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Electronic Filters

Engr. Edelito A. Handig
Introduction
• Filtering
It is a process of changing the relative
magnitudes of different signals which are of
different frequencies.
• Electronic Filter
An electronic circuits which perform signal
processing functions, specifically to remove
unwanted frequency components from the
signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both.

Introduction
• Pass-band
It is the band of frequencies that a filter
allows to pass through.
• Stop-band
It is the band of frequencies that a filter
attenuates.
• Roll-off rate
It is the rate of transition from pass-band to
stop- band or vice versa.

Introduction
• Cut-off Frequency
It is the boundary frequency between pass-
band and stop-band. Also known as -3dB
freq., corner freq., break freq., freq. at
0.707Vmax or at half power output.
• Octave
It is the change in frequency by a factor of
two.
• Decade
It is the change in frequency by a factor of
ten.

Introduction
• Types of Filters:
According to filtering components:
Passive Filter
Active Filter

According to frequency response:
Low pass filter
High pass filter
Band-pass filter
Band-stop filter
Active and Passive Filters
• Passive implementations of filters are based on
combinations of resistors (R), inductors (L),
and capacitors (C). They do not depend upon an
external power supply and/or they do not
contain active components such as transistors or
amplifiers.

• Active filters are implemented using a
combination of passive and active (amplifying)
components, and require an outside power
source.
Low pass filter
• A low-pass filter is an electronic filter that passes
low frequency signals but attenuates signals with
frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency.
• It is sometimes called a high-cut filter, or treble
cut filter when used in audio applications.

Low pass filter
• Gain vs. Frequency Response

High pass filter
• A high-pass filter (HPF) is an electronic filter that
passes high-frequency signals but attenuates
signals with frequencies lower than the cutoff
frequency.
• It is sometimes called a low-cut filter or bass-cut
filter. High-pass filters are use to block DC from
circuitry sensitive to non-zero average voltages
or RF devices.
High pass filter
• Active filter implementation and
its Gain vs. Frequency response

Filter: Seatwork
• Analyze the given circuits. Identify the type of
filter. Show a proof or explain your answer.