Applied Thermodynamics
N S Seannayake
Outline
Introduction
Refrigeration process, COP
Heat pump and refrigerator
Units
Thermodynamic cycle
Types of refrigeration
Refrigerants
Vapor compression refrigeration
Effect of compressor output state
Effect of sub cooling
Improvements in the simple saturation cycle
Introduction
Refrigeration is the process of removing heat
from a space under controlled conditions in
order to reduce the temperature in the space.
Refrigeration process
Refrigerator and Heat Engine
Units of refrigeration
Tonne of Refrigeration (TR)
J/s or W
BTU
1 TR = amount refrigerating effect produced by
melting 1tonne of ice at 0
o
C in 24h.
1TR = 3.5kW = 12,000BTU
Thermodynamic cycle (Reversed Carnot)
Effect of temperatures on COP
Limitations?
Types of Refrigeration
Vapour compression
Vapour absorption
Gas or air refrigeration
Refrigerants
Heat transfer medium
Properties:
low boiling temp., high critical temp., high latent
heat of vaporization, non corrosive, nonflammable,
mixes with oil, leaks easily detectable
Identification by R numbers
R11, R12, R134a, R717
Environmental impact
Depletion of ozone layer
Global warming
Vapour Compression refrigeration
Vapour compression cycle
Schematic representation of vapour
compression cycle
Components and Processes
Compressor :Isentropic compression
Condenser: Constant pressure heat rejection
Processes cont.
Expansion Valve : Constant enthalpy pressure
reduction
Evaporator: constant pressure heat absorption
COP
T s diagram
This is close to Reversed Carnot Cycle
Problems of the cycle that gives saturated dry
vapor after compression (cycle close to reversed
Carnot cycle)
This cycle cannot be used in practice for practical
limitations, Ex: point 1 which is wet vapour, cannot be
successfully compressed in a compressor. So, point 1 is
either saturated vapour or superheated.
Point 2 is often above T
c
and point 3 is very often below
T
c
.
Therefore, there are many refrigeration cycles which
have been studied by people aimed at improving the
performance and ensuring their practicability. Some
of the cycles are:
Practical modifications
Cycle with super heated vapour after compression
(simple saturated cycle)
Cycle with dry saturated vapour after compression
Cycle with wet vapour after compression
Cycle with super heated vapour before compression
Cycle with sub cooling of refrigerant
Procedure for analysis
Sketch the T s diagram/ p h diagram
Determine enthalpy values from state 1 (compressor
inlet) to state 4 (inlet to evaporator coil)
Determine work and heat transfer in each component
To determine capacity use mass flow rate
Charts
Property tables
Saturation
temperature
in
(
o
C)
Saturation
pressure in
bar
(p)
Specific volume
m
3
/kg
Specific enthalpy in kJ/kg
Specific entropy in
kJ/kgK
Liquid
(v
f
)
Vapour
(v
g
)
Liquid
(h
f
)
Vapour
(h
g
)
Latent
(h
fg
)
Liquid
(s
f
)
Vapour
(s
g
)
100 0.01185 0.000600 10.1951  51.84 142.00 193.84  0.2567 0.8628
95 0.01864 0.000604 6.6231  47.56 144.22 191.78 0.2323 0.8442
90 0.02843 0.000608 4.4206 43.28 146.46 189.74 0.2086 0.8273
Simple saturated cycle on ph and Ts coordinates
Saturated
liquid (f)
Saturated
vapor (g)
Effect of compressor output state
on the refrigeration parameters
Example 1
(Saturated vapour after compression)
A vapour compression refrigerator works between the pressure
limits of 60bar and 25bar. The working fluid is dry saturated
after compression and there is no sub cooling in the condenser.
Determine (1) Refrigerating effect, (2) COP (3) mass flow rate
for 1TR (4) Compressor power
Pressure
(bar)
Sat.
Temperatur
e (K)
Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Entropy (kJ/kgK)
liquid vapour liquid vapour
25 261 56.32 322.58 0.226 1.2464
60 295 151.96 293.29 0.554 1.0332
Solution
Point 1 lies between saturated liquid and saturated vapour points on
the 25bar constant pressure line as shown in the diagrams above.
Since we do not know exact position, we have to relate this state to
state point 2, which is known.
Point 1
To find out x
1
we use entropy values at points 1 and 2.
Since 1 2 is isentropic,
Therefore,
Point 2
State of point 2 is saturated vapour at 60bar pressure. Therefore,
from the table we directly get the enthalpy.
State of point 3 is saturated liquid at 60bar pressure. Therefore,
enthalpy can be obtained directly from the table.
Point 3
Since, 3 4 is throttling, the enthalpy remains
same.
Point 4
Mass flow rate 1TR
Since 1TR = 210kJ/min
Refrigerating effect
kg kJ h h q
E
/ 7 . 114 96 . 151 6 . 266
4 1
= = =
COP
min / 831 . 1
7 . 114
210
kg m = =
Compressor power
kW h h m P
c
66 . 812 76 . 48 ) 66 . 266 29 . 293 (
60
831 . 1
) (
1 2
= = = =
Example 2
(Wet vapour after compression)
Determine the refrigerating effect, COP, mass flow
for 1TR and compressor power of the refrigeration
plant in example 2 above, when the refrigerant after
compression is 70% dry.
Pressure
(bar)
Sat.
Temperature
(K)
Enthalpy (kJ /kg) Entropy (kJ /kgK)
liquid vapour liquid vapour
25 261 56.32 322.58 0.226 1.2464
60 295 151.96 293.29 0.554 1.0332
Solution
70%
dry
Point 2
Since dryness fraction at point 2 is known, we start form here
Point 1
First find out the dryness fraction at point 1
Point 3
State of point 3 is saturated liquid.
Point 4
Since 3 4 is throttling process the enthalpy remains
same.
Refrigerating effect
kg kJ h h q
E
/ 429 . 77 96 . 151 389 . 229
4 1
= = =
COP
Mass flow rate 1TR
min / 712 . 2
429 . 77
210
kg m = =
Compressor power
W h h m P
c
89 . 971 ) 389 . 229 891 . 250 (
60
712 . 2
) (
1 2
= = =
Example 3
(Super heated vapour after compression)
Determine the refrigerating effect, COP, mass flow
for 1TR and compressor power of the refrigeration
plant in example 2 above, when the refrigerant after
compression is superheated.
Pressure
(bar)
Sat.
Temperature
(K)
Enthalpy (kJ /kg) Entropy (kJ /kgK)
liquid vapour liquid vapour
25 261 56.32 322.58 0.226 1.2464
60 295 151.96 293.29 0.554 1.0332
Solution
Point 1
Saturated vapor
58 . 322
1 1
= =
g
h h
Point 2
Super heated vapor, enthalpy is written as follows;
( )
' 2 2 ' 2 2
T T c h h
pg
+ =
To find out T
2
, use entropy at 1 and 2


