You are on page 1of 47

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 1

AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN


UP SYSTEM
(ATRS)

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 2


Presentation outline
Overview of Plant Controls
Functions of ATRS
Structure of ATRS
Program Structure of ATRS and
Turbine protection

14 August 2014 3
OPERATOR
INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL
PLANT
14 August 2014 4
UNIT CONTROL
BOILER TURBINE GENERATOR
14 August 2014 5
MEASUREMENT
CLOSE-LOOP
CONTROL
OPEN-LOOP
CONTROL
PROTECTION
MONITORING
INSTRUMENTATION
AND
CONTROL
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 6
ADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATION
OPERATING PERSONNEL FREED FROM ROUTINE TASKS.
INCORRECT INTERVENTIONS IN THE PROCESS AVOIDED.
STRESS ON EQUIPMENT REDUCED.
PLANT OPERATIONS GEARED FOR MAXIMUM
EFFICIENCY.
INCIPIENT FAULTS RECOGNISED QUICKLY.
ON FAULT OCCURRENCE, IMMEDIATE AND LOGICAL
INTERVENTION POSSIBLE.

14 August 2014 7
A. CONTROL SYSTEM:
ANALOG (CLOSE LOOP)
- ELECTROHYDRAULIC CONTROLLER (EHC)
- TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR (TSE)
- LOW PRESSURE BYPASS CONTROLLER (LPBPC)
- GLAND STEAM PRESSURE CONTROLLER (GSPC)

BINARY (OPEN LOOP)
- AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN UP SYSTEM (ATRS)
- AUTOMATIC TURBINE TESTER (ATT)

B. MONITORING & MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

- TURBINE SUPERVISORY INSTRUMENTATION (TSI)
- MEASURMENT OF PARAMETERS LIKE, TEMP.,PRESS.,LEVEL etc.

C. PROTECTION SYSTEM
TURBINE C&I PACKAGE CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING SYSTEMS:
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 8
HIERARCHY OF CONTROL
UNIT
CONTROL
GROUP CONTROL
(WHEN, HOW MANY,WHICH)
SUB-GROUP CONTRL-1 SUB-GROUP CONTRL-2
CONTROL INTERFACE
SWITCH GEAR (MCC)
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 9
CONCEPT OF C&I IN THERMAL POWER
STATION
UNIT CONTROL
CLOSED
LOOP
CONTROL
FUNCTIONAL
GROUP
CONTROL
PROT-
IVE
LOGICS
DATA PROCESS-
ING, ALARM
ANNUNCIATION
SIGNAL
CONDITIONING
ALALOG, BINARY
CONTROL INTERFACE
MOTOR CONTROL CENTRE
SWITCH GEAR
M

M

DRIVES
SIGNAL TRANSMITTER
ANALOG AND
BINARY
SIGNALS
CRT /MMI DISPLAY UNIT IN
OWS
LOGS
CONTROL
ROOM
AUTOMATION
EQUIPMENT
PLANT INTERFACE
EQUIPMENT
PLANT (FIELD)
OPERATOR
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 10
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
TASKS PERFORMED:
SWIFT,ACCURATE AND OPTIMUM STARTUP ( INCLUDING
SYNCHRONISATION AND LOADING) OF TURBINE
MAINTAINING OIL SUPPLY
BUILDING UP AND MAINTENANCE OF VACUUM


FEATURES :
BASED ON FUNCTIONAL GROUP CONTROL PHILOSOPHY
EACH FUNCTIONAL GROUP ORGANISED AND ARRANGED IN SUB-GROUP
CONTROL, SUB-LOOP CONTROL, AND CONTROL INTERFACE
OPERATING MODES AVAILABLE:
- MANUAL MODE ( OPERATOR GUIDE)
- AUTOMATIC MODE
- STEP BY STEP MODE

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 11
ATRS
STRUCTURE
OIL SYSTEM, VACUUM SYSTEM, TURBINE etc.

