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ANTENNAS FOR MODERN

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

By

BI NAY K. SARKAR.
I SRO CHAI R PROFESSOR







( Lecture prepared for delivering at the Summer School on Recent Trend in Antenna
Technology to be held at KIIT , Bhubaneswar on Aug.05,2008 )

Department of Electrical and Electronic Communication Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Kharagpur-721302
1 INTRODUCTION:
Antenna: A usually metallic device (as a rod or wire) for radiating or receiving radio waves.
An antenna can be any conductive structure that can carry an electrical current. If it carries a time
varying electrical current, it will radiate an electromagnetic wave, may be not efficiently or in a
desirable manner but it will radiate.















Antennas are the connecting link between RF signals in an electrical circuit, such as between a
PCB and an electromagnetic wave propagating in the transmission media between the transmitter
and the receiver of a wireless link.


In the transmitter, the antenna transforms the electrical signal into an electromagnetic wave by
exciting either an electrical or a magnetic field in its immediate surroundings, the near field.


Antennas that excite an electrical field are referred to as electrical antennas; antennas exciting a
magnetic field are called magnetic antennas.


The oscillating electrical or magnetic field generates an electromagnetic wave that propagates
with the velocity of light c. The speed of light in free space c
o
is 300000 km/s. If the wave travels
in a dielectric medium with the relative dielectric constant
r
, the speed of light is reduced to:
Co/(
r
)
1/2


Concept of Radiation:
A typical radiating system will compose of a source, a transmission line and antenna as shown
below






















If the antenna system is not properly designed, the transmission line could act as an energy
storage device. Zg
R
L





R
A



Antenna
Transmission line
Source

Losses
Line
Antenna
VSWR
Minimization Losses

Transmission line matching
Reduce loss resistance, R
L
of antenna
Two Wires:
Applying voltage across two-conductor transmission line creates an electric field between
the conductors.

Electric field is associated with it electric lines of force which are tangent to the electric
field at each point and their strength is proportional to the electric field intensity.

Electric line of force acts on free electron in the conductor force them to displace
movement of charge creates electric current that in turn creates magnetic field intensity
associated with magnetic field intensity magnetic lines of force which are tangent to
magnetic field.


T- period: Lines of force created
between arms of a small center fed
dipole in time when charge reached
maximum value & lines have
traveled .
During next original lines travel another (total
) and charge density on conductors begin to
diminish.
This can be accomplished by introducing opposite
charges which at the end of first half of the period
have neutralized the charge on the conductors.
Lines of force created by opposite charges shown
by dashed line and travel by distance.

4

2. Types of Antennas

Various antennas used in radar and Communication systems:




1 ) Dipole
2 ) Monopole
3 ) Sleeve Monopole
4 ) Loop
5 ) Helix
6 ) Yagi- Uda.
7 ) Log-Periodic
8 ) Horn
9 ) Slotted waveguide
10 ) Microstrip antennas.
11 ) Parabolic reflector
12 ) Cassegrain reflector
13 ) Array
14) Special Antennas
15) MEMS Antennas

Dipole Antenna

Half-Wave Dipole












Half-Wave Dipole Antenna.
The half-wave dipole antenna (Figure ) is the basis of many other antennas and is also
used as a reference antenna for the measurement of antenna gain and radiated power
density.
At the frequency of resonance, i.e., at the frequency at which the length of the dipole
equals a half-wavelength, we have a minimum voltage and a maximum current at the
terminations in the center of the antenna, so the impedance is minimal.
Therefore, we can compare the half-wave dipole antenna with a series RLC resonant circuit

. For a lossless half-wave dipole antenna, the series resistance of the equivalent resonant
circuit equals the radiation resistance, generally between 60 and 73 , depending on the
ratio of its length to the diameter.


The bandwidth of the resonant circuit (or the antenna) is determined by the L-to-C ratio. A
wire with a larger diameter means a larger capacitance and a smaller inductance, which
gives a larger bandwidth for a given series resistance. That's why antennas made for
measurement purposes have a particularly large wire diameter.


As opposed to the (only hypothetical) isotropic radiator, real antennas such as the half-wave
dipole have a more or less distinct directional radiation characteristic.


The radiation pattern of an antenna is the normalized polar plot of the radiated power
density, measured at a constant distance from the antenna in a horizontal or vertical plane.



Figure below shows the radiation pattern of a half-wave dipole antenna.








Radiation Pattern of a Half-Wave Dipole Antenna

Since the dipole is symmetrical around its axis, the three-dimensional radiation pattern rotates
around the wire axis.









The isotropic gain of a half-wave dipole antenna is 2.15 dB. Therefore, in the direction
perpendicular to the wire axis, the radiated power density is 2.15 dB larger than that of the
isotropic radiator.


There is no radiation in the wire axis. The half-wave dipole produces linear polarization with the
electrical field vector in line with, or in other words parallel to, the wire axis.



Because the half-wave dipole is often used as a reference antenna for measurements, sometimes
the gain of an antenna is referenced to the radiated power density of a half-wave dipole instead of
an isotropic radiator.



Also the effective radiated power (ERP), which is the power delivered to an ideal dipole that
gives the same radiation density as the device under test, is used instead of the EIRP. The
relations Gdipole = Gisotropic - 2.15 dB and ERP = EIRP - 2.15 dB can be applied.




The half-wave dipole needs a differential feed because both of its terminations have the same
impedance to ground. This can be convenient if the transmitter output or the receiver input have
differential ports.

A balun will be used along with the half-wave dipole in case of single-ended transmitters or
receivers, or if an antenna switch is used.

For external ready-manufactured half-wave dipoles, the balun is visually built-in to the antenna
and provides a single-ended interface.


The half-wave dipole is an electrical antenna. This means that it is easily detuned by materials
with a dielectric constant larger than 1 within its reactive near field.

If, for instance, the housing of a device is in the reactive near field, the housing has to be present
when the antenna is matched.

The human body has a large dielectric constant of approximately 75. As a result, if an electrical
antenna is worn on the body or held in the hand, it can be strongly detuned.




If the antenna is built as two traces on a PCB, the dielectric constant of the PCB material has to
be considered. The electrical field in the reactive near field region spreads out partially into the
PCB material, partially into the surrounding air. This gives an effective dielectric constant
eff
between that of the air and the PCB material :






Where h is the thickness of the PCB material, w is the trace width of the dipole arms. The
required length of the half-wave dipole is then:








Underneath the dipole and within the reactive near field, no ground plane is allowed.
Monopole Antennas
Quarter-Wave Monopole
In many cases, the half-wave dipole is just too large. Also, the needed differential feed is often a
disadvantage. If we replace one branch of the dipole antenna by an infinitely large ground plane,
due to the effect of mirroring, the radiation pattern above the ground plane remains unaffected.
This new structure is called a monopole antenna.









Building Up the Quarter-Wave Monopole.

Because all the radiated power is now concentrated in the half-space above the ground plane, the
gain of the monopole is 3 dB larger than the gain of the dipole.

Often a large ground plane is not feasible. The Marconi antenna replaces the (not realizable)
infinitely large ground plane by several open-ended /4-Stubs, called the counterpoise.


A further reduction to only one stub gives a structure that looks like a bent dipole antenna. When
designing a monopole antenna, the radiator should go as long as possible perpendicular to the
ground stub or the ground plane. Bends close to the feeding point reduce the radiation resistance
and the efficiency of the antenna.


The ideal quarter-wave monopole has a linear polarization with the vector of the electrical field in
the wire axis. If the ground plane becomes unsymmetrical, the direction of polarization will be
tilted towards the larger part of the ground plane, but still remains linear.


The radiation resistance of an ideal quarter-wave monopole is half of that of a dipole; depending
on the ratio of length to diameter of the radiator between 30 and 36.5 .


Like the half-wave dipole, the quarter-wave monopole is an electrical antenna. It is influenced by
the dielectric constant of the material in the reactive near field.



The same formulas for the effective dielectric constant and the required length as for the half-
wave dipole hold for the quarter-wave monopole.


Table 1 gives the length of half-wave dipoles and quarter-wave monopoles in free space and on a
PCB for commonly used short-range frequencies. For the PCB antennas, a PCB thickness of h =
1.5 mm and a trace width of w = 1 mm has been assumed; the PCB material is FR4 with
r
= 4.2.
This gives an effective dielectric constant of
r
= 2.97.
















It has to be mentioned that parasitic components, such as capacitance to ground, inductance
introduced by bends in the antenna as well as the influence of the package, alter the antenna
impedance.

For monopole antennas, the ground plane is sometimes smaller than a quarter-wave length or not
perpendicular to the radiator. In practice, the exact length of the dipole or the monopole has
therefore to be determined by measuring the feed impedance with a vector network analyzer.



Sometimes the available space limits the length of an antenna. The antenna is made as long as the
geometry permits, which can be smaller than one quarter wavelength. A monopole shorter than a
quarter-wave length can be considered as a quarter-wave monopole, which is used at a frequency
lower than the frequency of resonance.



According to the equivalent schematic of an antenna , the input impedance at the frequency of
operation will then be a series connection of a resistor and a capacitor.



The series capacitance can be resonated out by a series inductor. A monopole antenna shorter than
l/4 with a series inductor is also referred to as a loaded stub antenna.





The radiation resistance of a loaded stub decreases with decreasing length.

The smaller radiation resistance and the larger L-to-C ratio increase the quality factor and make
the bandwidth smaller than for a quarter-wave monopole. Approximations for the radiation
resistance of a monopole antenna are:














At the frequency of operation (i.e., resonance), the impedance of the short stub will be that of a
small resistor (radiation resistance plus loss resistance) with a series capacitor.
From the Smith Chart in Figure we can see that matching to a 50 source can be achieved by a
series inductor and a parallel capacitor.


Matching of a Short Loaded Stub Antenna

Figure below shows an example of a loaded stub PCB antenna with matching components.









Loaded Stub PCB Antenna With Matching Components
The series inductor and the parallel capacitor transform the antenna impedance to 50 , the input
impedance of the filter (FIL1).
For dipole or monopole antennas, the component values for the series inductor and the parallel
capacitor (C
P
) have to be determined by measuring the feed impedance at point A in Figure 10
(with LS = 0 resistor and C
P
left unpopulated) with a vector network analyzer.
Once this is determined, we can use a Smith Chart to assist in matching the antenna to 50 using
L
S
and C
P
.

Derivatives of the monopole are the inverted-L and inverted-F antennas as shown in Figure
below.
Inverted-L Antenna and Inverted-F Antenna
In the inverted-L antenna, the monopole does not run perpendicularly to the ground plane over its
whole length but is bent parallel to the ground plane after some distance. This helps to save
space, but decreases the radiation resistance because the radiator comes closer to the ground
plane. An additional matching circuit is needed to match the low-feed impedance to the usual
transmission line impedance of 50 .


If we proceed from the feed point of the inverted-L antenna to the end, we notice that the voltage
increases (while the current decreases) from a maximum voltage value at the feeding point to
almost zero at the end.

This means, that the antenna impedance has its minimum if we feed the
antenna as shown in Figure a) and increases if we move the feeding point towards the end.

The inverted-F antenna in Figure b is an inverted-L antenna with a feeding tap that gives larger
antenna impedance.

If the antenna is tapped at the right location, no additional matching circuit is required.


