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Introduction

Data are raw facts ( raw means, the


facts that have not yet been processed
to reveal their meaning. )

And Processed Data is called
Information
What is Database
A computer database is, as the name
implies, a collection of data stored
within a computer. It is like an
electronic file cabinet full of
documents. What makes computer
databases useful is the ease with
which the data can be entered, stored
and manipulated.
Why do we need a database?
Keep records of our:
Clients
Staff
Volunteers
To keep a record of activities and
interventions;
Keep sales records;
Develop reports;
Perform research
Longitudinal tracking

A Database System
The database system represent a change in the way
end user data are stored, accessed and managed.
A database system comprises of five major parts :-
Hardware
Software
People
Procedures
Data
Database Management System (DBMS)
Collection of interrelated data
Set of programs to access the data
DBMS contains information about a particular enterprise
DBMS provides an environment that is both convenient and efficient
to use.
Database Applications:
Banking: all transactions
Airlines: reservations, schedules
Universities: registration, grades
Sales: customers, products, purchases
Manufacturing: production, inventory, orders, supply chain
Human resources: employee records, salaries, tax deductions
Databases touch all aspects of our lives
Functions of Database Management System
It create a security system and enforces security
within that system.
It create complex structures that allows multiple-user
access to the data..
It performs backup and data recovery procedures to
ensures data safety.
DBMS stores the definitions of data and their
relationships in a data dictionary and any change are
automatically recorded in the data dictionary.
It create complex structures require for data storage.
Levels of Abstraction
Physical level describes how a record (e.g., customer) is
stored.
Logical level: describes data stored in database, and the
relationships among the data.
type customer = record
name : string;
street : string;
city : integer;
end;
View level: application programs hide details of data
types. Views can also hide information (e.g., salary) for
security purposes.
View of Data Abstraction
Basic relationships
One-to-One

One-to-many

Many to many
HUSBAND WIFE
is married to
is married
to
TRACK PARTICIPANTS
belongs to
has
Track
is helds in
holds
Trainer
Data Models
Conceptual Models
i. Entity
Relationships
Model


ii. Normalization
Implementation
Models
i. Hierarchical
Model

ii. Network Model

iii.Relational
Model
Examples Of Data Models
Structured Query Language
A computer language designed to organize and
simplify the process of getting information out
of a database in usual form, and used
reorganize data within database. SQL is most
often used on larger databases on
minicomputers, mainframes and corporate
servers.

SQL is the most widely accepted query
language for almost all RDBMS.