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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION
TO MANAGEMENT
AND
ORGANIZATIONS
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-1
Who Are Managers?
Manager
someone who works with and through other
people by coordinating their work activities in
order to accomplish organizational goals
changing nature of organizations and work has
blurred the clear lines of distinction between
managers and non-managerial employees
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Who Are Managers? (cont.)
Managerial Titles
First-line managers - manage the work of non-
managerial individuals who are directly involved with the
production or creation of the organizations products
Middle managers - all managers between the first-line
level and the top level of the organization
manage the first-line managers
Top managers - responsible for making organization-
wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that
affect the entire organization

Prentice Hall, 2002 1-3
Organizational Levels
Non-managerial Employees
Top
Managers
Middle
Managers
First-line
Managers
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-4
What Is Management?
Management
the process of coordinating work activities so that
they are completed efficiently and effectively
with and through other people
elements of definition
Process - represents ongoing functions or
primary activities engaged in by managers
Coordinating - distinguishes a managerial
position from a non-managerial one
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-5
What is Management? (cont.)
Management (cont.)
elements of definition
Efficiency - getting the most output from the
least amount of inputs
doing things right
concerned with means
Effectiveness - completing activities so that
organizational goals are attained
doing the right things
concerned with ends
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-6
Efficiency and Effectiveness in Management
Management Strives For:
Low resource waste (high efficiency)
High goal attainment (high effectiveness)
Resource
Usage
Efficiency (Means)
Goal
Attainment
Effectiveness (Ends)
Low Waste High Attainment
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-7
What Do Managers Do?
Management Functions and Process
most useful conceptualization of the managers job
Planning - defining goals, establishing strategies for
achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate
and coordinate activities
Organizing - determining what tasks are to be done, who
is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who
reports to whom, and where decisions are made
Leading - directing and motivating all involved parties
and dealing with employee behavior issues
Controlling - monitoring activities to ensure that they are
going as planned
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-8
What Do Managers Do? (cont.)
Management Functions and Process (cont.)
Management process
set of ongoing decisions and work activities in
which managers engage as they plan, organize,
lead, and control
managerial activities are usually done in a
continuous manner
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-9
What Do Managers Do? (cont.)
Management Roles
specific categories of managerial behavior
I nterpersonal - involve people and duties that
are ceremonial and symbolic in nature
I nformational - receiving, collecting, and
disseminating information
Decisional - revolve around making choices
emphasis that managers give to the various roles
seems to change with their organizational level
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-10
What Do Managers Do? (cont.)
Management Skills
Technical - knowledge of and proficiency in a certain
specialized field
Human - ability to work well with other people both
individually and in a group
Conceptual - ability to think and to conceptualize about
abstract and complex situations
see the organization as a whole
understand the relationships among subunits
visualize how the organization fits into its broader
environment
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-11
EXHIBIT 1.5: SKILLS NEEDED AT DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT LEVELS
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-12
What Do Managers Do? (cont.)
Managing Systems
System - a set of interrelated and interdependent parts
arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole
provides a more general and broader picture of what
managers do than the other perspectives provide
Closed system - not influenced by and do not interact
with their environment
Open system - dramatically interact with their
environment
organizations - take in inputs from their environments
transform or process inputs into outputs
outputs are distributed into the environment
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-13
System
The Organization As An Open System
Transformation
Employees work
activities
Management
activities
Technology and
operations methods
Outputs Inputs
Raw materials
Human resources
Capital
Technology
Information
Products and services
Financial results
Information
Human results
Environment
Environment
Feedback
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-14
What Do Managers Do? (cont.)
Managing Systems (cont.)
managers must
coordinate various work activities
ensure that interdependent parts work together
recognize and understand the impact of various
external factors
decisions and actions taken in one organizational
area will affect other areas and vice versa
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-15
What Do Managers Do? (cont.)
Managing in Different and Changing Situations
require managers to use different approaches and
techniques
Contingency perspective - different ways of
managing are required in different organizations
and different circumstances
stresses that there are no simplistic or universal
rules
contingency variable
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EXHIBIT 1.8: POPULAR CONTINGENCY VARIABLES
Prentice Hall, 2002 1-17
What Is An Organization?
Organization
a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some
specific purpose
elements of definition
each organization has a distinct purpose
each organization is composed of people
all organizations develop some deliberate structure
todays organizations have adopted:
flexible work arrangements
open communications
greater responsiveness to changes
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EXHIBIT 1.10: THE CHANGING ORGANIZATION
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Why Study Management?
Universality of Management
management is needed
in all types and sizes of organizations
at all organizational levels
in all work areas
management functions must be performed in all
organizations
consequently, have vested interest in improving
management
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EXHIBIT 1.11: UNIVERSAL NEED FOR MANAGEMENT
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Why Study Management? (cont.)
The Reality of Work
most people have some managerial
responsibilities
most people work for a manager
Challenges of Being a Manager
- being a manager is hard work
- must deal with a variety of personalities
- must motivate workers in the face of uncertainty
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Why Study Management? (cont.)
Rewards of Being a Manager
create an environment that allows others to do
their best work
provide opportunities to think creatively
help others find meaning and fulfillment
meet and work with a variety of people

Prentice Hall, 2002 1-23