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Performance of flat slab structures subjected to fire

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You are on page 1of 40

Enrl no. 12523008

Structural engineering

Under the guidance of

Dr. Pradeep Bhargava

Sequence of Presentation:

1. Introduction on the RC Flat slab framed structure.

2. Objective and Scope of Flat slab structure performance when it

subjected to fire.

3. Modelling of prototype structure in ABAQUS.

4. Theory of Heat transfer and Thermal analysis on ABAQUS model.

5. Thermal stress analysis on the Model based on the temperature

distribution

that is carried out in the thermal analysis.

6. Future work that has to be carried out in Research.

INTRODUCTION:

In the context of Structural engineering understanding the

performance of response of structures in fire has become very

essential after the collapse of World Trade Centre in 2011.

RC Flat slab system is a beamless slab directly support on a

columns

Flat slab is a typical structural system generally used for office

buildings and Residential buildings.

The slabs of flat-plates generally have very thin concrete cover

leaving steel reinforcement more sensitive to thermal loads.

Less information available in the engineering community about

the structural performance of flat Slab structures subjected to fire.

Aims and Objectives:

To understand the various aspects of modelling techniques and

features which are defined in ABAQUS.

To understand the variation of temperature across the structural

members in Flat slab structure by carrying out heat transfer analysis.

Performing the Non linear finite element thermal stress analysis on

the protoype model .

To investigate response ( deflections, membrane forces and punching

shear) of Flat slab structure at elevated temperatures.

Analyse the difference in behaviour of Flat slab frame and regular

RC structure of same configuration at elevated temperatures.

Scope of work:

1. This Research is on the Flat slab structures where slabs

design has been primarily governed by gravity load.

2. Shear reinforcement has not been provided in slab -column

connection .

3. The Flat slab is analyzed for standard ISO 834 time-

temperature curve.

This is analyzed for only single storey single bay RC flat

slab frame

METHODOLOGY

Modeling in ABAQUS :

ABAQUS software is capable of simulating the real behavior of

Engineering materials such as rubber, polymer, reinforced concrete and

geotechnical materials such as rocks and soil etc. The modeling of

prototype structure has been doing in this software because of two

reasons.

1. when slabs are modelled using solid or shell elements reinforcement

can be modelled conventionally.

2. Reliability of Non-linear analysis solvers has been acknowledged.

.

Element types used :

ABAQUS has extensive element library. The behavior

of elements is characterized by five aspects namely

family, degrees of freedom,

Number of nodes, Formulation and Integration

Element library in ABAQUS

Different analysis may require different types of

elements based on the required degree of freedom at

nodal level. This can be explained

below example.

C3D8 is used for continuum elements for

stress/displacement analysis.

DC3D8 used for a heat transfer analysis as their d.o.f

are different.

The order of the element is also highlighted in the element

name by indicating the number of nodes.

Modeling of prototype structure:

The concrete part of slab, columns, plinth beams are

modelled by 3D solid continuum elements and

Reinforcement is modelled by wire shape element.

The concrete frame model and reinforcement cage models

are created as different parts and they are merged in the

instances which is available in ABAQUS software.

The various elements that are used in this study are C3D8,

T3D2, B31, S4R, DC3D8 and DC1D2. The usage of these

elements are mentioned in at the appropriate analysis.

DIMENSIONS OF FRAME MODEL:

Slab - 1.96 X 1.96 X 0.12 m

Columns 0.3 X 0.3 m

Plinth beams-0.23 X 0.23m

In slab Reinforcement grid is at 0.3 and 0.8 m from

bottom face.

12mm diameter bars are used

In Columns 16mm diameter bars are used.

In Plinth beams 12mm diameter bars are used.

M35 grade concrete and Fe415 grade steel is used for

whole structure.

Concrete Frame modelled by

Solid elements

Rebar cage modeled by

truss elements

Concrete flat slab frame after merging with reinforcement

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS:

Temperature dependent thermal properties of concrete and reinforcing steel

areimportant for understanding the fire response of RC structures.

These properties include

1.Thermal conductivity.

2.Specific heat.

These properties determine the extent of heat transfer inside the material.

Thermal conductivity of concrete is given as input parameters with respect

to temperature

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

0 500 1000 1500

c

o

n

d

u

c

t

i

v

i

t

y

Temperature

concrete conductivity

Thermal

conductivity

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

0 500 1000 1500

c

o

n

d

u

c

t

i

v

i

t

y

Temperature

Steel conductivity

Steel

conductivity

THERMAL ANALYSIS

Thermal stress analysis is carried out in two phases.

1. Conducting a time dependent heat transfer analysis in

which temperature distributions at various time

stages are computed.

2. By using the Temperature distributions that are

obtained in the first stage Thermal stress analsyis

has been carried out.

In ABAQUS heat transfer can be done in two ways. one

is by giving surface film condition and another by

giving boundary conditions to the exposed and

unexposed surfaces. But researches have shown that 1st

method represents better realistic condition .

