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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION .
PROCEDURE.
CLASSIFICATION OF MODEMS.
TYPES OF MODEM.
STANDARDS and PROTOCOLS.
MODEM FEATURES.
CRITERIA FOR BUYING.
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Classification of modems
Range
Short Haul
Voice Grade (VG)
Wideband
Operation Mode
Half Duplex
Full Duplex
Simplex
Synchronization
Asynchronous
Synchronous
Modulation
AM
FM/FSK
PM
TCM

RANGE
Short Haul :


Work in short ranges - up to 15 km (called local loops)

Short haul modems tend to be cheaper than other modems.

Transmission rate lower to ensure consistent , error-free transmission.

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Voice Grade :
Used for unlimited destination, using high data rate

Are expensive and maintenance and tuning are sophisticated



Wide Band:
Used in large volume telephone-line multiplexing, dedicated links.

Exceed high data rates
OPERATION MODE
Simplex :

Communication is Unidirectional. One station can transmit and other can receive.

Examples of simplex are keyboard , monitor, printer etc.


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Half Duplex :
Each station can both transmit and receive, but not
at same time
At a time, if one device is sending, other can receive
and vice versa
Example of half duplex are walkie-talkie


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Full Duplex :

Also called DUPLEX
Can transmit and receive simultaneously at full speed
Full duplex modems will not work on half-duplex
channels
SYNCHRONIZATION
Asynchronous :
Can only handle data bytes with start and stop bits

No separate timing signal or clock b/w modem and DTE

Can be connected in different options to the communication media

Using 2-Wire or 4-Wire interface.
Using interface to call unit/automatic answer, when dialing-up

Synchronous :

Requires a clock signal
Can handle continuous stream of data bits
Data bits are synchronized to clock signal
Separate clocks for transmitted and received bits



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TYPES OF MODEMS
INTERNAL MODEM
EXTERNAL MODEM
CABLE MODEM
FAX MODEM
WIRELESS MODEM
POKET MODEM
ISDN MODEM
DSL MODEM
56K MODEM

INTERNAL MODEM
EXTERNAL MODEM


TYPICAL INDICATERS ON EXTERNAL MODEMS
FRONT PANAL
HS = HIGH SPEED
AA = AUTO ANSWER
CD =CARRIER DETECT
OH =OFF HOOK
RD =RECIVED DATA
SD =SEND DATA
TR =TERMINAL READY
MR = MODEM READY


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PINS OF EIA-232
1=DETECT CARRIER SERIAL
2=TRANSMIT CARRIER
3=RECEIVE DATA
4=DTE READY
5=SIGNAL GROUND
6=DCE READY
7=REQUEST OT SEND
8=CLEAR TO SEND
9=RING INDICATOR

PARALLEL
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CABLE MODEM
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FAX MODEM
A fax modem in PC can send data to a standard fax machine, which converts data into
hard copy form.

Incoming faxes received as image files are saved
to the PCs harddisk.

Fax modems provide certain advantages over stand
alone fax machines.
WIRELESS MODEM
Convert digital data into radio signals and
back.
Support a maximum data transmission rate
of 19.2Kbps (kilobits per second).
Wireless modems can be used up to 20-30
miles (30-50 KM).
Operation is in the 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz.
Modem names include
BreeseLINK, LATNET-Radio Data
Links, AirLink Wireless Modems, and Open
Minds.
Pocket Modems :



Very compact external modems.
Designed for Laptops.
Directly plug into a port connector.
No external power supply is needed.

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ISDN MODEM
ISDN is an abbreviation for Integrated Services Digital Network.

There is no such thing as a noisy or fuzzy line.
always runs at 64kbps.

Call Setup is very fast (dialing, handshake and authentication), usually
under 2 seconds (compared with 15 seconds at least for most analog
modems).

Ability to get 2 calls at the same phone number (one line is for voice, and
the other line for your internet connection).
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ISDN SYSTEM
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DSL MODEM
DSL Modems: DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) service is usually offered
through the phone the company/ISP.

You can leave your Internet connection open and still use the phone line
for voice calls.

The speed is much higher than a regular modem (up to 1.5 Mbps )

DSL doesn't necessarily require new wiring; it can use the phone line you
already have
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56K MODEMS
The latest modems are equipped with many facilities they have a speed which
can even reach a data transfer speed of 56.6 kbps . They have all facilities like
fax, auto-answering, auto-dialing etc.

They are asymmetrical in that the downloading
is a maximum of 56kbps.

The uploading can be maximum of 33.6 kbps.






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SPEED OF MODEM
Modem speed is rated in bps (bits per second). So a 56k modem transmits at 56,000
bits per second in theory. While 8 bits make a byte, and 1024 bits equal one kilobits, a
56k modem will transmit a maximum of approximately 7 kilobytes of information
every second. A modem will never connect higher than what it is rated for.
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STANDARDS
ITU :-- International Telecommunication. Union.

ISO :-- International Standard Organization.

CCITT :-- International Consultative Committee For Telephone And Telegraphy.


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STANDARDS

V.34 - for 28.8k and 33.6k communications.
K56Flex - for 56k communication, created by Lucent and Rockwell.
X2 - for 56k communication, created by US Robotics (3com).
V.90 - This is the International Standard for 56k modems.
V.92 - This is an ITU (international Telecommunication Union) standard for 56K modems,
but three new features have been added -- faster connections (on 50%), better uploading, and
data and voice support:
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DIFFERENT CCITT STANDARDS
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PROTOCOLS
Protocols are used by modems to transfer files .

Protocols are those rules & regulation that are followed by any
company.

The widespread protocols for transferring files are:

X-modem
Y-modem
Z-modem



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ERROR CORRECTION PROTOCOL
There are 2 protocols that are used to correct errors on a connection:

V.42 (LAPM) This is the International Standard for Error Correction .

MNP 4 an old protocol that most modems support.


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DATA COMPRESSION
Compression helps to speed up transmission of
information. There are 2 protocols for compression:

V.42bis This is the International Standard for Compression.
It only works with V.42 Error Correction

MNP5 This is an older protocol that most modems support.
This only works with MNP Error Correction.

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VOICE MAIL
AUTO DETECTION/AUTO SWITCHING
CALLER ID
DSVD
FAX
QUICK CONNECT

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CRITERIA FOR BUYING
Transmission Rate
The transmission rate of a modem must not be below 14,400 bps. It must
lie between 28,800 bps and 33,600 bps. They may exceed this speed.
Data / voice Transmission
A modem must have capability of transmission of data as well as voice.
Auto dialing and answering
Today many modems are available which have auto-answering and auto-
dialing feature.
Fax capability
A modem must have ability to fax if it is required.
Cost -
According to the utility and speed cost of the modem must also be taken
into consideration.
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Bibliography
Hardware Bible Winn.L.Rosch
TROUBLESHOOTING,MAINTAINING Stephen J.Bigelow
& REPAIRING
Data Comm. & Networking Behrouz .A. Forouzan
Internet
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