The structure of inverted-F antennas and, in particular, the location of the tap, is usually
determined by electromagnetic simulations.


Monopole Discone Antenna
Widebandth 10:1 range.


Omnidirectiional in horizontal plane.


Vertically polarized.


Gain is similar to a dipole. Z approaches 50 ohms.


Application: RX scanner antenna for VHF and UHF.


Can also be used for TX.
PCB Monopole Antenna Module

Figure shows the layout of the PCB monopole antenna. In order to save PCB space the
monopole has been bent by 90 degree. In the PCB layout, the monopole was made longer than
calculated according to Table 1. This should give some room for possible manufacturing
tolerances.
Layout of the PCB Monopole Antenna.
Using a vector network analyzer, we measured the antenna impedance on the upper pad of L1
and cut back the monopole until real antenna impedance was achieved.
The antenna impedance in resonance is 35.5 , which is within the theoretical value range of 30
to 36.5 . The mismatch loss to 50 is as low as 0.13 dB in this case. No further matching
components have been used; inductor L1 was replaced by a 0 resistor. C2 was left unpopulated.

The radiation characteristic of the antenna module was measured in an anechoic chamber with
the test module upright (see Figure ) and flat (see Figure ) on the turntable.

The outer boundary of the radiation patterns given in this report correspond to an effective
radiated power (dipole related) of ERP = + 10 dBm; the scale is 20 dB/division.


25. Vertical Radiation Pattern of the Stub Module (Upright).
The radiation pattern is almost angle-independent, the maximum ERP is + 6.5 dBm,
corresponding to EIRP = 6.5 dBm + 2.15 dB = +8.65 dBm. The TRF4903 delivers +8 dBm of
output power. The maximum antenna gain is therefore +0.65 dB.

As expected, the horizontal radiation pattern has a more pronounced radiation characteristic:
. Horizontal Radiation Pattern of the Stub Module (Flat).
The maximum ERP is +10.85 dBm, corresponding to EIRP = +13 dBm. With +8-dBm transmit
power, this gives an antenna gain of 5 dB.
Electrical antennas are sensitive to detuning by dielectric material in their reactive near field.
Figure shows the horizontal radiation pattern of the same stub module attached to the arm of a
test person.
Horizontal Radiation Pattern of the Stub Module Close to the Human Body.


The maximum ERP is -4.4 dBm, compared to +10.85 dBm measured on the free stub module.


The loss due to detuning and absorption is as large as 15.25 dB in the direction of maximum
radiation.

3. Sleeve Monopole antenna
















4. Loop antennas:
















Small Loop Antennas








Small Loop Antenna With Differential Feed

The loop antenna shown in Figure has a differential feed. Often a ground plane is made part of
the loop, giving a single-ended feed as shown in Figure .








Single-Ended Loop Antenna
The small arrows indicate the current flow through the loop. On the ground plane, the current is
mainly concentrated on the surface. The electrical behavior of the structure in Figure is therefore
similar to that of the loop with differential feed shown in Figure .

The following considerations on small loop antennas are based on [4] and assume that the current
is constant over the loop. This means that the circumference must be smaller than one tenth of a
wavelength.

Although this is rarely the case, the given formulas describe the principal behavior and can be
used as a starting point for the loop antenna design.

If the current is constant over the loop, we can consider the loop as a radiating inductor with
inductance L, where L is the inductance of the wire or PCB trace. Together with the capacitor C,
this inductance L builds a resonant circuit. Often a resistor Ratt is added to reduce the quality
factor of the antenna and to make it less sensitive to tolerances. Of course, this resistor dissipates
energy and reduces the antenna's efficiency.

The following calculations hold for circular loops with the radius a for square loops with the side
length a. A rectangular antenna with the sides a1 and a2 will be approximated by an equivalent
square with the side length:



The length (circumference) of the wire building the loop will be called U, where U = 2a for a
circular loop, or 4a for a square loop.




Figure below shows the equivalent schematic of a small loop antenna.


For the calculation of the inductance, the wire radius b, where b is 1/2 the diameter of the actual
wire used to fabricate the antenna, is needed. In the frequent case where a loop antenna is
realized by a trace on a PCB, b = 0.35.d + 0.24.w can be used, where d is the thickness of the
copper layer and w is the trace width.
Equivalent Schematics of the Small Loop Antenna
The radiation resistance of loop antennas is small, typically smaller than 1 . The loss resistance
Rloss describes the ohmic losses in the loop conductor and the losses in the capacitor.

Usually, the losses in the capacitor cannot be neglected. Interestingly, the thickness of the copper
foil is not needed for the calculation of the loss resistance because due to the skin effect, the
current is confined on the conductor surface.

Together with the loop inductance L, which is the inductance of the wire, the capacitor C builds a
series resonant circuit.

In practice, the L-to-C ratio of this resonant circuit is large giving a high quality factor (Q). This
would make the antenna sensitive to tolerances. That's why often an attenuating resistor Ratt is
added to reduce the Q.

To describe the influence of Ratt on the loop antenna, we make a parallel to series conversion and
use the equivalent series resistance Ratt_trans. The resistance value of Ratt_trans is determined
by the acceptable tolerance of the capacitor and the geometry of the loop.

The maximum usable quality factor is calculated from the capacitance tolerances C/C:





The series transformed attenuation resistance then will be:




This gives the efficiency of the loop antenna:




In most cases, the radiation resistance is much smaller than the loss resistance and the
transformed attenuation resistance, giving a poor efficiency. In this case, the approximation:




can be used. Rr is determined by the loop area, which is a
2
for circular loops, a
2
for square loops,
and a
1
a
2
for rectangular loops.

Figure in next slide shows the efficiency of small circular loop antennas versus their diameter
for an assumed tolerance of 5 percent. The trace width has been assumed as 1 mm, the copper
thickness as 50 um; but both values have only a minor influence on the efficiency, which is
mainly determined by the attenuation resistance Ratt. As expected, the efficiency increases with
increasing diameter.

Efficiency of Small Loop Antennas for Five-Percent Tolerance

If we feed the loop antenna as shown in Figure , the series equivalent circuit of Figure describes
the antenna impedance.

Even including the effect of Ratt, the total series resistance will be small, usually below 10 . If
we feed the antenna directly at the capacitor, the parallel equivalent circuit describes the antenna
impedance.

A small series loss resistor transforms into a large parallel resistor, usually several ks.
In both cases, matching to 50 will be difficult. That's why the loop antenna is often tapped,
giving an impedance in between the too small and the too large values. Figure below shows an
example:
Example of a Tapped PCB Loop Antenna.

A series feed (in the lower right corner) would give a small impedance. A parallel feed (directly at
the capacitors) would give a much too large impedance.

The tap provides an impedance close to 50 in this example. The loop capacitor has been split
into two series capacitors C1 and C2. This makes it possible to realize capacitance values. R1 is
the damping resistor which de-Qs the circuit, thus increasing the bandwidth and subsequently
reducing the tolerance requirements.
Unfortunately, there are no easy formulas that describe the tapped structure and give the right
location for the tap.

The line from the antenna termination to the tap is not a transmission line and will disturb the
field in the antenna. Therefore, we have to find out the optimal structure by electromagnetic
simulations.

Often a trial and error procedure is used as an alternative.

For example, using a vector network analyzer, we determine the capacitance value that gives the
best return loss and the largest resistance value that gives the required bandwidth.

The loop antenna gives a linear polarization with the vector of the electric field oscillating in the
plane built by the loop.

In contrast to all of the antennas discussed so far, loop antennas are magnetic antennas.

This means that they are not detuned by the dielectric constant of the material in their reactive
near field. That's why loop antennas are often used for body-worn or hand-held equipment.



Loop Antenna Module

Figure below has the layout of the loop antenna module. The loop capacitor is a series
connection of the two capacitors C40 and C44; this allows realizing small capacitance values in
fine steps. R11 is the attenuation resistor; L5 and C46 should help to improve the matching to 50
experimentally, through an iterative approach.
PCB Loop Antenna
The loop width is 25 mm, the height 11.5 mm, the trace width 1.5 mm with a copper thickness of
50 m.

According to the formulas in Figure 15, the inductance is L = 40.9 nH and the radiation
resistance Rr = 0.22 .
The calculated capacitance needed for resonance at 915 MHz is 0.74 pF.

Usual tolerance values for low cost capacitors are around five percent. For the small capacitance
needed here, the effective tolerance would be larger because the parasitic capacitance of the
damping resistor, the PCB pads, and even the solder material contributes to the total capacitance
uncertainty. We assumed a total tolerance of 20 percent, which gives a maximum quality factor:
The impedance of the loop inductance is ZL = 2.x 915 MHz x 40.9 nH = 235 . The damping
resistance must therefore be not larger than Ratt = 10.5 x 235 = 2.47 k.

In the test module, a 2.2-k resistor was chosen, giving Q = 2.2 k/235 = 9.36. The
transformed series attenuation resistance is then Ratt_trans = ZL/Q = 235 / 9.36 = 25.1 .

Compared to that, we can neglect the loss resistance of the copper trace on the PCB.

The theoretical antenna efficiency is then:
The loop antenna has been tapped to increase the antenna impedance. The position of the tap was
determined empirically by electromagnetic simulations.


The antenna impedance was measured on the assembled PCB on the upper pad of C51; L5 was
replaced by a 0- resistor at first.

We varied the loop capacitors C40 and C44 to bring the loop into resonance. A series connection
of 0.8 pF and 0.5 pF gives the reflection coefficient of 0.22.ej35, corresponding to a mismatch
loss of 0.2 dB. No further matching was required, so C46 was left unpopulated.

The capacitance of the series connection of the 0.5-pF and 0.8-pF capacitors is 0.3 pF and thus
smaller than the calculated value of 0.74 pF. One explanation is that the parasitic capacitance of
the resistor also contributes to the loop capacitance. Also, the parasitic inductance of the
capacitors themselves makes their capacitance look larger at high frequencies than their nominal
value.

Figure next slide has the horizontal radiation pattern of the loop antenna module arranged flat on
a turntable.
Radiation Pattern of the Loop Antenna Module.
The maximum ERP is +4.15 dBm, corresponding to EIRP = +6.3 dBm. This gives an antenna
gain of -1.7 dB, much more than calculated. The reason is that the circumference of the loop is
not negligible with respect to the wavelength. All calculations were made under the assumption
that the circumference is smaller than one tenth of the wavelength. The geometrical
circumference of the loop antenna in the test module is 73 mm, the wavelength in free space for
915 MHz is 327 mm. Assuming the effective dielectric constant of a trace on FR4 material of
2.97 , the wavelength on the PCB is:

The circumference is therefore 73 mm / 190 mm = 0.38 times the wavelength. The loop does not
act like a purely magnetic antenna any more; it will also excite the electrical field in its reactive
near field region. As a result, the behavior is in between that of a small loop and an electrical
antenna.

For a loop antenna, a smaller influence of dielectric material in the reactive near field on the
tuning and the radiation characteristic is expected. Figure below shows the radiation pattern of
the loop module attached to the forearm of a test person.
Radiation Pattern of the Loop
Antenna Module Close to the Human
Body.
The ERP is -9.75 dBm, corresponding to EIRP = -7.6
dBm. Given the transmitter power of +8 dBm, the
antenna gain is -15.6 dB, almost 14 dB worse than in
free space.

