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Aluminum 7075

Microstructure and Current


Research through the use of In-situ
X-ray Diffraction
By: Jay Schuren
Outline
Why Al 7075?
General Aluminum Overview
Microstructure of 7075
Current Diffraction Research on Al 7075


Why Al 7075?
Aluminum is an abundant resource
Relatively cheap
High stiffness/density and strength/density
ratios
Damage tolerant
Corrosion resistant compared with
conventional alloys
Uses of Al 7075
Gears and shafts
Aircraft
Other Aerospace and defense applications
General Aluminum Alloy
Overview
Principal Aluminum Alloys
Wrought alloys are divided into
seven major classes
Classes set by their principal
alloy elements
Strengthened by work
hardening
1XXX, 3XXX, 4XXX,
5XXX
Strengthened by heat treatment
(precipitation hardening)
2XXX, 6XXX, and 7XXX
The seven classes can be subdivided:
Overview
1XXX -Commercially
Pure Al.
3XXX - Al.
Manganese Alloys
4XXX - Al. Silicon
Alloys
2XXX - Al. Copper
Alloys
6XXX - Al. Mg. Si.
Alloys
7XXX - Al. Zinc
Alloys
Work Hardened Precipitate Hardened
QuickTime and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
7075 Microstructure
Ingot can form (Fe,Cr)
3
SiAl
12
, Mg
2
Si and/or a pseudobinary
eutectic made up of Al and Mg(Zn,Cu,Al)2.

Heating causes iron rich phases to transform to Al
7
CuMg
precipitates. Chromium is precipitated from supersaturated
solution as Cr
2
Mg
3
Al
18
dispersoids, concentrated heavily in the
primary dendrite region.

Recrystallized grains are extremely elongated or flattened
because of dispersoid banding, and unrecrystallized regions are
made up of very fine subgrains in which boundaries are
decorated by hardening precipitates


7075 Microstructure
Stable properties
Higher strengths
Improved corrosion
resistance
Lower rate of growth of
fatigue cracks are.
Aging at elevated-temperature can provide:
Diffraction Applied to 7075
Approach
Measure the changes in lattice spacing of the
aggregate as the specimen is under load
Use X-ray diffraction (XRD)
Approach
Approach
Laue (transmission) geometry
to maximize statistical relevance
of diffraction volume
Large area detector
Normal incidence at detector is
desired
Monitor the azimuthal change
in radius of the Debye rings
Bragg Diffraction and XRD Geometry Bragg Diffraction and XRD Geometry
Measure the changes in lattice spacings of the aggregate
as specimen is under cyclic loading condition
Use x-ray diffraction (XRD)
QuickTime and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

= 2d
hkl
sinu
hkl
Braggs Law

hkl
= Dtan2u
hkl
Geometry
Lattice strain

c
hkl
=
d
hkl
d
hkl
0
d
hkl
0
Experimental Setup
Circumferential integration (caking) generates spectra
for azimuthal angles, q
An {hkl} peak location from spectrum at q and recorded
at N is compared to the same {hkl}s peak location from
spectrum at the same q recorded at virgin state to
calculate lattice strain
Repeat for all {hkl}s for all q at N
Data Reduction
Data Reduction
Actual Al 7075 T6 Data
Strain Pole Figures
Stress-Strain Curve for 7075 T6
In-situ X-ray diffraction provides a
snap shot of the aggregate lattice
strain
Can invert lattice strain to find full
strain tensor
Validates micromechanical models

What In-situ X-ray Diffraction gives us
References

Aluminum: Properties and Physical Metallurgy by John Hatch
Experimental measurement of lattice strain pole figures using synchrotron
x rays by M. P. Miller
Measuring crystal lattice strains and their evolution in cyclic loading by J-
S. Park
On the mechanical behaviour of AA 7075-T6 during cyclic loading by
Turkmen
Influence of modelling variables on the distribution of lattice strains in a
deformed polycrystal, with reference to neutron diffraction experiments by
Loge
Elements of X-ray Diffraction by Cullity
http://www.sintef.no/static/mt/norlight/ProjectPortfolio/HeatTreatmentFun
damentals/dispersoids.htm
http://www.alcoa.com
http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phasetrans/2002/robson/img4.htm
Electrochemical Characterization of 7075 Aluminum Alloys Using The
Microcell by Barbara N. Padgett