.

\

+ =
' 2
2
' 2 2
ln
T
T
c s s
pg
2464 . 1
1 1 2
= = =
g
s s s
0332 . 1
' 2 ' 2
= =
g
s s
kgK kJ c
pg
/ 762 . 0 =
K T 295
' 2
=
K T 390
2
=

.

\

+ =
295
ln 762 . 0 0332 . 1 2464 . 1
2
T
2798 . 0
295
ln
2
=

.

\

T
= =
h h
q
w
q
COP
E
c
E
Mass flow for 1TR
Since 1TR = 210kJ/min
E E
mq Q =
min / 231 . 1
62 . 170
210
kg m = =
Compressor power
W h h m P
c
27 . 884 ) 58 . 322 68 . 365 (
60
231 . 1
) (
1 2
= = =
The effect of state after compression
State of vapor
after
compression
Refrigeratin
g effect
(kJ/kg)
COP
Mass flow
for 1TR
(kg/min)
Comp.
power
(W)
Wet vapor 77.427 3.6 2.712 972
Saturated vapor 114.7 4.3 1.831 813
Super heated
vapor
170.62 3.9 1.231 884
The effect of sub cooling the
liquid on refrigeration parameters
The effect of sub cooling the liquid
Example 4
Evaporator temperature:  10
o
C
Condenser temperature: 40
o
C
Sub cooled temperature: 30
o
C
Refrigerant: R12
Specific heat capacity of liquid R12: 1.03kJ/kgK
Specific heat capacity of superheated vapour R12 = 0.762kJ/kgK
Calculate COP
Temp
(
o
C)
Sat.
pressure
(bar)
Sp.
volume
(vapour)
m
3
/kg
Enthalpy( kJ/kg) Entropy (kJ/kgK)
Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour
10 2.1893 0.07731 190.78 348.17 0.5698 1.5639
40 9.5909 0.01834 239.03 368.81 1.1315 1.5459
Solution
Point 1
Point 1 is dry saturated.
Point 2
Because 1 2 is isentropic,
Since point 2 is super heated,
Point 3
Point 3 is sub cooled liquid.
Point 4
Since 3 4 is throttling
Refrigerating effect
For sub cooled cycle For simple saturation cycle;
For sub cooled cycle;
Compressor work:
Coefficient of performance:
For sub cooled cycle; For Simple saturation cycle;
Mass flow rate needed for 1TR capacity:
1TR = 210kJ/min
For simple saturation cycle;
Compressor volume capacity:
Compressor volume capacity is determined in terms of the volume of vapour
handled in unit time.
Vol. of vapour compressed per unit time = mass flow x specific volume
) / ( s kg ) / (
3
kg m ) / (
3
s m
For both sub cooled and simple saturation
cycles
For sub cooled cycle;
For simple saturation
cycle
Power of compressor for 1TR:
For sub cooled cycle;
For simple saturation cycle;
Effect of sub cooling
Parameter
Unit of
measur
ement
Simple
saturatio
n cycle
Sub
cooled
cycle
Refrigerating effect per
kg of refrigerant
kJ/kg 109.14 119.44
Compressor work per
kg of refrigerant
kJ/kg 25.97 25.97
Mass flow rate per 1TR Kg/min 1.924 1.76
COP 4.21 4.6
Compressor volume
capacity
m
3
/min 0.1487 0.1361
Power for 1TR kW 0.833 0.762
Improvements to simple
saturation cycle
1. Flash Chamber
2. Pre cooler
3. Sub cooling condenser output
By liquid refrigerant
By vapor refrigerant
Flash Chamber
Used to separate vapour
and liquid and vapour is
directed to the compressor
No improvement to COP and reduce mass flow through evaporator
Considering thermal equilibrium of flash chamber