Note that the gain is still larger than the theoretical
value of -20.6 dB. This again comes from the large
dimensions which make the antenna more similar to
an electrical radiator.

In order to achieve greater independence from the
influences of the surrounding material, the size of the
loop antenna must be made smaller. This reduces the
radiation resistance and L-to-C ratio and decreases
the efficiency.

Rules of Thumb for the Antenna Design

We can summarize the considerations made so far in the following rules of thumb:

If the available space is sufficient, use a half-wave dipole (for differential feed) or quarter-wave
monopole (for single-ended feed) antenna for best efficiency.

If possible, keep the space around the antenna clear from conducting or dielectric materials,
such as electronic components, the casing or the user's body.

Sometimes, dielectric materials in the reactive near field are unavoidable. In these cases,
measure the antenna impedance under real application conditions and match it to the needed
characteristic impedance.
Table 2 shows a feature comparison of the discussed antennas.

Due to space limitations, the ground plane of quarter-wave monopoles is often too small. In
these cases try to create as much ground plane around the feed point as possible, measure the
resulting antenna impedance and match it to the needed characteristic impedance.



Good performance can be obtained from a counterpoise made from a quarter-wavelength
conductor that is connected to ground in the vicinity of the antenna's feeding point. The
counterpoise should run as long as possible perpendicular to the monopole radiator.



When using premanufactured antennas, keep in mind that their performance depends on the
attached ground plane.


The manufacturer's specifications are only achieved if the ground plane has the same size and
shape as the manufacturer's evaluation board.


In all other cases, you have to measure the impedance of the premanufactured antenna under
application conditions and to match it to the needed characteristic impedance.


Small loop antennas are insensitive to varying dielectric conditions in their reactive near field.
They can be a good solution for portable and hand-held devices but have a much lower efficiency
than electrical antennas.



Only antennas with a circumference smaller than one tenth of a wavelength can be considered as
purely magnetic antennas.


Larger loops have a higher gain but also a higher sensitivity to the environmental conditions.




Size matters: Always keep in mind that Chu's and Wheeler's limit determines the product of the
bandwidth and the efficiency for a given antenna dimension.





An extremely small antenna cannot be efficient and tolerance-insensitive at the same time
5. Helix.
















Transversal Mode Helical Antenna
Another option to reduce the size of a monopole is to coil it up into a helix as shown in Figure below.











Helix Antenna on a Ground Plane

When the coil circumference and the spacing between adjacent turns are comparable to the wavelength,
the antenna radiates a circular polarized beam in the axis of the helix. These antennas are called axial
mode helicals.

In small short-range applications, the helix diameter and the spacing between turns are much smaller
than a wavelength. So, the result is a normal mode helical antenna.

The radiation pattern of a normal mode helix is similar to that of a monopole; the maximum
radiation occurs perpendicular to the helix axis.



Due to the shape and the size of the ground plane, radiation patterns of practical antennas can
show deviations from this idealized form.


The radiation from a normal mode helix is elliptically polarized. Usually the component having
the electrical field vector parallel to the antenna axis is stronger than the component which is
parallel to the ground plane.


The exact calculation of transversal mode helical antennas is not as simple as for dipole and
monopole antennas.


Usually they are designed empirically: start with a wire that is half a wavelength long, wind it up
into a helix, and measure the antenna impedance using a vector network analyzer. Then, cut it
back until nearly real input impedance at the frequency of operation is obtained.

Real input impedance means that the antenna is in resonance. Fine-tuning of the frequency of
resonance is possible by compressing or stretching the helix.


Even if the antenna is in resonance, it will not be matched to 50 yet.


The input impedance will be the sum of the radiation and loss resistances, usually smaller than 50
. For the design of the needed additional matching circuit, we can use the Smith Chart as
described above.


Chu's and Wheeler's [1,2] limit on the bandwidth for a given dimension also holds for helix
antennas.



A small transversal mode helix, therefore, has tight bandwidth and is sensitive to tolerances of the
matching components.


Transversal Mode Helical Antenna Module

For the helical antenna module, a commercially available transversal mode helix was chosen: The
KUNDO 593266 is a SMT component that comes on tape and reel and can be used for 868 MHz
as well as in the 915 MHz band. The layout is shown in Figure below.
Layout of the SMT Helical Antenna.
As opposed to the monopole, underneath and around the antenna there is a ground plane. The
white dots in the previous Figure are vias connecting the top side ground with the internal
ground layer of the PCB.

The antenna impedance was measured on the upper pad of C7. Without matching components
and with L1 replaced by a 0- resistor, the measured reflection coefficient was = 0.91.e-143.
L1 = 5.6 nH and C2 = 16 pF give an acceptable reflection coefficient of = 0.35.e147. Figure
29 has the radiation pattern. The test module was placed flat on the turntable.
Horizontal Radiation Pattern of the Helix Module
The maximum ERP is -10.6 dBm, corresponding to EIRP = -8.45 dBm. With +8-dBm transmit
power follows a gain as low as -16.45 dB.

The small dimensions of the antenna lead to a small radiation resistance and a strong effect of
losses in the PCB and the matching components. Also, the size of the PCB ground plane is not
large compared to the wavelength. That's why the shape and the size of the ground plane have an
effect on the radiation pattern.

Figure below shows the radiation pattern under the same conditions but with the helix module
attached to the forearm of a test person.

The PCB ground plane was between the helix and the arm; the forearm was held in a horizontal
position.
Horizontal Radiation Pattern of the
Helix Module Close to the Human Body

Despite the lower efficiency in the
upper right corner (which comes from
the absorption by the chest of the test
person), the radiation pattern is identical
to that of the free helix module.

The PCB ground plane acts as a shield
and makes the radiation pattern
independent on the tissue underneath it.
6. Yagi - Uda
















Array antennas can be used to increase directivity.

Parasitic array does not require a direct connection to each element by a feed network.

The parasite elements acquire their excitation from near field coupling by the driven
element.

A Yagi-Uda antenna is a linear array of parallel dipoles.

The basic Yagi unit consists of three elements:


1. Driver or driven element

2. Reflector

3. Director
Develops an endfire radiation pattern.


Optimum spacing for gain of a reflector and driven element is 0.15 to 0.25 wavelengths


Director to director spacings are 0.2 to 0.35 wavelengths apart.


Reflector length is typically 0.5 wavelengths or 1.05 that of the driven element.


The driven element is calculated at resonance without the presence of parasitic
elements.


The directors are usually 10 to 20% shorter than at resonance.

Gain is related to boom length and number of directors.


Max directivity of a 3 element Yagi is 9 dBi or 7dBd.


Addition of directors up to 5 or 6 provides significant increase in gain. Addition of more
directors has much less impact on gain.


Increasing N from 3 to 4 results in 1 dB increase.


Adding a director to go from 9 to 10 presents a 0.2 dB gain improvement.


Adding more reflectors has minimal impact on gain however does impact on feedpoint Z
and the backlobe.
Metal booms can be implemented because voltage is at zero midway through the
element.


Other factors that effect resonant lengths:


1. A comparatively large boom will require parasitic elements to increase their
length.


2. Length to diameter ratio of the elements.
7. Log-Periodic















lengths element respective is L where
L
L
L
L
L
L
......
4
3
3
2
2
1
= = = = t
.
. sin
.....
1
4
3
3
2
2
1
shortest is D
them g clo angle of apex and
elements between spacings represents D where
D
D
D
D
D
D
= = = = t
2
tan
2
1
1
o
=
D
L
Alpha is the angle of the apex of tapered elements and is typically 30 degrees.


8. HORN ANTENNAS:


Horn is widely used as a feed element for

large radius astronomy dish
satellite tracking dish
communication dish
feed for reflector and lenses
common element for phased arrays
universal standard for calibration

Horn is


simple in construction
easy to excite
versatile
large gain
good overall performance

Types of Horn





1. E-plane sectorial horn

2. H-plane sectorial horn

3. Pyramidal

4. Conical

5. Corrugated

6. Aperature matched

7. Multimode

8. Dielectric loaded

























2
P E H
0 1 1
2
D D D
32ab
1 4
G ( a b ).
2

H
=
H
=
Conical horn
Support any polarization .






















Corrugated horn






9. Parabolic antenna

i) Parabolic cylinder
Feed: linear dipole linear array or slotted waveguide.

ii) Parabolic (parabola of revolution).
Feed: pyramidal or conical horn. F/d ratio, spill over.


















10. Cassegrain reflector

To improve the performance of large ground based microwave reflector antennas for satellite
tracking and communication, it has been proposed that a two reflector system be utilized.

This is known as cassegrain dual reflector system. The use of second reflector, a hyperboloid
known as sub reflector give an additional degree of freedom for achieving good performance.

Cassegrain antenna is usually attractive for applications that requires gain of 40 dB or greater.
11. Slotted waveguide antenna

is widely used as radar antenna because its simple construction and compact shape .






















12. Microstrip Antennas

-
Basic Characteristics:

Microstrip antennas consist of very thin (t<<0 where 0 is the free-space wavelength )
metallic strip (patch) placed a small fraction of a wavelength (h<< 0, usually 0.003 0 h
0.05 0). above a ground plane.

The microstrip patch is designed so its pattern maximum is normal to the patch
(broadside radiator). This is accomplished by properly choosing the mode (field configuration) of
excitation beneath the patch.













MICROSTRIP LINE:


In a microstrip line most of the eletric field lines are concentrated underneath the
microstrip.

Because all fields do not exist between microstrip and ground plane we have a
different dielectric constant than that of the substrate. It is less, depending on
geometry.


The electric field underneath the microstrip line is uniform across the line. It is
possible to excite an undesired tranverse resonant mode if the frequency or line
width increases. It now behaves like a resonator consuming power.


A standing wave develops across its width as it acts as a resonator. The electric field
is at a maximum at both edges and goes to zero in the centre.
Microstrip discontinuities can be used to advantage.


Abrupt truncation of microstrip lines develop fringing fields storing energy and
acting like a capacitor because changes in electric field distribution are greater than
that for magnetic field distribution.


The line is electrically longer than its physical length due to capacitance.


For a microstrip patch the width is much larger than that of the line the fringing
fields also radiate.


An equivalent circuit for a microstrip patch illustrates a parallel combination of
conductance and capacitance at each edge.


Radiation from the patch is linearly polarized with the E field lying in the same
direction as path length.
Endfire radiation can also be accomplished by judicious mode selection.For
rectangular patch, usually



The strip (patch) and the ground plane are separated by a dielectric sheet (substrate)



The substrates that are most desirable for antenna performance are thick
substrates whose dielectric constant is lower because they provide better efficiency,
larger bandwidth, loosely bound fields for radiation into space but at the expense of
larger element size.

t cons dielectric relative
wavelength space f ree is where
re
o
re
o
tan =
=
c

c

( ) ( )
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
=
2 / 1
12
1 1 1 5 . 0
/ 5 . 0
W
H
L
r r effr
re o
c c c
c
13. Arrays.- beam shaping scanning, large gain
















The total field of the array is determined by the vector addition of the fields radiated by the
individual elements.
In an array of identical elements, there are five controls that can be used to shape the overall
pattern of the antenna.
( i) the geometrical configuration of the overall array (linear, circular, rectangular, etc)
(ii) relative displacement between the elements
(iii) excitation amplitude of the individual elements
(iv) excitation phase of the individual elements
(v) the relative pattern of the individual element

MICROMACHINED ANTENNAS
Size of the antenna gets smaller as the frequency increases demanding
higher precision manufacturing which can be overcome by micro
machining technique


Incorporation of micro machined actuators within the antenna itself to
facilitate special features to the antenna such as beam shaping and
reconfigurability


Microstrip antennas

Circuit operation demand higher dielectric constant substrate whereas
antenna operation requires low dielectric constant substrate.





