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Philippine Forests

Philippines
Forest Cover
Forest Resources
Forestlands (as of 2000) = 15.8M ha or 53% of
total area

Alienable and Disposable lands = 14.2M ha or
47% of total area

Forest Area = 5.4M ha or 18% of total area
Forest Area
Forest Area in the Philippines by Forest Type
Forest Type Area (millions ha)
Dipterocarp Forest 3.54
Old-Growth 0.80
Secondary 2.74
Pine Forest 0.23
Mangrove Forest 0.11
Mossy Forest 1.04
Sub-marginal Forest 0.47
Upland Population
P > 20 million

Annual Growth Rate = 2.8%
Forest Management Systems
Timber License Agreement (TLAs)
Industrial Forest Management Agreements
(IFMAs)
Community-based Forest Management
Agreements (CBFMAs)
Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claims (CADCs)

Department of Environment and Natural
Resources (DENR)
Forest-based Industries
Logging

Large-scale industrial forest plantation
development

172 Industrial Forest Plantations
Forest-based Industries
Wood Processing

86 sawmills in the Philippines

27 plywood plants and 19 veneer plants
Deforestation
Major Causes:

Logging

Kaingin
slash-and-burn agriculture
Issues Leading to the Ban of
Harvesting Timber in Natural Forests
Continuing loss of biodiversity

The arguments in logging bans in conservation
areas include: the continuing loss of biodiversity,
the need to protect endangered and rare species
habitat, and the increasing imbalance in the prey
vs. predator population.
Issues Leading to the Ban of
Harvesting Timber in Natural Forests
Destruction of watersheds

The perception is that logging increases soil
erosion and siltation of waterways, and ultimately
endangers or shortens the life span of major
infrastructure.
Issues Leading to the Ban of
Harvesting Timber in Natural Forests
Graft, Corruption, and Abuses by TLA Holders

Corruption, payoffs, and irregularities in the
regulation, review and approval of resource-use
rights and transport permits could spawn unholy
alliances and collusion between the DENR military
and TLA holders.
Issues Leading to the Ban of
Harvesting Timber in Natural Forests
Destruction of Coastal and Marine Resources

Only 4% of corals in the Philippine coastal areas
are in good condition. Some 30% to 50% of
seagrass beds have been lost, and two-thirds of
mangrove forests were destroyed during the last
75 years.
Issues Leading to the Ban of
Harvesting Timber in Natural Forests
Increasing Migration

Halting commercial logging operations may help
slow down upland migration.
Issues Leading to the Ban of
Harvesting Timber in Natural Forests
Displacement of Indigenous People

Commercial logging practices have been blamed
for corruption of indigenous knowledge, attitudes,
and traditional practices.
Forest Development Strategies
Master Plan for Forestry Development (MPFD)

The general goal of the plan is to transform the
forestry sector into a condition whereby all forest
resources will be under efficient and effective
management.
Specific Objectives of the Master Plan are to:
Conserve and protect the forest ecosystem and its
resources;

Meet demands for forest products by placing all of
the countrys production forest under sustainable
management;

Generate employment and contribute to the
countrys economic development; and

Promote equitable access to forest resources.
Forest Development Strategies
The Community-based Forest Management
Strategy

The CBFM provides mechanisms for the effective
management of forestlands and coastal areas
through responsible development, protection,
conservation and utilization of forest resources by
organized and empowered local communities.
Opportunities in the Forestry Sector
The Philippines forestry sector has the potential to
rebound and become a key player in local and regional
economies for several reasons:
Key forestry policies are in place;
The forestry sector has pioneered the adoption and
implementation of CBFM as the national strategy;
The country has ample human resources and the most ideal
climatic conditions;
There are at least 25 forestry schools and colleges in the
Philippines that can provide technical training in forestry
development; and
There are thousands of professionally registered foresters
who are waiting for new challenges and opportunities to
emerge