1 1 2 ' 4 1 4 2
) ( h m m h m h m + =
( ) ( )
' 4 1 1 4 1 2 f
h h m h h m =
(
(
=
(
(
=
' 4 1
3 1
2
' 4 1
4 1
2 1
f
f
f
h h
h h
m
h h
h h
m m
Refrigerating Effect, Q
E
( )
' 4 1 1 f E
h h m Q =
( ) ( )
3 1 2 ' 4 1
' 4 1
3 1
2 f f
f
f
E
h h m h h
h h
h h
m Q =
(
(
=
This is same as for
simple saturation
cycle
Refrigerating effect and COP are same as that of a simple saturation cycle
The effect flash chamber is only the reduction of mass flow
through the evaporator and hence the reduction in size of
evaporator
Compressor work, W
C
) (
1 2 2
h h m W
C
=
1 2
3 1
h h
h h
COP
f
=
This is same as for
simple saturation
cycle
Accumulator or precooler
Need for accumulator
The liquid refrigerant passing through the evaporator
is not completely evaporated to give dry saturated
vapour. If the compressor is supplied with liquid, with
vapour refrigerant, the compressor has to do an
additional work of evaporating and raising the
temperature of the liquid.
It also upset the normal functioning of the
compressor, which has been made to compress dry
vapour.
The accumulator ensures that only the dry vapour is
fed into the compressor
Accumulator or precooler
Ensures no liquid
enters the
compressor
No change in refrigerating effect, compressor work and COP
Considering thermal equilibrium for the accumulator
1
1
4
4
m
2
m
1
m
1
m
2
' 4 1 1 2 ' 1 1 4 2 f
h m h m h m h m + = +
) ( ) (
4 1 2 ' 4 ' 1 1
h h m h h m
f
=
(
(
=
(
(
=
' 4 ' 1
3 1
2
' 4 ' 1
4 1
2 1
f
f
f
h h
h h
m
h h
h h
m m
Refrigerating effect, QE
( ) ( )
' 4 ' 1
' 4 ' 1
3 1
2 ' 4 ' 1 1 f
f
f
f E
h h
h h
h h
m h h m Q
(
(
= =
( )
3 1 2 f E
h h m Q =
This is same as for
simple saturation
cycle
Compressor work, W
C
) (
1 2 2
h h m W
C
=
1 2
3 1
h h
h h
COP
f
=
Refrigerating effect , compressor power and COP are same as that of a simple
saturation cycle
The accumulator is used to prevent he liquid refrigerant flowing
into the compressor
This is same as for
simple saturation
cycle
Sub cooling by liquid
The refrigerant leaving the condenser is at a higher
temperature than the liquid refrigerant leaving the
expansion valve.
The liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser is sub
cooled by passing through a heat exchanger which is
supplied with liquid refrigerant from the expansion
valve.
Sub cooling by liquid
No change in COP
m
1
= mass of refrigerant leaving the
evaporator
m
2
= mass of refrigerant leaving
through the condenser
m
3
= mass of refrigerant supplied to the
heat exchanger
Considering thermal equilibrium
of the heat exchanger
1 3 ' 3 2 ' 4 3 3 2
h m h m h m h m + = +
) ( ) (
' 4 1 3 ' 3 3 2 f f
h h m h h m =
(
=
(
(
=
' 3 1
' 3 3
2
' 4 1
' 3 3
2 3
h h
h h
m
h h
h h
m m
f
f
f
Refrigerating effect Q
E
) )( (
' 4 1 3 2
h h m m Q
E
=
( )
' 3 1
' 3 1
' 3 3
2 2
h h
h h
h h
m m Q
f
E