Effective dielectric constant is reduced by drilling small holes in the
antenna substrate




Antenna performance can be improved by removing materials of the
substrate below the antenna .




-Improve antenna characteristics achieved by forming trenches below
the radiating edges (instead of forming cavity below the patch) so that
the conductor of the patch was overhanging.



40% improved in BW and marked improvement in
radiation pattern achieved at 13.8GHz


Mutual coupling between antenna array elements is reduced by making
cavities below the patch radiators. Surface waves which contribute to the
mutual coupling are excited on the substrate above a cut off frequency
determined by its thickness.

More than 2/3 of the power is lost as surface waves on a 200m thick
substrate.

Micromachived Reconfigurable Antennas

- Antennas capable of adaptively changing their characteristics are
called reconfigurable antennas.
- Patch radiator of a micro machined antenna is rotated about a
fulcrum to get beam steering capabilities
The antenna is patterned on 100m fuzed quartz atop 500 m
silicon substrate, suspended by a pair of torsion springs.



The rotation is achieved by electrostatic forces activating fixed
electrode on the substrate.



MEMS actuators used to adjust the angles of the arms of a Ve
antennas operating at 17.5GHz
Reconfigurable multi band phased array antennas are receiving a lot
of attention lately due to the emergence of RF MEMS (microelectro
mechanical systems) switches [1-6].

A MEMS- switched reconfigurable multi band antenna is one that
can be dynamically reconfigured within a few microseconds to serve
different applications at drastically different frequency bands, such as
communications at L band (1-2 GHz) and synthetic aperture radar
(SAR) at X band (8-12.5 GHz).

They can be used both for ground and airborne moving target
indication (GMTI/AMTI) at these frequencies in order to detect moving
targets such as vehicles on the ground and low observables in the air.




The RF MEMS switch is attractive because it shows of achieving
execellent switching characteristics over an extremely wide band (DC
40 GHz and upwards).

These switches can also be used to develop wideband phase shifters .
Although there is currently a tremendous amount of research in RF
MEMS devices, reliability and packaging of the switches continue to be
problematic.


The switches are also limited in their power handling capability.

Reconfigurable patch Module (RPM):
In the design and fabrication of a dual L/X band reconfigurable
antenna, microstrip antenna elements were chosen due to their inherent
low profile, which is suitable for satellite and UAV applications.

RT/ duroid 5880 material with a dielectric constant of 2.2 and a loss
tangent of 0.0009 at 10 GHz is usually used.
The material thickness must be chosen carefully, since it controls both
the bandwidth and array scanning performance.
The thicker the material, the more bandwidth, particularly at the low
frequency end.

However, if the substrate becomes too thick, surface waves are generated
and array scanning performance and efficiency are lost.


Figure 1 shows a picture of the 3x3 RPM fabricated on 0.125 duroid.

The patches are 0.370 square and separated by 0.590 on center.

Interconnecting tabs are 0.050 wide and 0.085 long.

The reconfigurable antenna was actually fabricated as two separated
prototypes (OPEN and CLOSED configurations) for testing in the
laboratory.



Figure 1: Picture of 3x3 array prototypes fabricated on 0.125 thick substrate in (a)
OPEN configuration; and (b) CLOSED configuration.


1.2% impedance bandwidth for the L band configuration and greater
than 7% bandwidth at X band are achieved.



This bandwidth was limited primarily by the substrate thickness.



Computer simulation results for both the return loss and radiation
patterns agree well with the measurements.

Reconfigerable Antenna at C- band
In a number of radar applications, it is desired to have
limited antenna beam scanning and also different beam
patterns (like pencil beam, fan beam, etc.)
Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology is made
it possible to realize such antenna with simple configuration.
In one configuration, the elements of a phased array antenna
are switched using RF MEMS switches so that aperture area
and / or antenna elements sizes are changed.
In another configuration which uses V-antenna, the arms of
the V-antenna is moved using MEMS actuators so that the
beam can be scanned and also the beam can be shaped.

In many applications in proximity fuse, there is a requirement
of small light weight antenna with direction of beam along the
axis of the fuse.

If one get the facility of beam scanning, it provides good
system flexibility.
Usually, scanning beam requires either costly phase shifters or
cumbersome mechanical arrangement.
This system eliminates the need of phase shifter and
cumbersome mechanical arrangement yet it provides beam
scanning.
The overall system is light weight, simple and cheap.

The basic antenna is a Vee-antenna on silicon substrate, fabricated using
MEMS (micro- electromechanical system) technology and for beam
scanning electrostatic actuators is used as shown in fig.1..


When the angles between the arms of the antenna is changed, the beam
shape is altered .


When both the arms rotated together in one direction, the beam is
scanned.


Fig-1: MEMS Reconfigurable Vee- Antenna

Fig 2: Top view and details of a MEMS reconfigurable Vee-
antenna.
The system is capable of not only beam scanning, but also beam
shaping. The characteristics of Vee-antenna depends on the included
angle,2 of V dipole and the length, l of the arms. The optimum included
angles and maximum directivities are given by
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 2
0
2
149.3 603.4 809.5 443.6
for 0.5 1.5
2
13.39 78.27 169.77
for 1.5 3

+
s s
=

+
s s
( )
0
2.94 1.15 for 0.5 3
l
D

= + s s
By changing the angle, 2
o
the beam shape may be modified.
For scanning the beam, it requires the arms of V to be moved
simultaneously keeping the same included angle of V.
The arms of the V-antenna is movable through pulling or pushing by
actuators.
One end of the antenna arm is held by rotational hinge locked on the
substrate which allows the arms to rotate with the hinge as the center of
the circle.
The antenna arms are pulled or pushed by support bars connected to the
actuators with movable rotation hinges on both ends.
The movable rotation hinges translate the lateral movement of the
actuators to circular movement of the antenna arms which are electrically
separated from the support bar by dielectric material.
Fig.2 shows the system and Fig. 3 shows the performance at 3.00 GHz
reported (1) in the literature.
Fig 3 : E-plane co-pol and cross-pol patterns compared with the
theoretical co-pol patterns for the 3-GHZ model.

The actuations used for moving the arms of the antenna is usually of
electrostatic type. Which consists of a capacitor arrangement, where one
of the plate is movable by the application of bias voltage. This produces
displacement.

However , when a voltage is applied across the system, one plate moves
towards the other (are plate is kept fixed), resulting in a net gap
d = d
0
-x
The capacitance with the plates in new position is
0
0
A
C
d
e
=
1
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 1
A A
x
C C
d
d d x
Q t x t Q t Q t x t
V t
C d C C d

e e
| |
= = =
|
\ .
(
= =
(


The displacement x(t ) changes with the change of voltage V(t).

Specifications (Typical)


Frequency : 5.0 GHZ
Beamwidth : 30
0

Scanning angle : 45
0

Size : 5.5x 5.5 cm
2



Multiple Frequency Antennas
3. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS OF ANTENNAS
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power density.
Radiation Intensity
Directivity
Gain
Efficiency
Beamwidth
Beam efficiency
Bandwidth
Polarization
Input impedance
Antenna equivalent areas.
Antenna Radar Cross section
Antenna Temperature.

Radiation Pattern:
Defined as a mathematical functions or graphical representation of the radiation properties of
the antenna as a function of space coordinates
In general, the pattern of an antenna is three- dimensional. Because it is impractical to measure a
three dimensional pattern, a no. of two dimensional patterns are measured.
ii) The minimum no. of two dimensional pattern is two and they are E
and H- plane patterns.
Two dimensional pattern is obtained by fixing one of the angle ( and ) while varying other.

Power Pattern:- A trace of the received power at a constant radius
Amplitude Field Pattern:- A graph of the spatial variation of the electric (or magnetic)
field along a constant radius.
Isotropic Radiator A hypothetical lossless antenna having equal radiation in all directions.
Directional Antenna having the property of radiating or receiving electromagnetic waves more
effectively in some directions than in others.

Omni Directional having an essentially non directional pattern in a given plane and a
directional pattern in any orthogonal plane.

Principal Pattern for linearly polarized antenna, performance is described in terms of principal
E and H-plane patterns.

E- plane- the plane containing the electric field vector and the direction of maximum radiation.

H-Plane- the plane containing the magnetic field vector and the direction of maximum radiation.


Field region:-

There are three main components to the radiated electromagnetic fields surrounding an antenna.

Two near field regions and far field region.




In the reactive near field, reactive field components predominate over the radiated field. This
means that any variations in the electrical properties (for electrical antennas) or magnetic
properties (for magnetic antennas) have a strong influence on the antenna's impedance at the
antenna feed point. The distance from the antenna to the boundary of the reactive near field
region is commonly assumed as:



In the radiating near field, the radiated field predominates, and the antenna impedance is only
slightly influenced by the surrounding media in this region. But the dimensions of the antenna
cannot be neglected with respect to the distance from the antenna. This means that the angular
distribution of the radiation pattern is dependent on the distance. For measurements of the
radiation pattern, the distance from the antenna should be larger than the radiating near field
boundary, otherwise the measured pattern will be different from that under real life conditions.
The diameter of the radiating near field is



with D as the largest dimension of the antenna.
For distances larger than R2, the radiation pattern is independent of the distance, meaning we are
in the far field region. In a practical application, the distance between transmitter and receiver
antennas is usually in this region.



2
2
2D
R

=
3
1
0.62
D
R

=
(fresnel region)
Radiating near field
Radiating near field (fresnel region)
Far Field (Fraunhofer
region)
Radiating near field
(fresnel region)
Radiating near field
(fresnel region)
The field strengths of the near field components decreases rapidly with the increasing
distance from the antenna, one component being inversely related to distance squared and the
other distance cubed.
Far field-radiated field is TEM. Wave front is practically plane
Relative
power
dB
( )
sin
D
U u

H
=
2
2 / R D =
2
4 / R D = R=
R=
R=
Calculated radiation patterns of a paraboloid antenna.
Radiation & Steradian:

One radian is defined as the plane angle with its vertex at the center of a circle of radius r that
is subtended by an arc length, r.





















Steradian:

-as the solid angle with its vertex at the center of a sphere of radius, r that is subtended by a
spherical, surface area equal to that of a square of each side of length, r
Surface area = 4r
2

The infinitesimal area dA on the surface of a sphere of radius, r is
dA = r
2
sin d d (sr)
Therefore, the element of solid angle d of a sphere can be written as

( sr)




2
sin
dA
d d d
r
u u | O = =
Isotropic Radiator

The concept of the isotropic radiator is often used to describe radiated power and antenna gain.
The isotropic radiator is a hypothetical antenna, which radiates the supplied RF power equally in
all directions. The power density at a distance r from the isotropic radiator is therefore the
supplied power divided by the area of a sphere with the radius r.