GC
SGC SGC
SLC SLC SLC
CI
SGC
CI
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 12
GROUP CONTROL: Decides WHEN, HOW MANY & WHICH
SGC shall be operating and stopped.
SUB GROUP CONTROL: Contains the sequential logics for
switching drives ON and OFF. Perform sequence in STEPS, issue
commands and get Checkbacks.
SUB LOOP CONTROL: can be switched ON & OFF manually.
Receive commands from GC, SGC and also Manual
CONTROL INTERFACE: Standard Interface between the command
transmitters and receivers in the plant, undertakes all necessary signal
processing and monitoring.
SYSTEM OPERATION MODES:
AUTOMATIC,SEMI AUTOMATIC,OPERATOR GUIDE
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 13
ADVANTAGES OF ATRS
ELIMINATES HUMAN ERROR
PROVIDES MAXIMUM PROTECTION AGAINST MALFUNCTIONS
OPERATORS TASK LESS ARDUOUS
ENABLES SAFE, SMOOTH, STRESS CONSISTANT AND OPTIMUM
WARM-UP, ROLLING AND SYNCHRONISATION OF TURBINE IN
LEAST POSSIBLE TIME
INCREASES PLANT AVAILABILITY
REDUCES STARTING TIME WITHOUT IMPAIRING LIFE
MEETS EMERGENCIES AUTOMATICALLY
ALL PLANT OPERATING CONDITIONS CATERED TO BY
CRITERIA DEPENDANT PROGRAMMING
INCREASED OPERATING FLEXIBILITY, SAFETY AND
RELIABILITY

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 14
ATRS
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN UP
SYSTEM
Start up and Shutdown sequence performed in
reliable way
Protect drives and related auxiliaries
Uniform and sequential information to operator about
the process
Distinct information about the nature and location of
faults

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 15
STEP 01
STEP 02
&
START DRIVE A
DRIVE A ON
MONITOR &
BLOCKING TIME
MONITOR &
BLOCKING TIME
OPEN DMPR A
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 16
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
SUB GROUP CONTROL ( SGC):
SGC executes commands to bring the equipment upto a particular
defined status.
The commands are executed in a predefined sequence in the form of
steps.
Desired number of criteria act as preconditions before the SGC can
take off or execute its defined sequence.
The functional group continues to function automatically all the time
demanding enabling criteria based on the process requirements and
from other FGs, if required.
In case the desired criteria is not available, the system would
automatically act in such a manner as to ensure the safety of the main
equipment.
The sequence is programmed in the processor. The process signals
are acquired through the input modules and are available on the bus.


14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 17
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
WAITING AND MONITORING TIME FOR STEPS:
Waiting Time :
It implies that the subsequent step will not be executed unless the
specified time elapses. If no waiting time is specified, the next step
gets executed as soon as the enabling criteria are fulfilled.
Monitoring Time :
It is the time required for executing the command of any step as well
as the time required for appearance of criteria for the next step.
Under healthy conditions it should happen within the specified time,
otherwise an alarm is initiated. Whenever there is uncertainty
regarding the time required for completing a particular task, such
as warming-up, pulling vacuum etc., the monitoring time is blocked.

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 18
PROGRAM STEP OF A SUBGROUP
CONTROL
02
FROM STEP 1
STEP CRITERIA FOR STEP -2
BYPASS CRITERION
PROGRAM LOOP
WAIT
50s
MO TIME
20s
COMMAND
1
2
&
&
1
&
STEP 2 ( START UP PROGRAM) WITH 2 STEP CRITERIA, 2 COMMAND
OUTPUTS AND A MONITORING & WAITING TIME .
WITH ADDITIONAL PROGRAM LOOP CONTROL AND A BYPASS
CRITERIA FOR STEP 1
WAITING OR MO TIME CAN BE PROGRAMMED FOR 0.1 SEC TO 999
MIN.
NOS. 1-49 USED FOR START-UP, 51 TO 99 FOR SHUTDOWN PROGRAM.





EXAMPLE
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 19
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
WAITING AND MONITORING TIME FOR STEPS:

ATRS can be switched on at any stage after
completing certain tasks manually, if so desired. In
such cases, the SGC program quickly scans
through the steps and starts executing from the
stage upto which the tasks have been completed
manually. This is achieved by incorporating
suitable overflow /bypass conditions in the logic.
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 20
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
ATRS CONTROLS:
1. ATRS is organised in the following four Sub-Groups :
Oil supply
Evacuation
Turbine
HP CONTROL FLUID
2. SGC issues commands either to the SLC or directly to
the drive through the Control Interface.

