Sie sind auf Seite 1von 1

VETIVER GRASS TECHNOLOGY FOR MINE REHABILITATION IN

QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA
Paul Truong, DNR, Brisbane, Australia
Vetiver
Vetiver grass
grass (Vetiveria
(Vetiveria zizanioides
zizanioides L.)
L.) has
has been
been shown
shown to
to have
have high
high level
level of
of tolerance
tolerance to
to adverse
adverse climatic
climatic and
and
edaphic
edaphic conditions,
conditions, and
and heavy
heavy metal
metal toxicities.
toxicities. Vetiver
Vetiver Grass
Grass Technology
Technology hashas been
been used
used very
very successfully
successfully for
for the
the
rehabilitation
rehabilitation of
of overburden
overburden and
and tailings
tailings of
of coal,
coal, gold,
gold, bentonite
bentonite and
and arsenic
arsenic mines
mines in
in Queensland,
Queensland, Australia.
Australia.
Heavy Metal Contents of a Representative Gold Mine Tailings in
Australia. Tolerance Range of Vetiver Grass
Threshold Levels of Heavy Metals of Vetiver Growth as Compared with Other
Heavy Metals Total Contents Environmental Threshold Species.
(mgKg-1) levels (mgKg-1)*
Adverse Soil Conditions
Acidity pH 3.3 Heavy Thresholds to Plant Growth Thresholds to Vetiver
Aluminium level (Al Sat. %) Between 80% - 87% Metals (mgKg-1) Growth
Arsenic 1 120 20 Manganese level > 578 mgkg -1 (mgKg-1)
Chromium 55 50 Alkalinity (highly sodic) pH 11.5 Hydroponic Soil levels Soil levels Shoot levels
Copper 156 60 Salinity (50% yield reduction) 17.5 mScm -1 levels (a) (b)
Manganese 2 000 500 Salinity (survived) 47.5 mScm -1 Arsenic 0.02-7.5 2.0 100-250 21-72
Lead 353 300
Sodicity 33% (exchange Na) Cadmium 0.2-9.0 1.5 20-60 45-48
Strontium 335 NA
Zinc 283 200 Magnesicity 2 400 mgkg -1 (Mg) Copper 0.5-8.0 NA 50-100 13-15
Chromium 0.5-10.0 NA 200-600 5-18
* Maximum levels tolerated by environmental and health authorities in Heavy Metals Lead NA NA >1 500 >78
Australia and New Zealand. Arsenic 100 - 250 mgkg -1 Mercury NA NA >6 >0.12
NA Not available Cadmium 20 mgkg -1 Nickel 0.5-2.0 7-10 100 347
Copper 35 - 50 mgkg -1 Selenium NA 2-14 >74 >11
Zinc NA NA >750 880
Chromium 200 - 600 mgkg -1
Nickel 50 - 100 mgkg -1
Mercury > 6 mgkg -1
Lead > 1 500 mgkg -1
Selenium > 74 mgkg -1
Zinc. >750 mgkg -1
Average Distribution of Heavy Metals in Vetiver Shoots and Roots.
Location Equator to 41 0N
Metals Soil Shoot Root Shoot / Root Shoot / Total
(mgKg -1) (mgKg -1) (mgKg -1 ) % %
Climate Arsenic 688.4 8.44 180.2 4.8 4.6
Deep and extensive root Annual Rainfall (mm) 250 - 5 000 Cadmium
Copper
1.025
50
0.30
13
10.97
68
3.1
19
2.9
16
Frost (ground temp.) -140C
system binds the soil and Heat wave 550C
Dense growth retards water Chromium 283 9 1108 <1 <1
Lead 469 35.32 45.88 57 33
enhances drought tolerance Drought (without effective rain) 15 months flow and traps sediments Mercury 1.98 0.05 2.27 6 5
Nickel ( Ni) 300 448 1040 43 30
Vetiver is the only species among the 6 tested Fertiliser Selenium
Zinc
19.86
390
4.44
461
8.37
643
53
69
33
40
Vetiver can be established on very N and P
that can be established easily and produced infertile soil due to its strong (300 kg/ ha DAP)
very good growth on this coal tailings dam association with mycorrhiza
which is highly saline and alkaline

Vetiver were planted on this highly alkaline This 40 year old coal mine overburden stock These 8 year old gold tailings are highly acidic Gold mine tailings dump near Georgetown This bentonite mine waste and overburden is
and sodic coal mine overburden in central pile remains bare of vegetation. Several (pH 2.7) and high in As, SO4, Zn and Cu remained bare of vegetation for more than 15 highly sodic and erodible. Both wind and
Queensland. rehabilitation attempts have failed years and is highly susceptible to both water water erosion is a major concern
and wind erosion

Despite very dry weather over the next 4


years, at least 40% of the Vetiver survived, Vetiver established successfully in the gully
to stop further erosion and across the toe Excellent growth of vetiver 12 months after Vetiver planted for both erosion and sediment Vetiver was established successfully on the
and stabilised the side for the establishment planting with 20t/ha of lime and 800kg/ha of DAP site and excellent growth is recorded after 7
slope to trap eroded material control. Vigorous growth was recorded 6
of other species months
months after planting