1. Isotropic Radiator
If we measure the power density in some distance from a device under test, the effective isotropic
radiated power (EIRP) is the power which we would have to supply to an isotropic radiator in
order to get the same power density in the same distance. The EIRP describes the power radiation
capability of a device (including its antenna).


From the EIRP, we can calculate the electrical field strength at a given distance from the radiator,
which is specified in some government and regional regulations. The density of the radiated
power D (in W/m2) measured in the distance r from an isotropic radiator radiating the total
power EIRP is the radiated power divided by the surface area of the sphere with the radius r:


f we measure the power density in some distance from a device under test, the effective isotropic
radiated power (EIRP) is the power which we would have to supply to an isotropic radiator in
order to get the same power density in the same distance. The EIRP describes the power radiation
capability of a device (including its antenna).


From the EIRP, we can calculate the electrical field strength at a given distance from the radiator,
which is specified in some government and regional regulations. The density of the radiated
power D (in W/m2) measured in the distance r from an isotropic radiator radiating the total
power EIRP is the radiated power divided by the surface area of the sphere with the radius r:


The relationship between the electrical field strength and the power density is the same as
between voltage and power in an electrical circuit.
With the impedance of free space Z0 = 377 = 120 , the rms value of the electrical field
strength is then:




This gives:




Or:




Taking the logarithm on both sides gives the EIRP value in dBm:


EIRP[dBm]=E[dBV/m]+20 logr[meters]-10log30-90 dB


In standard test setups, the electrical field strength is often measured at a distance of 3 m. In this
case we can use the simple formula:


EIRP[dBm] = E[dBV/m] " 95.23 dB


As opposed to the hypothetical isotropic radiator, real antennas exhibit more or less distinct
directional radiation characteristics. The radiation pattern of an antenna is the normalized polar
plot of the radiated power density, measured at a constant distance from the antenna in a
horizontal or vertical plane.

The isotropic gain Giso of an antenna indicates how many times the power density of the
described antenna in the main direction of propagation is larger than the power density from an
isotropic radiator at the same distance.

Antenna gain does not imply an amplification of power; it comes only from the bundling of the
available radiated power in certain directions.



As opposed to the hypothetical isotropic radiator, real antennas exhibit more or less distinct
directional radiation characteristics. The radiation pattern of an antenna is the normalized polar
plot of the radiated power density, measured at a constant distance from the antenna in a
horizontal or vertical plane.




The isotropic gain Giso of an antenna indicates how many times the power density of the
described antenna in the main direction of propagation is larger than the power density from an
isotropic radiator at the same distance.




Antenna gain does not imply an amplification of power; it comes only from the bundling of the
available radiated power in certain directions.
Radiation Power Density:
The power associated with the electromagnetic wave is described by Poynting vector.



W = instantaneous Poynting vector(W/m2)
= inst. Electric field intensity (V/m)
H = inst. Magnetic field intensity (A/m)
W is power density. The total power crossing a closed surface can be obtained by integrating the
normal component of the Poynting vector over the entire surface.












Time average pointing vector (average power) can be written as.
Wav(x,y,z)=[w(x,y,x,t)]av = Re[EH*]. W/m
2

W H c =
*
* 2
. .
( , , , ) Re[ ( , , ) ]
( , , , ) Re[ ( , , ) ]
1
Re( )
2
1 1
Re[ ]. Re[ ]
2 2
s s
jwt
jwt
jwt jwt jwt
j wt
P W ds W n da
x y x t E x y z e
H x y x t H x y z e
Ee Ee E e
W H E H E He
c
c

= =
=
=
(
= +

= = +
}} }}
s
*
P rad=Pav= . . da
1
= Re[ ].
2
s
s
Wrad ds wav n
E H ds
=

}} }}
}}
Radiation Intensity:

Power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle



U - radiation intensity (W/solid angle)
W rad radiation density (W/m2)

The radiation intensity is also related to the far zone electric field of an antenna by






The total power is obtained by integrating radiation intensity over the entire solid angle
of 4.










2
U r W rad =
( ) | |
2
2
, ( , ,
2
r
U E r u | u |
q
=
2
0 0
P rad = U d sin U d d
t t
u u |
O
O =
}} } }
Where d= element of solid angle = sindd
2


y

x


For an isotropic source, U is independent of angles &





or Radiation intensity of an isotropic source is








0 0 0
rad= 4 P U d U d U
O O
O= O= H
}} }}
0
rad
4
P
U =
H
Directivity:

The ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to the radiation
intensity averaged over all directions.

Average radiation intensity =








The radiation intensity of an antenna can be taken as




B
0
Constant
E
0

, E

0
far zone electric field components
Umax = B
0
F(,) max = B
0
Fmax (,)
Total power radiated is



4
Total power radiated
H
0
4
P rad
U U
D
U
H
= =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
0 0
0
1
, , ,
2
U B F E E
u |
u | u | u |
q
(
= +
(

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
0
0 0
2
0 0
0
2
0 0
2
0 0
P rad= U , ( , ) sin
,
, 4
, sin
, max
4
, sin
4
=
, sin , max
4
= A- beam solid angle
A
d B F d d
F
D
F d d
F
D
F d d
F d d F
u u u u
u
u
u u u
u
u u u
u u u u
H H
O
H H
H H
H H
u O = u u
u
u = H
u u
u
= H
u u
H
(
u u u
(

H
O
O
}} } }
} }
} }
} }
The beam solid angle A is defined as the solid angle through which all the power of
the antenna would flow if its radiation intensity is constant (and equal to the maximum
value of U) for all angles with A

Gain:

Absolute gain: Ration of the intensity, in a given direction, to the radiation intensity that would be
obtained if the power accepted by the antenna were radiated isotropically.







Relative gain the ratio of the power gain in a given direction to the power gain of a reference
antenna in its reference direction.
Reference antenna usually a dipole, horn or any other antenna. Whose gain can be calculated or
known.










( )

4
( )
U ,
= 4
Pin
Radiation Intensity
gain
total input accepted power
u
= H
u
H
( )
( )
( ) ( )
0 0
4 ( , )
( )
P rad= lcd Pin
,
G( , ) 4
rad
G( , ) ,
, max , max D
U
G
Pin lossless isotropic source
U
lcd
P
lcdD
G G lcdD lcd
u
u
u
u u
u u
H u
=
( u
u = H
(

u = u
= u = u =
Antenna Efficiency

The radiation resistance is part of the impedance of the antenna at its feed point. Additionally, we
have the loss resistance Rloss which accounts for the power dissipated into heat as well as
reactive components L and C. Figure 2 has an equivalent circuit that describes the antenna
around its resonant frequency.









2. Antenna Equivalent Circuit
The inductor and the capacitor in the equivalent circuit build a series resonant circuit. The
antenna impedance Z is:





At the frequency of resonance,



the reactances of the capacitor and the inductor cancel each other out, soonly the resistive part of
the antenna impedance remains.

The inductance L and the capacitance C in the equivalent schematic are determined by the
antenna geometry. If we want to build an antenna for a given frequency, we have to find a
geometry that is resonant at the frequency of operation, such as a wire with a certain length.

At the frequency of resonance, the antenna input impedance equals Rr + Rloss. The antenna
efficiency h in resonance is the ratio of the radiated power to the total power accepted by the
antenna from the generator:




At frequencies other than the resonant frequency, the antenna input impedance is either capacitive
or inductive. This phenomenon is why it is possible to tune an existing antenna by adding a series
capacitor or inductor.

The L-to-C ratio determines the bandwidth of the antenna for given radiation and loss resistances.
For the same resistance values, a larger L-to-C ratio means a higher quality factor Q and a
smaller bandwidth.
The values of L and C in the equivalent schematic depend on the antenna geometry.Often we can
deduct intuitively how a variation of the geometry can influence L and C. The quality factor is
influenced by a contribution Qrad from the radiation resistance and Qloss from the loss
resistance. The overall Q of the antenna is:






Chu [1] and Wheeler [2] gave the theoretical limit for the quality factor Q and the fractional
bandwidth of a lossless antenna as:




with a as the radius of the smallest circumscribing sphere surrounding the antenna.
The selectivity of the antenna can help to suppress unwanted out-of-band emissions; but not
always a small bandwidth is desirable. A small bandwidth means stringent requirements on the
tolerances of the matching components and the antenna itself. For a given dimension of a small
antenna, we can only increase the bandwidth if we introduce intentional losses. The bandwidth of
an antenna with the efficiency is then:




The product of the bandwidth and the efficiency is a constant for a given antenna dimension. If
we want to gain one, then we have to sacrifice from the other.






-Antenna Efficiency takes into account the losses at the input terminal and within antenna
structure.

1. Reflection loss due to mismatch between transmission line and antenna

2. I
2
R losses (conduction and dielectric)











Voltage reflection coeff. at the input terminals of the antenna.
Zin input impedance of the antenna
Z0 Characteristic impedance of the transmission line.
.

0
in 0
in 0

Z
=
Z
r c d
l l e e
Z
Z
=

( )
2
0
1 l lcd =
lcd = lc ld = antenna radiation efficiency.
Half Power Beamwidth:

Important figure of merit. Often traded off between it and sidelobe level. Beamwidth
decreases as sidelobe level increases and viceversa. Resolution capability of two targets or
radiation sources depends on beamwidth.

Resolution capability of an antenna to distinguish two sources is equal to half the first null
beamwidth (FNBW/2) which is usually used to approximate the half power beamwidth.




Beam efficiency: (BE)






2
FNBW HPBW
1
( )
( )
Power transmitted received within cone angle
BE
Power transmitted received by the antenna
u
=
1 half angle of the cone within which the percentage of the total power is to be found.
1
2
0 0
2
0 0
( , ) sin
( , ) sin
U d d
BE
U d d
u
u | u u |
u | u u |
H
H H
=
} }
} }
If 1 is chosen as the angle where first null or minimum occurs, then the beam efficiency will
indicate the amount of power in the major lobe compared to the total power.

A BE required for Radar, Radiometry and other applications.


Bandwidth:


The range of frequencies within which the performance of the antenna with respect to
some characteristics conforms to a specified standard.


Polarization

Polarization describes the trace that the tip of the electrical field vector builds during the
propagation of the wave. In the far field, we can consider the electromagnetic wave as a plane
wave.

In a plane electromagnetic wave, the electrical and the magnetic field vectors are orthogonal to
the direction of propagation and also orthogonal to each other. In the general case, the tip of the
electrical field vector moves along an elliptical helix, giving an elliptical polarization. The wave
is called right-hand polarized if the tip of the electrical field vector turns clockwise while
propagating; otherwise it is left-hand polarized.


If the two axis of the ellipse have the same magnitude, the polarization is called circular. If one of
the two axis of the ellipse becomes zero, we have linear polarization. Similarly, polarization is
vertical if the electrical field vector oscillates perpendicularly to ground, and it is horizontal if its
direction of oscillation is parallel to the ground plane.


A transmission system has the best performance (ideal case) when the polarization of the
transmitter and the receiver antenna are identical to each other. Circular polarization on one end
and linear polarization on the other gives 3-dB loss compared to the ideal case. If both antennas
are linearly polarized but 90 turned to each other, theoretically no power is received. The same
phenomenon happens if one antenna is right-hand circularly polarized and the other one is left-
hand circularly polarized.
In an indoor environment, reflections in the transmission path may change the
polarization, which makes the polarization of the received wave difficult to predict. If
one of the antennas is portable, we have to make sure that it works in any position.
Circular polarization at one end and linear polarization at the other end results in a
principal loss of 3 dB, but avoids the case of a total blackout, where no power is
received.