3. Each of these SGCs has its subordinate SLCs and CI
modules. These SGCs in conjunction with the turbine
governing system , TSE and the auto-synchroniser
accomplish the function of start-up of the TG set.
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 21
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
SUB-LOOP CONTROL (SLC) :
A SLC, when switched on, actuates the equipment and brings it to the
desired status as demanded by the process and there is no sequence logic
involved in it.

SLC is like a watch-dog performing an assigned duty.

All mechanical equipment which need to be switched on/off based on
process consideration are hooked-up in various SLCs. Standby equipment
is also interlocked in SLCs.

SLC can be switched on either manually or through SGC and issues
commands to the drive control level.

SLC logic is also realised in the processor module.

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 22
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
CONTROL INTERFACE (CI) :
Each remote controlled drive has a dedicated CI module which acts as
a standard interface between the transmitters and receivers in the plant
and undertakes all necessary signal processing and monitoring.
The CI module receives manual commands from the process
keyboard/inserts, active protection signals and enabling signals from
the protective logic, as well as automatic control commands from the
SGC/SLC.
It interlocks the input commands according to their priority and
validity and then passes actuation signals to the interposing relays in
the switch-gear.
The status checkbacks received from the switchgear or actuators are
monitored, processed and transmitted to VDU/desk tiles, the protective
logic and the SGC.

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 23
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
CONTROL INTERFACE (CI) : (Continue--)
These modules have the firmware which defines the standard
function of the module and its signalisation mode as well as the
programmable logic for the drive protection and the permissive
interlocks. The drive level automation tasks related to the respective
drive is realised through the programmable logic.

The module has hardwired inputs and outputs for connection of
feedback signals and commands to the switchgear together with local
bus interface for signal exchange via the system bus.


14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 24
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
ATRS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM:

ATRS IS ORGANISED IN THREE SGCs :

1. SGC-TURBINE :
SGC Turbine acts directly on the following systems :
Sub-loop Control (SLC) Drains.
Warm up Controller.
Starting Device of turbine governing system.
Speed & Load Setpoint devices of turbine
governing
system.
Auto-synchroniser.

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 25
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
ATRS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM:

2. SGC-OIL SUPPLY :

SGC oil supply directly acts on the following system :

Sub-loop control (SLC) turning gear.
SLC auxiliary oil pump 1.
SLC auxiliary oil pump 2.
SLC emergency oil pump.
SLC jacking oil pump.


14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 26
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
ATRS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM:

3. SGC-CONDENSATE & EVACUATION :

SGC- Condensate & Evacuation directly acts on the following systems :

Sub-loop Control (SLC) condensate extraction
pumps.
Starting ejector, if provided.
Main ejectors / vacuum pumps (as applicable).
Vacuum breaker.

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 27
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
ATRS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM:

3. SGC-HPCF :

SGC- HPCF acts on the foll :

Sub-loop Control (SLC) HPCF
SLC HPCF pumps
HPCF pumps
HPCF re-circulation pumps
LPCF temp control valve


