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Wireless raodmap

What is GPRS
General Packet Radio Service
General -> not restricted to GSM use (DECT ?, 3rd generation
systems ?)
Packet Radio -> enables packet mode communication over air
Service, not System -> existing BSS (partially also NSS)
infrastructure is used

Main benefits
Resources are reserved only when needed and charged
accordingly
Connection setup times are reduced
Enables new service opportunities

GPRS characteristics
GPRS uses packet switched resource allocation
resources allocated only when data is to be sent/received

Flexible channel allocation
one to eight time slots
available resources shared by active users
up and down link channels reserved separately
GPRS and circuit switched GSM services can use same time
slots alternatively

Traffic characteristics suitable for GPRS
Intermittent, bursty data transmissions
Frequent transmissions of small volumes of data
Infrequent transmission of larger volumes of data

GPRS Applications
Standard data network protocol based
IP based applications
WWW, FTP, Telnet, ...
Any conventional TCP/IP based applications
X.25 based applications
Packet Assembly/Disassembly (PAD) type approach

GPRS specific protocol based
Point-to-point applications
Toll road system, UIC train control system
Point-to-multipoint applications
Weather info, road traffic info, news, fleet management

SMS delivery (GPRS as a bearer for SMS)
GPRS Architecture
BTS
BTS
MS
BSC
Gb
SGSN
Gf
Gs
Gr
D
EIR
MSC/VLR
HLR
Gc
Gn
GGSN
Gi
PDN
Gp
GGSN
Other GPRS
PLMN
Users' benefits of GPRS

GPRS Selling arguments:
Higher capacity Internet access
Up to 171,2 kbps in theory, 40 kbps in practice
Quicker access to Internet
No set up time, Iternet access all the time available
Lower cost
Flat rate or volume based billing
Or no cost
via anonymous access (somebody else pays the bill)
HIGH FREQUENCY

HF stands for HIGH FREQUENCY
These are the frequencies from 1.8* to 30 MHz
or the 160 meter to 10 meter bands.
HF is also known as shortwave.

HF Band Allocation

Meter Band Frequency (MHz)
CW, RTTY, Data Voice
160 1.800 - 2.000
80 3.500 - 3.750 3.750 - 4.000
40 7.000 - 7.150 7.150 - 7.300
30 10.100 - 10.150
20 14.000 - 14.150 14.150 - 14.350
17 18.068 - 18.110 18.110 - 18.168
15 21.000 - 21.200 21.200 - 21.450
12 24.890 - 24.930 24.930 - 24.990
10 28.000 - 28.300 28.300 - 29.70
Who Uses HF?
Because of the ability to communicate over
long distances, HF is used by many
government, military, and commercial
agencies worldwide
Amateur Radio operators all over the world
use HF for the same reasons.

Radio waves change direction
when they enter the ionosphere

Conclusion

GPRS provides efficient access to Packet Data
Networks with different qulity level through put.
Multislot operation in GPRS leads to efficient channel
utilization.
GPRS is more effective for long data packet
transmission than short ones.