Input-Impedance:

The impedance presented by an antenna at its terminals or the ratio of voltage to current at a
pair of terminals or the ratio of appropriate components of the electric to magnetic fields at a
point.


Generator
Radiated wave
ZA = RA+jXA
ZA antenna impedance at terminals a-b
RA- antenna resistance at terminals a-b
XA-antenna reactance terminals a-b
Rr radiation resistance terminals a-b
RL loss resistance

RA=Rr+RL

Zg = Rg+jxg


( )
( )
1
2 2
2
( )
( )
g g g
g
t A g
r L g A g
g
g
r L g A g
V V V
I
Z Z Z
R R R j X X
V
I
R R R j X X
= = =
+
+ + + +
=
(
+ + + +
(

The power delivered to the antenna for radiation is given by.





And that dissipated as heat by




The remaining power is dissipated as heat on the internal resistance Rg of the generator.

( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
1
2 2
g
r
r g
r L g A g
V
R
P I Rr
R R R X X
(
(
= =
(
+ + + +

( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
1
2 2
g
L
L g L
r L g A g
V
R
P I R
R R R X X
(
(
= =
(
+ + + +

( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
g
g
g
r L g A g
V
R
P
R R R X X
(
(
=
(
+ + + +

Maximum power is delivered to the antenna when we have conjugate matching i.e
Rr+RL=Rg
XA = -Xg

For this case











2
2
2
2
2
8 ( )
8 ( )
8
L
g
r
r
r L
g
L
r L
g
g
g
V
R
P
R R
R
V
P
R R
V
P
R
(
=
(
+

(
= (
+
(

=
Power supplied by the generator during conjugate matching.





Half of the power dissipated as heat in the internal resistance of the generator and the other half is
delivered to the antenna. Of the power that is delivered to the antenna, part is radiated through the
mechanism provided by the radiation resistance and the other is dissipated as heat.

Antenna Vector Effective Length and Equivalent Areas:

Vector effective length: The effective length of an antenna whether it be linear or an
aperture antenna, is a quantity that is used to determined the voltage induced on the open-circuit
terminals of the antenna when a wave impinges upon it.



` Voc Open Circuit voltage at antenna terminals
Ei incident electric field
Le Vector effective length














2
0
1 1
2 4
g
S g g
r L
V
P V I
R R
(
= =
(
+

i
oc e
V = E . L
Antennas Equivalent Areas:
These are used to describe the power capturing characteristics of the antenna when a wave
impinges on it. It is defined as.
The ratio of the available power at the terminals of a receiving antenna to the power flux
density of a plane wave incident on the antenna from that direction, the wave being polarization
matched to the antenna.



Ae effective aperture m
2
PT Power delivered to the load (W)
Wi Power density of incident wave (W/m
2
)
All the power that is intercepted, collected or captured by an antenna is not delivered to the load.











2
2
T T
T
e
i i
I R
P
A
W W
= =
Under conjugate matching only half of the captured power is delivered to the load, the other half
is scattered and dissipated as heat.
To account for the scattered and dissipated power, scattering loss and capture equivalent areas are
defined.
Capture area = Effective area + Scattering area + loss area





Maximum effective area
Aperture efficiency =
Physical area
1, for aperture antenna
>1, for wire antenna
s
Antenna Temperature
















Every object (with physical temp above O0K) radiates energy the amount of energy radiated is
usually represented by an equivalent temp. T
B
known as brightness temp.




T
B
brightness temp. (equivalent temp)
t emissivity (01)
T
m
molecular (physical ) temp
() reflection coeff.of the surface for polarization of the wave.
Brightness temp. emitted by the different sources is intercepted by antennas and it appears at their
terminals as an antenna temperature.








T
A
antenna temp. (effective noise temperature of the antenna radiation resistance).
G(,)- Gain (power) pattern of the antenna.


( ) ( )
( )
2
, , 1
B m m
T t T T u | u | = =
2
0 0
2
0 0
( , ) ( , )sin
( , )sin
B
A
T G d d
T
G d d
u | u | u u |
u | u u |
H H
H H
=
} }
} }
Assuming no losses between the antenna and receiver, the noise power transformed to the
receiver is given by

P
r
= K TA f
P
r
antenna noise power (W)
K Boltzmamns constant(1.38 x 10-23 J/K)
T
A
- Antenna temp
f Bandwidth

Antenna RCS
Antennas individually are radar targets which may exhibit large RCS.
The scattering and transmitting (radiating) characteristics of an antenna are related. In
general, the electric field scattered by an antenna with a load impedance, ZL can be expressed by




E
s(
Z
L
)-electric field scattered by antenna with load Z
L
E
s
(O) electric field scattered by short circuited antenna (Z
L
=0)
I
s
short circuited current induced by the incident field on the antenna with Z
L
=0
I
t
-antenna current in transmitting mode.
Z
A
= RA+jxA= antenna input impedance.
E
t-
electric field radiated by the antenna in transmitting mode.

( )
( ) 0
s s t
s L
L
t L A
I Z
E Z E E
I Z Z
=
+

L A
A
L A
Z Z
Z Z

=
+
( )
s s
s
A
t
I 1
E (ZL)=E (o) - 1
I 2
t
E +
To separate out structural and antenna mode scattering terms, assume the antenna is loaded with
conjugate matched impedance (ZL=Z*A)









*
s s *
s
L A
t
*
*
*
I 1
E (Z )=E (Z ) -
I 2 2

t
A
L A
L A
ZA
E
R
Z Z
Z Z

=
+
- electric field scattered by the antenna with conjugate matched load.

s *
A
E (Z )
* * *
( ) 2
s A m A A A m
I Z I Z Z R I = + =
I*
m
scattering current when antenna is conjugate matched (Z
L
=Z*
A
)




The total radar cross section of the antenna terminated with a load Z
L
can be written as
( )
( )
*
* *

s s t
m
L A
t
I
E Z E Z E
I
=
( )
2
1
s a j r
A
e
|
o o o = +

s
-RCS due to structural term

a
-RCS due to antenna mode term
r-relative phase between the structural and antenna mode terms
-Total RCS with antenna terminated with Z
L
If the antenna short circuited (
A
=-1) then

short
=
s
If the antenna open circuited (
A
=-1), then





2
2
s a j r
open
e
|
o o o =
If the antenna, matched (A=-0),then
















2
s a j r
matched
e
|
o o o =
4. ANTENNA MEASUREMENTS
The radiation characteristics of the antennas can be analyzed by methods like
GTD
Moment Method
Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD)
Finite Element

Often many antennas, because of their complex structural configuration and excitation method,
cannot be investigated analytically. Also, theoretical results should be verified
experimentally. Therefore, there are requirements for measurements.

1. The most convenient antenna measurement is with the test antenna in its receiving mode. If
the test antenna is reciprocal, the receding mode characteristics are identical to those
transmitted by the antenna.

2. The ideal condition for measuring far field pattern is the illumination of test antenna by
plane waves- uniform amplitude and phase.

3. Ideal condition is not achievable but it can be approximated by separating the test antenna
from the source. When the separation is , then the maximum phase error of the
incident field from the plane wave is 22.5
0

4. Reflections from the ground and nearby object are possible sources of degradation of
the test antenna illumination.

2
2D /
Antenna ranges.
Testing and evaluation of antennas are performed in antenna ranges.
Reflection ranges.
Free space ranges.
Reflection ranges.
can create a constructive interference in the region of test antenna which is referred to as the
quite zone
This is accomplished by designing the ranges so that specular reflections from the ground
combine constructively with direct rays.
These ranges are of outdoor type.
Free-space ranges.
These are designed to suppress the contribution from the surrounding environment and
include

Elevated ranges.
Slant ranges.
Anechoic chambers.
Compact ranges
Near field ranges

Elevated ranges.

Elevated ranges are usually designed to operate mostly over smooth terrains. The
antennas are mounted on towers or roofs of adjacent buildings. These ranges are used to test
large antennas.
The contribution from the surrounding environment are usually reduced eliminated by
Carefully selecting the directivity and SLL of the source antenna.
Clearing the line-of sight between antennas
Redirecting or absorbing any energy that is reflected from the range surface and/or from any
obstacles that can not be removed.
Utilizing special signal processing techniques such as modulation tagging of the desired signal or
by using short pulses.



Slant ranges.

The test antenna, along with its positioner, are mounted at a fixed height on a conducting tower
while the source antenna is placed near the ground.
The source antenna is positioned so that its pattern maximum is oriented toward the
center of the test antenna.
The first null is directed toward the ground. Slant ranges are more compact than
elevated ranges (require loss land).

















Anechoic chamber
Provide
controlled environment
all weather capability
security
minimum electromagnetic interference.

Testing is performed inside a chamber having walls that are covered with RF absorbing materials.

RF absorbers

give reflection coeff of 40 dB at normal incidence at frequencies as low as 100
MHz.

If freq. Is lowered, the thickness of RF absorber must be increased to keep same
level of reflectivity.

An RF absorber that meets minimum electrical requirements at lower freq. ,usually
possesses improved performance at higher frequencies.

Two basic types of anechoic chambers
Rectangular chambers.
Tapered chambers.
The design is based on geometrical optics and attempts to reduce or to minimize specular
reflections.

Rectangular chamber

designed to simulate free space condition

Maximizes the volume of quiet zone.

Takes into account the pattern and location of source, the freq. of operation

Assumes that the receiving antennas the test point is isotropic.





Tapered chamber

take the form of pyramidal horn

tapered at the beginning and leads ot rectangular chamber at the test region

At the lower end of the freq. At which the chamber is designed, the source is
placed near apex so that reflection from side walks and the direct rays have
approx some phase and they add at the test region providing smooth amplitude
illumination.

COMPACT RANGES.

The requirement of an ideal plane wave illumination can be nearly achieved by
utilizing a compact range.

A compact antenna test range (CATR) is

a collimating device which generates nearly planar wavefronts in a very
short distance (typically 10-20 meters compared to one or more curved
metal reflectors which perform the collimating function.

Essentially a very large reflector antenna designed to optimize the palmer
characteristics of the fields in the near field of the aperture.

1. One compact range configuration is that where a source antenna is used
as an offset field that illuminates a paraboidal reflector which converts the
impinging spherical waves to plane waves.

2. When the phase control of the feed is located at the prime focus of a parabolic
reflector, all rays that are reflected by the reflector and arrive at a plane transverse to
the axis of the parabola have traveled an equal distance. Therefore, the field at the
aperture of the reflector has a uniform phase ie that of a plane wave.



Major drawbacks

Aperture blocking
Direct radiation from the source to the test antenna
Diffractions from the edges of the reflector and feed support.
Depolarization coupling between the two antennas
Wall reflections.


















CATR performance.

1. A perfect plane wave would be produced by a CATR of the reflector which has an ideal
parabolic curvature, is infinite in size and is fed by a point source located at its focus.

2. CATR reflectors are of finite size and their surfaces have imperfections: Thus the test
zone fields they produce can only approx. plane waves.