14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 28
AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN-UP SYSTEM
3. SGC-HPCF :
Both CF PUMPS GET SWITCHED ONTHRU SLC. IN CASE
RUNNING PUMP DOES NOT DEVELOP THE REQUIRED
PRESS, THE STANDBY PUMP GETS SWITCHED ON
AFTER GETTING THE REQUIRED CF PRESS SLC
HEATING IS PUT ON & CF CIRCULATION PUMP WHICH
FEEDS THE REGENERATION CKT IS ALSO PUT ON.
TEMP CONTOL VLV IS PUT IN AUTO MODE TO
REGULATE THE TEMP.
CF TEMP IN THE TANK IS MAINTAINED BETWEEN 55 TO
57 C BY SWITCHING ON/OFF THE CF HEATER THRU
THE SLC. IN CASE CF TEMP IN HTR EXCEEDS > 65 C
THE HEATER IS SWITCHED OFF
IN SHUTDOWN PROG ALL THE PUMPS ARE SWITCHED
OFF AND SLC IS PUT OFF. SLC HEATING IS KEPT ON TO
MAINTAIN THE TEMP REQUIRED FOR THE NEXT
STARTUP.
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 29
TURBINE START-UP / SHUT-DOWN CONTROL,
OVERVIEW
SUB-GROUP ( TURBINE START-UP / SHUT-DOWN)
SUBLOOP
DRAIN
VALVE
SUBLOOP
LP-WATER
INJECTION
MECHANICAL
HYDRAULIC
CONTROL(MHC)
ELECTRO-
HYDRAULIC
CONTROL(EHC)
SEAL
STEAM
CONTROL(SSC)
TURBINE
TRIP
SYSTEM(TTS)
TURBINE
STRESS
EVALUATOR
LP WATER
INJECTION
AUTOMATIC
SYNCHRONIZER
DRAIN
VALVES
GENERATOR
MAIN CKT.
BREAKER
THYRISTOR
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR(TVR)
CRITERIA
CRITERIA

AUTO-
ON/OFF
AUTO
ON/OFF
AUTO
ON/OFF
MANUAL
ON/OFF
MANUAL
ON/OFF
MANUAL
OPEN/CLOSE
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 30
SGC-DISPLAY
4 6 8 7 5
1
3
2
1. PUSHBUTTON SHUTDOWN
2.PUSHBUTTON STARTUP OR OPERATION
3.PUSHBUTTON AUTOMATIC ON/OFF
4.LAMP SHUTDOWN PROGRAM
5.LAMP STARTUP OR OPERATION PROGRAM
6.LAMP AUTOMATIC OFF
7.LAMP AUTOMATIC ON
8.LAMP FAULT
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 31
SLC-DISPLAY
2 3 4

1. PUSHBUTTON MANUAL ON/OFF
2.LAMP SLC OFF
3.LAMP FAULT
4.LAMP SLC ON

1
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 32
DRIVE INTERFACE-DISPLAY
3 4 5

1. PUSHBUTTON OFF (CLOSE)
2. PUSHBUTTON ON (OPEN)
3. LAMP OFF (CLOSE)
4. LAMP FAULT
5. LAMP ON (OPEN)

1
2
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 33
EXPLANATION OF KWU IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (KKS)
0 1 2 3
A NAAANN AANNN AANN
A 1MAJ15 AP001 XB01
ORDINAL SECTION
GENERAL
EXAMPLE
SIGNAL IDENTIFICATION
CONSECUTIVE NO. OF EQUIPMENT
TYPE OF EQUIPMENT
NO. OF SUBGROUP
PLANT GROUP (FUNCTIONAL GROUP)
NO. OF UNIT
14 August 2014 34
PROTECTION SYSTEM
FOR
STEAM TURBINE
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 35
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
TASK PERFORMED :

PROTECTS TURBOSET FROM INADMISSIBLE OPERATING
CONDITIONS

PREVENTS DAMAGE IN CASE OF PLANT FAILURE

FAILURE OCCURRENCE REDUCED TO MINIMUM

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 36
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
ADVANTAGES :

DETECTION OF UNIT IRREGULARITIES

PREVENTION OF UNIT OVERSTRESSING DUE TO TRIPS

RELIEF OF OPERATING PERSONNEL FROM QUICK AND
CORRECT DECISION TAKING

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 37
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
HYDRAULIC
TRIP SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL
TRIP SYSTEM
EXTENDED
TURBINE PROT.
PROT. CRITERIA
FROM OTHER AREA

- OVER SPEED
TRIP DEVICE
1/2
- VACUUM TRIP
DEVICE
- HAND TRIP
LEVER(LOCAL)
1/2


- MANUAL
REMOTE TRIP
( UCB)
- LOW VACUUM
TRIP
- LOW LUBE OIL
- FIRE PROT.
TRIP
-BRG METAL
TEMP
-AXIAL SHIFT
-HP/IP TOP/BOT
DIFF TEMP HI


