meditation centers)

Shitalikaran- The methodical practice of the 32 parts of
the body Meditation can help one understand the true
nature of the body. It can help to see
impermanence(temporary housing) and comprehend
that the body is made up of four primary elements:

Out of the Body(OBE)
(hyperlink-Infosys meditation centers)
They are as follows:
1. Earth( solidity)
2. Air(motion)
3. Water (liquidity)
Practicing the 32 Parts of body Meditation, can
help one build immense levels of
concentration, increase the potential for
self healing and allow one to experience
the taste of deep freedom and peace.
Why did we do Yoga?
Yoga cultivates peace in the mind and removes the I from the personality
(Reference- Times of India Dec 1, 2013)
Yoga is a form of exercise, whereas yog is a way of life which builds
compassion and mental strength.
All one needs in any healthy relationship is an understanding and
supportive mind.
Yoga changes the body chemistry activating the sympathetic
nervous system and calms the mind, thus helping us in managing
self, managing conflict.
Conflicts produce Stress(chapter no 14,pg 443 of your text book)
Emotions play a major role in shaping perceptions(pg 446 of your text
We need to accept Yog as a science that can change our lives for better.

The reason for the conflict between Anil
and Mukesh Ambani is simply that they
both love the business
Meditation and yoga culture
at Infosys

How many of you feel that
1. All conflict should be eliminated ?
Traditional view
2. Some conflict is absolutely necessary for a
group to perform effectively?
Interactionist view
3. Instead of encouraging good or discouraging
bad conflict, it is more important to resolve
naturally occurring conflicts productively?
Managed conflict view/resolution focused view
The conflict process

We will focus on each step in a moment

Stage I: Potential Opposition or
Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, over communication and
Size and specialization of jobs
Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity
Member/goal incompatibility
Leadership styles (close or participative)
Reward systems (win-lose)
Dependence/interdependence of groups
Personal Variables
Differing individual value systems
Personality types

Stage III: Intentions
Decisions to act in a given way
Note: behavior does not always accurately reflect intent
Dimensions of conflict-handling intentions:
Attempting to satisfy
the other partys
Attempting to satisfy
ones own concerns

Managing change
Session no 18
Change, planned change and
change agents

Making things different
Planned Change
An intentional, goal-oriented activity
Goals of planned change
Improving the ability of the
organization to adapt to changes
in its environment
Changing employee behavior
Change Agents
Persons who act as catalysts and
assume the responsibility for
managing change activities
Resistance to Change

Resistance to change appears to be a natural
and positive reaction to change.
Forms of Resistance to Change:
Overt and Immediate
Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions
Implicit and Deferred
Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased
errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism
Deferred resistance clouds the link between source
and reaction
Sources of Resistance to

Tactics for overcoming
resistance to change
Education and Communication
Show those effected the logic behind the change
Participation in the decision process lessens resistance
Building Support and Commitment
Counseling, therapy, or new-skills training
Implementing Change Fairly
Be consistent and procedurally fair
Manipulation and Cooptation
Spinning the message to gain cooperation
Selecting people who accept change
Hire people who enjoy change in the first place
Direct threats and force

The politics of change
Impetus for change is likely to come from
external change agents, new employees, or
managers outside the main power structure.
Internal change agents are most threatened
by their loss of status in the organization.
Long-time power holders tend to implement
incremental but not radical change.
The outcomes of power struggles in the
organization will determine the speed and
quality of change.

Lewins Three-Step Change Model
Change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual
resistance and group conformity by increasing the driving
force and decreasing the restraining force
Moving from the status quo to the desired end state
Stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and
restraining forces
Unfreeze Move Refreeze

Lewin: Unfreezing the Status Quo

Driving Forces(put pressure on the
organization/individual to change)
Restraining Forces (they put pressure on
the organization/individual not to change)
Kotters eight step plan
A detailed approach to implementing change
that is built on Lewins three-step model
To implement change:
1. Establish a sense of urgency
2. Form a coalition
3. Create a new vision
4. Communicate the vision
5. Empower others by removing barriers Movement
6. Create and reward short-term wins
7. Consolidate, reassess, and adjust
8. Reinforce the changes


Action Research
A change process based on systematic collection of data
and then selection of a change action based on what the
analyzed data indicates
Process steps:
1. Diagnosis
2. Analysis
3. Feedback
4. Action
5. Evaluation
Action research benefits:
Problem-focused rather than solution-centered
Heavy employee involvement reduces resistance to

Organizational Development
Organizational Development (OD)
A collection of planned interventions, built on
humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to
improve organizational effectiveness and
employee well-being
OD Values
Respect for people
Trust and support
Power equalization

Six OD techniques
1. Sensitivity Training
Training groups (T-groups) seek to change behavior through
unstructured group interaction
Provides increased awareness of others and self
Increases empathy with others, listening skills, openness, and
tolerance for others
2. Survey Feedback Approach
The use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among
member perceptions; a discussion follows and remedies are
3. Process Consultation (PC)
A consultant gives a client insights into what is going on around
the client, within the client, and between the client and other
people; identifies processes that need improvement.

Six OD Techniques Contd..
4. Team Building
High interaction among team members to increase trust and
5. Intergroup Development
OD efforts to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that
groups have of each other
6. Appreciative Inquiry
Instead of looking for problems to fix, appreciative inquiry seeks to
identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization,
which employees can then build on to improve performance. This
process comprises of four steps:
Discovery: Recalling the strengths of the organization
Dreaming: Speculation on the future of the organization
Design: Finding a common vision
Destiny: Deciding how to fulfill the dream
Books you must read:
1. John Adairs entire series
Specially on Effective Team Building
The inputs on ROLES
Leader, subordinate and colleague
Role without personality is empty, but
personality without role is ineffective
2. The Fifth Discipline
The Art and Practice of The Learning
Organization by Peter M.Senge

Creating a Culture for Change: Learning
Learning Organization
An organization that has developed the
continuous capacity to adapt and change
Holds a shared vision
Discards old ways of thinking
Views organization as a system of relationships
Communicates openly
Works together to achieve shared vision

Creating a Learning Organization
Overcomes traditional organization problems such as:
Manage Learning by:
Establishing a strategy
Redesigning the organizations structure
Flatten structure and increase cross-functional activities
Reshaping the organizations culture
Reward risk-taking and intelligent mistakes