3. The usable portion of the test zone consists of nearly planar wave fronts and is referred to
as the quiet zone. Out side the quiet zone, the amplitude of the fields decreases rapidly
as a function of distance traverse to the range axis.

4.. The size of quiet zone is typically about 50 -60% of the dimensions of the main reflector.

5. The field in the quiet zone is not perfect plane wave.

6. The imperfect plane wave in the quiet zone are represented by phase errors and ripple
and taper amplitude components.

7. For most applications, phase deviation of less than 10
0
peak to peak, amplitude ripples
of less than 1 dB and amplitude tapers of less than 1 dB are considered adequate.

8. Amplitude taper across quiet zone can be attributed to two sources: the feed pattern and
space attenuation

9. As the directivity of the feed antenna increases, quiet zone amplitude taper increases.
Usually, low-gain feed antennas are designed to add less than a few tenths of a dB of
amplitude taper.

10. The space attenuation occurs with the spherical spreading of the unmotivated
radiation from the feed. Although the total path from the feed to the quiet zone is a
constant, the distance from the feed to the reflector varies- resetting amplitude taper in
the quiet zone.

11. The amplitude taper is asymmetric in the plane of the feed offset.

12. Amplitude and phase ripple are primarily caused by diffractions from the edges of the
reflector. The diffracted fields are spread in all directions which, along with the specular
reflected signal, form constructive and destructive interference patterns in the quiet zone.

13. Reflector edge treatment including serrations and rolled edges can minimize quiet zone
ripple.

14. The serrated edge of a reflector tapers the amplitude of the reflected fields near the edge.
(Serrations produce many low amplitude diffractions as opposed to the large amplitude
diffractions that would be generated by the four straight edges and corners of a sector
knife-edge reflector. These small diffractions make quasi-randomized in location and
direction ; hence they are likely to have cancellations in the quiet zone)

2
1
r
15. A number of blended, raked edge treatments have been suggested as alternatives to
serrations and have been implemented to gradually redirect energy away from the quiet
zone.

16. Taper illumination amplitude near the reflector edges will also reduce ripple in the quiet
z one. This can be accomplished with a high gain feed or the feed can consist of an array
of small elements designed so that a null in the feed pattern occurs at the reflector edges.

17. The surface currents on the reflector can be terminated gradually at the edges by tapering
the conductivity and/or the impedance of the reflector via the application of glossy material
resulting in reduction of ripples in the quiet zone.

18. The freq. of operation of CATR is determined by the size of the reflector and its surface
accuracy. The low freq. limit is usually encountered when the reflector is about 25 to 30
wavelengths in diameter. Quit zone ripple becomes large at low freq. limit. At high
freq., reflector surface imperfection contribute to the quite zone ripple.

19. A rule of thumb in the design of CATR is that the surface must deviate less than about
0.007 from that of a true paraboloid.

20. Since the effects of reflector surface imperfection is additive, dual reflector systems must
maintain twice the surface precision of a single reflector system to operate at the same
frequency.
21. CATR operates typically from 1 GHz to 100 GHz.
CATR design.

There are four reflector configurations for CATR:

1. The single parabolic cylinder.
2. The dual parabolic cylinder
3. The dual shaped reflector
4. The single parabolic cylinder systems.

First three configurations are fully collimating compact ranges. The fourth is a hybrid approach
which combines compact range technology and NF/FF techniques.

1. The single parabolic reflector CATR.

In this offset feed is used to eliminate aperture blockage and to reduce scattering of the
collimated fields by the feed.

To achieve offset, the reflector is a sector of a parabolid that does not include the vertex. This
design is referred to as a virtual vertex compact range. Feed spikover into the quiet zone is
low since the feed antenna is posited almost directly away from the test zone.

It is difficult and costly to produce a high precision surface that is curved into two planes. Also,
the single paradoxical reflector depolarizes the incident fields to a greater degree. This is due
to the relatively low f/d ratio needed to simultaneously maintain the feed antenna between the
test zone and the reflector while keeping the test zone as close as possible to the reflector
aperture.
2. Dual Parabolic cylinder reflector CATR first reflector (Vertical Colhimater)

The system consists of two parabolic cylinders arranged so that one is curved in one
plane (Vertical or horizontal) whicle the other is curved in the orthogonal plane.

The spherical phase front radiated by the feed antenna are collimated first in the
horizontal or vertical plane by the first reflector, then are collimated in the
orthogonal plane by the second reflector.

The bore sight of the feed antenna is directed at almost 900 to the plane wave
propagation direction, direct illumination of the test zone lay the feed can be
relatively high.

Quiet zone contamination from feed spillover is virtually eliminated by the use of range
gating.

Relatively low cross polarization is produced because the doubly folded optics results
in a long focal length main reflector.









3. The dual shaped reflector CATR

An iterative design process is used to determine the shapes of the sub reflector and main
reflector needed to yield the descried quite zone performance. The shape of the sub reflector
maps the high gain feed pattern into a nearly optimum illumination of the main reflector.

This design results in a very high illumination efficiency two consequences of this high
illumination efficiency are

(1) the reduction of spikover into the chamber reduces range clutter and (2) the increased RF
power delivered to the target increases system sensitivity.













4. Single parabolic cylinder reflector CATR

It is essentially half of the dual parabolic cylinder CATR. The reflector has a parabolic curve
tare in the vertical plane and is flat in the horizontal plane. This semi compact antenna test
range collimates the fields only in the vertical plane, producing a quiet zone which consists of
cylindrical waves.

This single plane collimating range (SPCR) approach results in a no. of advantages and
compromises.

( i ) For antennas that are small compared to the curvature of the cylindrical phase front, for
field radiation patterns can be measured directly.

( ii ) When the size of the antenna is significant relative to the curvature of the cylindrical
phase front, a NF/FF transformation is used to obtain the for field pattern . Since the fields
are collimated in the vertical plane, only one-dimensional transformation is required which
greatly simplifies the transformation algorithm.

(iii) In the vertical plane, the quiet zone dimension compared to the SPCR reflector is similar to
that of conventional CATRs (about 50% to 60%). However, in the horizontal plane the quiet
zone is nearly 100% of the horizontal dimension of the reflector.
( iv ) Because the quiet cone fields are expanding cylindrically a large portion of the anechoic
chamber is directly illuminated. This gives range clutter and sensitivity of measurement is
reduced.
Near-Field / Far Field Method:

The dimensions of a conventional test range can be reduced by making measurements in the
near field and then using analytical methods to transform the measured near-field data to
compute far field radiation characteristics.

1. The measuring system is time and cost effective and computed patterns are as accurate
as
those measured in a far-field range.

2. But such methods require more complex and expensive systems, more extensive
calibration
procedure, more sophisticated computer software and the patterns are not obtained in
real
time.
3. The near-field measured data (amplitude and phase) are measured by a scanning field
probe
over a preselected surface which may be plane, a cylinder or a sphere. The measured
data
then transformed to the far-field using analytical Fourier Transform methods.

4. The complexity of the transform increases from planar to cylindrical and cylindrical to
spherical surfaces. The choice is determined by the antenna to be measured.

5. Planar system is better suited for high gain antenna especially for phased arrays and it
requires the least amount of computations and no movement of the antenna.

6. Cylindrical system requires more computations than the planar, for many antennas its
measuring, positioning and probe equipment are least expensive.

7. The spherical system requires the most expensive computation, and antenna and probe
positioning equipment which can become quiet significant for large antenna systems.
This
system is best suited for measurements of low gain and omnidirectional antennas.
8. i) Acquisition of planar near field data is conducted over a rectangular x-y grid with a
maximum near field sample spacing of .

ii) The test antenna is held stationary while the probe (typically open ended waveguide,
small horn, etc) is moved to each grid location on the plane.

iii) The direction property of the probe as well as its polarization must be taken into
account using technique of probe compensation.

iv) Planar transformation is suitable for applying computationally efficient FFT algorithm.
This method is well suited for measuring antennas with low backlobes like horns, reflectors,
planar arrays, etc.

v) Primary disadvantage of plannar system is that the resulting far field pattern is over a
limited angular span.
2
x y

A = A =
If the planar scanning surface is of infinite extent, one complete hemisphere of the far field
can be computed.



9) i) A complete set of near field measurements over a cylindrical surface
includes the information needed to compute complete azimuthal patterns
for all elevation angles. Excluding the conical regions at the top and bottom of
the cylinder axis.

ii) Numerical integration can be performed with the FFT resulting numerical
efficiencies and computation times similar to planar system.

iii) The max. angular and vertical sample spacings are








2( )
z =
2
a
and

A =
+
A

.

iv) The azimathal location of the antenna is held constant while the fields are probed at
discrete locations in the vertical direction. After each complete vertical scan, the test
antenna is rotated to the next angular position





v) Directional antennas, antennas with narrow patterns along the vertical axis (horizantal fan
beam antennas and vertical dipoles) can be predicted efficiently with the cylindrical NF / FF
technique.









.
10. i) The information obtained by scanning the near field radiation over a spherical surface
enclosing a test antenna makes possible the most complete prediction of the far
field radiation patter.

ii) Scanning grid is


2( )
=
2
a
and

|
A =
+
A
Typically, a spherical scan is accomplished by fixing the location and orientation of the probe and
varying the angular orientation of the test antenna with a dual-axis positioner.

iii) Since the probe is always pointed directly toward the test antenna, probe correction can be
neglected.

iv) Primary draw back of this method is that the significant portion of transformation cannot be
carried out using FFTs Numerical integrations, matrix operations and simultaneous solution
of equations are required. This increases the computational time and difficulty of the
transformations considerably.
Setup for a quiet-zone scan
INSTRUMENTATION

1. Source antenna and transmitting system

2. Receiving system.

3. Positioning system.

4. Recording system.

5. Data Processing system.














Measurement in the Laboratory

1. Amplitude pattern degrees

2. Phase measurements.

3. Gain measurements

4. Directivity (measure E, H patterns, determine
E
,
H
, calculate

5. Radiation Intensity

6. Impedance

7. Current measurement

8. Polarization measurement.

9. Scale model measurements.








0
E H
41253
D
u u
=
Measurements using Network Analyze
Gain Measurement:
Comparison with a standard gain horn
The signal obtained from the antenna under test is compared by substitution
with that from an antenna of known gain, such as a standard gain horn, with
constant power transmitted from the source antenna, under controlled
conditions such as an anechoic chamber or test range. The gain G of the antenna
under test is simply given by
s
R
s
G
G P
P
=
Where P
R
is the power accepted by the antenna under test, G
s
is the gain of the
standard gain horn and P
s
is the power accepted by the standard gain horn, allowing
for any mismatches. The advantage of this method is that it does not rely on
knowledge of the path loss due to the distance betweent he source antenna and the
antenna under test.

Two- Antenna Measurement:

The Friis transmission equation establishes the power received by the antenna under
test as

So If P
s
, G
s
and r a known, a measurement of P
r
allows G to be determined . If Gs
is not known, then identical test antennas may be used at both the transmit and
receive ends of the path to established their gain.
Alternatively, the return signal from a single test antenna facing a large conducting
sheet may be used to measure its gain (the effective chamber length being twice the
separation of the antenna and the sheet). This is known as Purcells method. It is
important that the inherent mismatch of the test antennas is taken into account.