.

\

(
=
) ( ) (
' 3 3 2 ' 3 1 2
h h m h h m Q
f E
= ) (
3 1 2 f E
h h m Q =
This is same as for
simple saturation
cycle
Compressor work W
C
) (
1 2 2
h h m W
C
=
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 2
3 1
1 2 2
3 1 2
h h
h h
h h m
h h m
W
Q
COP
f f
C
E
= =
Coefficient of Performance
This is same as for
simple saturation
cycle
This is same as for
simple saturation
cycle
Mass flow rate
through evaporator
for 1TR
' 4 1
1
210
f
h h
m
=
This is less than
that of simple
saturation cycle
Sub cooling by liquid
Since the COP and the compressor power are the
same as those of simple saturation cycle, this
arrangement of sub cooling the liquid refrigerant
is of no advantage.
Sub cooling by vapour
The refrigerant leaving the condenser is at a
higher temperature than the liquid refrigerant
leaving the evaporator
The liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser is
sub cooled by passing through a heat exchanger
which is supplied with dry saturated vapour
from the evaporator.
Sub cooling by vapour
COP, refrigerating increased; power for 1TR reduced
Considering thermal equilibrium of the heat exchanger
1 ' 1 ' 3 3 g f
h h h h =
Refrigerating effect Q
E
) (
' 4 ' 1
h h m Q
E
=
This is higher than that of
simple saturation cycle
Compressor work W
C
) (
' 1 ' 2
h h m W
C
=
This is higher than that of
simple saturation cycle
Coefficient of Performance
) (
) (
) (
) (
' 1 ' 2
' 4 ' 1
' 1 ' 2
' 4 ' 1
h h
h h
h h m
h h m
W
Q
COP
C
E
= =
This is less than that of
simple saturation cycle
Mass flow rate through evaporator for 1TR
' 4 ' 1
1
210
f
h h
m
=
This is less than
that of simple
saturation cycle
Sub cooling by vapour
Sub cooling the liquid by vapour refrigerant
reduces the COP.
However, this is used in practice despite some
loss of COP
Mass flow rate per 1TR is reduced, and this is an
advantage
Problem 1
A vapor compression refrigerator works between the temperature
limits 20
o
C and 25
o
C. The refrigerant leaves the compressor in dry
saturated condition. If the liquid refrigerant is undercooled to 20
o
C
before entering the throttle valve, determine:
Compressor work
Refrigerating effect
COP
Assume the specific heat capacity as 4.8kJ/kgK
Temp
o
C Enthalpy kJ/kg Entropy kJ/kgK
liquid vapor liquid vapor
20 89.78 1420.02 0.3684 5.6244
25 298.90 1465.84 1.1242 5.0391
Problem 2
In a vapor compression refrigeration system using R12,
the evaporator pressure is 1.4bar and the condenser
pressure is 8bar. The refrigerant leaves the condenser sub
cooled to 30
o
C. The vapor leaving the evaporator is dry
saturated. The compression process is isentropic. The
amount of heat rejected in the condenser is 13.42MJ/min.
Determine refrigerating effect, Refrigerating load TR, and
the compressor power
Problem 3
A refrigeration plant of 8TR capacity has its evaporation
temperature of 8
o
C and condenser temperature of 30
o
C.
The refrigerant is sub cooled by 5
o
C before entering into
the expansion valve and vapor is superheated by 6
o
C
before leaving the refrigerator. The suction pressure drop
is 0.2bar in the suction valve and discharge pressure drop
is 0.1bar in the discharge valve. If the refrigerant used is R
12, find out COP, and compressor power. Assume
compression is isentropic.