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2008/2009 II

BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER


FKKSA, UMP
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Introduction to Mass
Transfer
CHAPTER 1
2008/2009 II
BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
It is expected that student will be able to:
Describe the introductory concept of mass
transfer.
List the applications of mass transfer and diffusion
Describe the fundamental of Ficks Law of
Diffusion
Solve the mathematical solution of Ficks Law of
Diffusion

2
Topic Outcomes
2008/2009 II
BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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Introduction
Mass Transfer is an engineering term for
physical processes that involve molecular
and convective transport of atoms and
molecules within physical systems.

Mass transfer may occur in a gas mixture, a
liquid solution or solid.

2008/2009 II
BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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Mass transfer occurs whenever there is a
gradient in the concentration of a species.

Definition: Transfer of mass from high
concentration to low concentration.

The basic mechanisms are the same whether
the phase is a gas, liquid, or solid.
2008/2009 II
BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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Definition of Concentration
i) Number of molecules of each species
present per unit volume (molecules/m
3
)

ii) Molar concentration of species i = Number
of moles of i per unit volume (kmol/m
3
)

iii) Mass concentration = Mass of i per unit
volume (kg/m
3
)

2008/2009 II
BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
Quantifying Mass Transfer
Allows for design and manufacture of
separation equipment that can meet
specified requirements.
Estimate what will happen in real life
situation such as chemical spill etc.
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Why Mass Transfer?
2008/2009 II
BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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Application of Mass Transfer
Daily experience
Add sugar to the coffee.
Evaporation of water from a pond to the
atmosphere because of the difference in
concentration of water vapor at the water
surface and the surrounding air.



2008/2009 II
BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
A drop of orange liquid dye is added to a
glass of water. The dye molecules will
diffuse slowly by molecular diffusion to all
parts of the water.

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Application of Mass Transfer
2008/2009 II
BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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Chemical Process
The doping of a silicon wafer to form a
semiconducting thin film.

Biological Process
Oxygenation of blood
Transport of ions across membranes
within the kidney


Application of Mass Transfer
2008/2009 II
BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
Chemical Separation Process
Adsorption
Liquid-liquid extraction
Distillation
Drying
Gas absorption

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Application of Mass Transfer
2008/2009 II
BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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Mass Transfer
Molecular Diffusion
Convective Mass
Transfer
The two modes of mass transfer:
Molecular diffusion
Convective mass transfer
2008/2009 II
BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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Diffusion Phenomena
12
Whenever there is concentration difference in a medium,
nature tends to equalize
things by forcing a flow
from the high to the low
concentration region.


The molecular transport process of mass is characterized by
the general equation:

Rate of transfer process = driving force
resistance


Before After
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BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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Consider a tank that is divided into two equal parts by a
partition.
Initially, the left half of the tank contains nitrogen N
2
gas while
the right half contains air (about 21% O
2
and 79% N
2
) at the
same temperature and pressure.
When the partition is removed the N
2

molecules will start diffusing into the air
while the O
2
molecules diffuse into the N
2
.
If we wait long enough, we will have a
homogeneous mixture of N
2
and O
2
in
the tank.

Example Diffusion Phenomena
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BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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Molecular diffusion or molecular transport can be defined as
the transfer or movement of individual molecules through a fluid
by mean of the random, individual movements of the molecules.






If there are greater number of A molecules near point (1) than at
(2), then since molecules diffuse randomly in both direction, more
A molecules will diffuse from (1) to (2) than from (2) to (1).
The net diffusion of A is from high to low concentration regions.


Schematic diagram of molecular diffusion process
B
B
B B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
A
A
(2)
(1)
Ficks Law of Diffusion
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BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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The diffusion of molecules when the whole bulk
fluid is not moving but stationary. Diffusion of
molecules is due to a concentration gradient.

The general Ficks Law Equation for binary mixture of A and B
dz
dx
cD J
A
AB AZ

*
c = total concentration of A and B [kgmol (A + B)/m
3
]
x
A
= mole fraction of A in the mixture of A and B

Molecular Diffusion Equation
(1)
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BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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Molecular Diffusion Equation
Ficks Law


is the molar flux of component A in the z direction
[kgmol A/s.m
2
]

is the molecular diffusivity of the molecule A in B
[m
2
/s]
is the concentration of A in kg mol/m
3

z is the distance of diffusion [m]
dz
dc
D J
A
AB AZ

*
*
A
J
AB
D
A
c
If c is constant
c
A
= cx
A
(2)
c dx
A
= d(cx
A
) = dc
A
(3)
Substituting in equation (1) we obtain
equation for constant total concentration


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BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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Example 6.1-1 (pg 413) Molecular
Diffusion of Helium in Nitrogen
A mixture of He and N
2
gas is contained in a
pipe at 298 K and 1 atm total pressure which
is constant throughout. At one end of the pipe
at point 1 the partial pressure p
A1
of He is 0.6
atm and at the other end 0.2 m p
A2
= 0.2 atm.
Calculate the flux of He at steady state if D
AB

of the He-N
2
mixture is 0.687 x 10
-4
m
2
/s. (R
is 82.057 x 10
-3
m
3
.atm/kg mol.K)
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BKF 2432: MASS TRANSFER FKKSA, UMP
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