( )
2
2
2
4
S S
R
P G G
P
r

t
=
Three-antenna measurement
If three antennas of unknown gains G
1
, G
2
and G
3
are used as source and ,test antennas in
all three possible combinations, denoting the source power by P
s
, the received powers are
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 2 3 1 3
12 23 13 2 2 2
2 2 2

4 4 4
S S S
P GG P G G P GG
P P P
r r r

t t t
= = =
These can be solved for G1, G2 and G3, giving
13 12 23 12 13 23
1 2 3
S 23 S 13 S 12
P P P P P P 4 4 4
G G
P P P P P P
r r r
G
t t t

= = =
This method, again, does not rely on the use of a standard gain antenna, but does
require knowledge of the path length between the source and test ends of the
chamber, and of the source power P
s
.
Extrapolation
The. most accurate method currently in use is that developed by- Newell et al.
1
at the
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA, and refined by Workers
at National Physical Laboratory (NPL) , Teddington, UK. These laboratories amongst
others) provide a calibration service for antenna gains.
The method is a development of the three- antenna technique, but eliminates the uncertainty
in knowledge of the path loss. This may arise because of difficulties in locating the exact
phase centre of each antenna (is it at the aperture of a horn or at its 'throat' ?). To overcome
this, measurements are made at a number of separations of source and test antennas and a
polynomial fitted to the measurements using a least- squares technique, and then
extrapolated to infinite range. In the NPL method, the polynomial also includes sine and
cosine terms to model the oscillations due to multiple reflections.
If the measurements are to be made at a number of frequencies over a band (as would
usually be the case), then the procedure has to be automated under computer control. An
overall accuracy of better than O.O4 dB is claimed. Fig. shows this technique being used
for the measurement of the gain of a log spiral antenna.
Gain calibration of a log sprial antenna, being carried out in an anechoic chamber at
the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK (Crown copyright)
Radiation Pattern Measurements
Measurments of radiation pattern and of gain are best performed in an unobstructed
medium without the presence of any object that might give rise to reflections. Either a
large outdoor test range or (more commonly) an anechoic chamber may be used.
Outdoor test ranges allow a greater distance between the source antenna and the
antenna under test (and hence a better approximation to a plane wave), but may be
undesirable if one does not want to reveal the antenna under test (and hence a better
approximation to a plane wave), but may be undesirable if one does not want to reveal
that antenna under test for reasons of commerical or military security. Fig. shows an
example of a typical outdoor test range.

The outdoor test range at Funtington in Southern England (Crown copyright)
Anechoic chambers and far field ranges
An anechoic chamber (Fig.15.3) consists of an enclosed room with a source
antenna at one end which is used to excite the antenna under test at the other
end. The antenna under test is mounted on a turntable or multi-axis positioner
which is rotated to obtain its radiation pattern. The chamber is lined with
Radio Absorbing Material (RAM) which minimizes reflections from the walls,
floor and ceiling. Chambers are sometimes tapered to prevent the formation of
standing waves.

Figure
RAM [1] is made from carbon-impregnated polyurethane foam (or similar), and ,
usually has a tapered pyramidal shape, which in effect provides a gradual transition
between the impedance of free space and that of the metal sheet that forms the walls of
the chamber. Figure shows typical RAM of this kind. Reflection coefficients of
typically -20 to -40 dB are obtainable over a range of incidence angles and frequencies,
for absorber thicknesses of the order of a few wavelengths. More sophisticated
absorbers can be made from multi-layer structures, but these are only: used in
specialized applications.
As well as being rotatable in azimuth, the antenna under test may be tilted in elevation.
Also, the source antenna may be rotated about its axis for polarization measurements
(see 15.2.6). The chamber is usually arranged to transmit from the source antenna and
receive on the antenna under test, although this arrangement may be reversed if it is
more convenient. The turntable positioner, plotter, receiver and transmit source are
usually all under computer control, and purpose-built suites of instrumentation are
ayai1able from manufacturers such as Orbit, Agilent and Scientific Atlanta.
ANTENNA NOISE TEMPERATURE AND G/T

Measurement of antenna noise temperature
The noise temperature T A of an antenna was defined in 4.3 as the average, weighted
by the gain, of the temperatures surrounding the antenna
( )
(4 )
1
( )
4
A
T T u G u d
t
t
= O
}
Clearly this depends both on the orientation of the antenna and the environment in which
it is placed. For this reason, a measurement of antenna temperature must be carried out in
situ. In principle, if the radiation pattern G(u) is accurately known, and the function T(u)
is known or can accurately be approximated (for example, 290 K below the horizon and
an appropriate value of sky temperature, according to the frequency, above the horizon),
then the integration of equation (15.13) can be performed and T A determined.
Alternatively, if the receiver noise temperature T R is known (which will
usually be the case), the receiver noise output with the antenna connected can be
compared with that when a 50 load (at 290 K) is connected to the receiver input.
Denoting this ratio by Y
( )
( )
290
A R
R
k T T B
Y
k T B
+
=
+
Where k is Boltzmanns constant and B is the receiver noise bandwidth
From this
290 ( 1)
A R
T Y T Y = +
Direct measurement of G/T using solar noise
Probably the simplest way of deriving G/T is to make separate measurements of G and
T and to combine them. There is, however, an elegant way of measuring the ratio of
gain to system noise temperature directly, using the Sun as a noise source.
Suppose firstly that the antenna is pointed at 'cold' sky. The receiver noise
power, referred to the antenna terminal, is given by


T sys is the system noise temperature, and includes sky noise, ground noise via the
antenna sidelobes and backlobes, and loss prior to the LNA (both as a loss and as a
source of noise itself), the LNA noise temperature, and the noise temperature of any
subsequent stages, weighted in each case by the inverse of the gain preceding them.
Po is therefore the noise power against which any signal must compete for
detection.
Suppose now that the antenna is pointed at the Sun. The receiver noise power,
referred to the antenna terminal, is now
n sys
P kT B =
2
'
4
n sys
G
P B kT B

t
= u +
where G is the antenna gain at boresight and is the solar flux, in W/m
2
/Hz.
The ratio of these noise powers may be measured (both subject to the same
receiver gain), giving
2
' 2
/ 4
/ 4
1
sys
n
n sys sys
G B kT B
P G B
P kT B kT B
t
t
u +
u
= +
From which the G/T ratio is given directly by
The solar flux is not actually constant, and three components can be
distinguished: (i) a constant component (the so-called 'quiet Sun'); (ii) a slowly
varying component, varying on timescales of the order of a week; and (iii) sporadic
radioemission (bursts), which last from a few seconds to a few minutes. is
expressed in 'solar flux units', where one solar flux unit is equivalent to 10
-22

W/m
2
/Hz, and values range from below 50 to over 300, a total variability of the
order of 8 dB. It is also a fairly strong function of frequency, though an
interpolation formula has been derived
11
:
'
2
4
1
n
sys n
P G k
T P
t

(
=
(
u

( )
2
2 2 1
1
2
1
1
f
f
f
f
(
| |
( |
( |
u = u + u u
( |
( |
|
(
\ .

where is the desired solar flux density at frequency f, and
1
and
2
are the
solar
flux denities at frequencies f
1
and f
2
respectively.
Measurements of are made at a frequency of 2.8 GHz each day at
approximately".,
1700 UT by tlte Penticton Radio Observatory, British Columbia, Canada, and the.
results are available from various sources.
The solar flux will be subject to any atmospheric attenuation due to water vapour
and precipitation, which under extreme conditions might be as much as 10 dB at
microwave frequencies.. Obviously it is best to perform the measurement on a
clear, dry day when such attenuation can be ignored.
With most types of antenna likely to be measured by this method, the angular
extent of the Sun (- 0.5) will be significant compared with the antenna
beamwidth, so the solar flux is not received with equal gain across the whole of
the antenna beam. The value used for the solar flux must be corrected to account
for this, and the correction factor is give by
2 2
1
1 0.163
b
s s
a a
L
| |
| |
=
(
| | | |
( +
| |
(
\ . \ .

where angular extent of the Sun; and are the -3 dB azimuth
and elevation beamwidths (respectively) of the antenna under consideration.
It is also possible to use this technique with 'radio stars', such as Cassiopeia-A or
Cygnus-A. These are much weaker but more constant, and are a good approximation
t~ a point source. An accuracy of 0.3 dB has been claimed for a measurement using
Cassiopeia-A of the G/T
sys
of a to-metre earth station.
s s
| u = =
a a
and | u
IMPEDANCE AND BANDWIDTH
A vector network analyser may be used to measure the complex reflection
coefficient at the antenna feed, from which the complex antenna impedance may
be derived. The antenna must be measured in a situation that is representative of
its operational use for this, as with any other measurement, since any structure
close to the antenna could modify its impedance: In many cases only the
magnitude of the mismatch is of interest, in which case the return loss, , is
measured. The voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) and the reflection coefficient
are related by
2
1/
1
1
VSWR

+
=

From which the return loss is given by


2
2
1 1
1
VSWR
VSWR

+
| |
=
|

\ .
The transmission coefficient is
2 2
1 t =
So that the VSWR loss is
( )
2
2
4
1
VSWR
r
VSWR
=
+
The variation of return loss and VSWR loss as a function of VSWR is shown in
Table 1. Evidently,' a high value of return loss is desirable for good matching and
low VSWR loss. A device might be considered to be well matched if it has a
VSWR of 2 or less, corresponding to a return loss of at least 9.5 dB and a VSWR
loss of no more than 0.51 dB.
The bandwidth of an antenna is often limited by its input impedance. The 3 dB
points are the frequencies for which the return loss (and VSWR loss) are 3 dB,
corresponding to a VSWR of 5.83
MEASUREMENTS OF CELLULAR RADIO HANDSET ANTENNAS
In recent years it has become important to be able-to make reliable measurements of
the radiation from mobile phone handset antennas, both to quantify the effect of any
potential radiation hazard to the user, and to measure the directional properties. The
radiation is significantly affected by the presence of the user's head - indeed, in some
present models, more than half the radiated power may be absorbed in the user's head. This
is most usually taken into account by using a 'phantom', which is a physical model of the
human head with equivalent dielectric properties. Fig. shows a typical phantom of this kind,
which is filled with liquid.
Specific Absorption Rate
The power absorbed in materials exposed to radiation is expressed in Watts per
kilogram by means of the specific absorption rate (SAR), defined as follows:
2
2
dep
dP E
SAR
dm
o

= =
where p (kg/m
3
) is th.e'ttissue density, (S/m) is the tissue conductivity ~d Eis
the
electric field within the tissue. The recommended safe SAR values are
internationally agreed and depend on a variety offactorsl3 relating to how the
phone is used; as a guide, a SAR of about 4 W /kg produces a temperature rise
of approximately 1C in human tissue. For mobile phones the European
standard is a maximum of 2 W /kg averaged over 109 of tissue, while in the
USA the value is 1.6 W /kg averaged over I g of tissue.
Extensive simulatin work has been carried out globally using anatomical
head models to investigate SAR together with the power level contours in
the brain, but most confidence is place in field probe measurment within a
tissue phantom using an actual handset. One such instrument for SAR
measuremnet is the DASY (Dosimetric Assessment System) equipment,
manufactured by Schmidt and Partner Engineering AG in Switzerland, and
shown in fig. This uses a probe to measure the electric field within the
phantom and hence with a knowledge of the dielectric properties the SAR
can be computed from eqn