- LP EXH. STM.
TEMP. > MAX

-GENERATOR
PROTECTION

- MASTER FUEL
TRIP RELAY
ENERGISED

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 38
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
GENERAL :

The electrical trip system comprises of two identical and independent
relay based trip channels viz. electrical trip channels 1 & 2.
Both channels are connected to different (two) trip solenoid valves.
All command signals for turbine trip are hooked up with both the
channels.
Actuation of any of the channels energises the respective trip solenoid
which in turn trips the turbine.
Each channel is realized in a local bus. Both the local buses are
completely independent of each other and input modules, processor
module and output modules reside on each.

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 39
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
GENERAL :
Trip signals from the sensors / field instruments are conditioned and
distributed to both the channels (local buses) via hardwired modules.

Realisation of 2 out of 3 trip logic is carried out in the local bus. On
detection of a fault in any one of the input signals to a channel, the
configuration for that channel changes from 2 out of 3 to 1 out of 2 and is
annunciated. Further failure in a channel changes the configuration to 1
out of 1.

Trip signal from each of the local buses acts on 3 relays in 2 out of 3
combination.
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 40
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
CYCLIC TEST :
Both the channels are tested periodically, even while the turbine is
running.

Cyclic testing is done automatically at preset intervals and can be
blocked from the protection cabinet, if desired.

This testing can also be initiated manually from the cabinet.

Only one channel can be tested at a time. Online testing is done by
simulating the trip signals and it determines faults in the input modules,
processor modules, output modules or the trip relays.

These faults can be acknowledged from the cabinet. Next cycle test can
only be carried out after acknowledging the fault.

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 41
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 42
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
TRIPPING CRITERIA :

1. CONDENSER VACUUM VERY LOW :
This is a back up protection to the hydraulic low vacuum trip
device.
The protection acts if absolute pressure in the condenser rises
above 0.3 Kg/cm2 (abs).

2. LUBE OIL PRESSURE LOW :
The protection acts if the lube oil pressure before thrust bearing
decreases to 1.2Kg/cm2 .
The trip signal is initiated by three pressure transmitters in 2-out-of-3-
logic.

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 43
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
TRIPPING CRITERIA :

3. FIRE PROTECTION :
The protection acts in the event of any of the following
conditions :
i) Fire protection switch, either in unit control
room or in machine hall, operated.
ii) Level in main oil tank falls to a very low value,
indicating substantial leakage of oil from the system.

The command signal under condition (ii) is initiated from
three level transmitters in 2-out-of-3 logic cofiguration.
14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 44
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
TRIPPING CRITERIA :

4. HP EXHAUST STEAM TEMPERATURE HIGH :

The HP exhaust steam temperature protection circuit causes the exhaust
sections of the turbine, the blading and the extraction points against
overheating.
Under extreme operating conditions the HP turbine can be run at low flow rate
and simultaneous relatively high back pressure. This prevents the steam from
expanding, which causes the exhaust steam temperature to rise ( > 500
0
C).
The temperature is measured by means of three thermocouples and protection
criteria is derived in 2 out of 3 logic.

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 45
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
TRIPPING CRITERIA :

5. TURBINE TRIP SWITCH OPERATED :

The protection acts when the turbine trip switch in unit control room
is operated manually.

6. TRIP COMMAND INITIATED FROM ATRS :

The protection acts when the trip command signal is initiated from
the Automatic Turbine Run-up System .

14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 46
TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM
TRIPPING CRITERIA :

7. GEN. PROTECTION OR MFT- RELAY ENERGISED :
In the event of generator faults under Class-B trip both the turbine trip
channels are actuated to trip the turbine. In such a case the generator
protection acts through Reverse Power Relays.
In the event of generator faults under Class-A trip or in the event of boiler
"Master fuel trip relay" energised, command signal for turbine trip shall
act simultaneously and independent of other equipment trip out sequence.

8. OPERATION OF REVERSE POWER RELAY :
The command signal is initiated with a time delay of 10 seconds after any of
the two reverse power relays have operated.


14 August 2014 PMI Revision 00 47