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Manufacturing Technology I

ME 307
Chapter 21
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
References:
Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing:
materials, processes, and systems, 3nd Ed., by
Mikell P. Groover, JOHN WILEY & SONS,
INC., 2007. (Chapter 21, pages 490-495)

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
THEORY OF METAL MACHINING
Overview of Machining Technology
Theory of Chip Formation in Metal Machining
Force Relationships and the Merchant
Equation
Power and Energy Relationships in Machining
Cutting Temperature

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Friction force F and Normal force to friction N
Shear force F
s
and Normal force to shear F
n

Figure 21.10 Forces in
metal cutting: (a) forces
acting on the chip in
orthogonal cutting
Forces Acting on Chip
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Resultant Forces
Vector addition of F and N = resultant R
Vector addition of F
s
and F
n
= resultant R'
Forces acting on the chip must be in balance:
R' must be equal in magnitude to R
R must be opposite in direction to R
R must be collinear with R
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Coefficient of Friction
Coefficient of friction between tool and chip:
Friction angle related to coefficient of friction
as follows:
=
F
N
=tan
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Shear Stress
Shear stress acting along the shear plane:
A
s
=
t
o
w
sin
where A
s
= area of the shear plane
Shear stress = shear strength of work material
during cutting
S=
F
s
A
s
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
F, N, F
s
, and F
n
cannot be directly measured
Forces acting on the tool that can be measured:
Cutting force F
c
and Thrust force F
t

Figure 21.10 Forces
in metal cutting: (b)
forces acting on the
tool that can be
measured
Cutting Force and Thrust Force
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
After Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, by E. Paul DeGarmo, J.T. Black,
and Ronald A. Kohser, Prentice Hall of India, 2001
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Fig Free-body
diagram of
orthogonal chip
formation process,
showing equilibrium
condition between
resultant forces and
R and R
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Cutting Forces
Figure 21.11 (a) Forces acting on a cutting tool during two-dimensional cutting.
Note that the resultant force, R, must be collinear to balance the forces. (b) Force
circle to determine various forces acting in the cutting zone.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Fig 21.11 Force diagram showing geometric
relationships between F, N, Fs, Fn, Fc, and Ft.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Forces in Metal Cutting
Equations can be derived to relate the forces
that cannot be measured to the forces that can
be measured:
F = F
c
sin + F
t
cos
N = F
c
cos - F
t
sin
F
s
= F
c
cos - F
t
sin
F
n
= F
c
sin + F
t
cos
Based on these calculated force, shear stress
and coefficient of friction can be determined
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Forces in Metal Cutting
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Example 21.2
Suppose in Example 21.1 that cutting force and thrust
force are measured during an orthogonal cutting
operation: F
c
= 1559 N and F
t
= 1271 N. The width of the
orthogonal cutting operation w = 3.0 mm. Based on these
data, determine the shear strength of the work material.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Fig Schematic illustration of the distribution of normal and shear
stresses at the tool-chip interface (rake face)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
The Merchant Equation
=
F
s
A
s
A
s
=
t
0
w
sin
F
s
=F
c
cos F
t
sin
=
F
c
cos F
t
sin
t
0
w /sin
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
The Merchant Equation
Of all the possible angles at which shear
deformation can occur, the work material will
select a shear plane angle that minimizes
energy, given by


Derived by Eugene Merchant
Based on orthogonal cutting, but validity
extends to 3-D machining
This is the angle at which shear stress is equal
to the shear strength of the work material. For
all other angles ------ shear stress < shear
strength ----- (i.e. chip formation cannot
occur)
=45

2


2
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
What the Merchant Equation Tells Us
To increase shear plane angle
Increase the rake angle
Reduce the friction angle (or coefficient of
friction)
=45

2


2
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Higher shear plane angle means smaller shear
plane which means lower shear force, cutting
forces, power, and temperature
Figure 21.12 Effect of shear plane angle : (a) higher with a
resulting lower shear plane area; (b) smaller with a corresponding
larger shear plane area. Note that the rake angle is larger in (a), which
tends to increase shear angle according to the Merchant equation
Effect of Higher Shear Plane Angle
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Fig 21.13 Approximation of turning by the orthogonal model: (a)
turning; and (b) the corresponding orthogonal cutting.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Approximation of turning by the orthogonal model
Turning Operation Orthogonal Cutting Model
Feed f
Depth d
Cutting speed v
Cutting force F
c

Feed force F
f

Chip thickness before cut t
0
Width of cut w
Cutting speed v
Cutting force F
c

Thrust force F
f