Uncoupled Heat Transfer Analysis :

The ABAQUS Standard capability for uncoupled heat transfer analysis

is intended to model solid body heat conduction with general,

temperature dependent conductivity, internal energy (including latent

heat effects) and quite general convection and radiation boundary

conditions. This section describes the basic energy balance,

constitutive models, boundary conditions, finite element

discretization, and time integration procedures used.

ENERGY BALANCE:

Where V = Volume of solid material with surface area

S = Density of the material

q = Heat flux per unit area of the body

r = Heat supplied externally into the body per unit volume

V S V

rdV qdS dV U

Boundary conditions:-

1) Prescribed temperature = (x, t)

2) Prescribed surface heat flux, q = q(x, t) per area

3) Prescribed volumetric heat flux, q = r(x, t) per volume;

4) Surface convection q = h (

0

), where h = h(x, t) is the film

coefficient And

0

=

0

(x, t) is the sink temperature: and

5) Radiation q = A ((

Z

)

4

(

0

Z

)

4

), where A is the radiation

constant (emissivity times the Stefan-Boltzmann constant) and

Z

is

the absolute zero on the temperature scale used.The boundary

conditions 4 and 5 are used in this analysis.

Time integration:

Abaqus uses the backward difference algorithm

) / 1 )( ( t U U U

t t t t t

Sq

N

V

N

V V

N

t t t

N

qdS N rdV N dV

x

k

x

N

dV U U N

t

0 . . ) (

1

method is modified Newton because the tangent matrix (the Jacobian

matrix) i.e.the rate of change of the left-hand side of equation with

respect to is not formed exactly.

The first-order heat transfer elements use a numerical integration rule

with the integration stations located at the corners of the element for

the heat capacitance terms. This approach is especially effective when

strong latent heat effects are present.

The second-order elements use conventional Gaussian integration.

Thus second-order elements are to be preferred for problems when the

solution will be smooth (without latent heat effects), whereas the

first-order elements should be used in non smooth cases (with latent

heat).

N

t t

Analysis Procedure:

The assumption made with the boundary conditions used in this analysis is

that the temperatures achieved in the surrounding gases and that of the surface

are equal.

Heat transfer from the gas phase to the structural elements (beam/column) was

modelled by applying appropriate convection and radiation boundary

conditions.

A convection coefficient of 25 W/m

2

0

C for exposed surface and 9 W/m

2

0

C for

other ambient exposed surfaces and emissivity of 0.7 are given as input

parameters as shown in below.

Exposed surface

UNEXPOSED SURFACE:

Input parameters for unexposed surface

In Heat transfer analysis concrete is modeled using continuum elements

with thermal degree of freedom

In general a tie constraint can be used in between concrete and rebars in

order to transmit temperatures in to the bars from surrounding concrete.

But it must be done by picking the nodes of concrete and rebar

simultaneously and then the tie constraint must be defined. In case of a frame

it is not practical to define the tie constraint.

In Heat transfer analysis special properties called stringers is used. All the

rebars in the frame are replaced with stringers with the same geometric and

material properties.

Usage of any other constraints between concrete and rebars is unnecessary if

Stringers are implemented.

Mesh details:

Solid concrete has been discretized using DC3D8 element which is having

Nodal temperatures are only active degrees of freedom. Reinforcement has been

discretized using DC1D2 element having Node temperature as the only active

degree of freedom.

The approximate mesh size used for concrete and rebar elements is 90mm

Total no. of elements = 66868

ELEMENT TYPE NUMBER OF ELEMENTS

2 Node heat transfer link

(DC1D2)

10645

8 Node Heat transfer brick

(DC3D8)

28816

For Heat transfer analysis temperature is applied on the model according to

the

standard ISO-834 time-temperature curve as shown below.

ISO 834 time-temperature Equation:

ISO -834 time-temperature curve

Temperature is applied on the exposed surface of the model upto 60 min

according toThe curve shown above.

Before Heat transfer entire

model is given initial

temperature as 20C.

Initial state of Heat

transfer

Final state of Heat transfer

Slab sectional temperature distribution with

respect to time:

1.Initial temperature(t=0)

2.At time t=455sec

3. At time t=1062sec

4. At time t=2209sec

5.At time t=3600sec

Distribution of temperature across slab

For validation of Modeling techniques and Thermal loads the

results of heat transfer are compared with the eurocode.

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

0 50 100 150

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

i

n

C

Distance from exposed surface across slab in 'm'

Temperatures profiles for

slabs-EURO code

temperature profile for

slabs-

analytical+She+Sheet1

As shown in above curve the results are in good agreement with the

Euro code values.

THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS

Theory and Analysis procedure:

The temperature gradients induced in the structural elements give

rise to thermal loads because of different thermal distributions and

coefficient of expansion of materials.

Supports and rigid connections don't allow the structure to undergo

deformation so there need to be study of thermal stress analysis.

The temperature distributions across entire structure can be

imported from heat transfer odb file as shown below.

THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS

Mechanical properties of Materials :

The concrete damaged plasticity model in ABAQUS :

Provides a general capability for modeling concrete and other quasi-brittle

materials

in all types of structures (beams, trusses, shells, and solids);

Uses concepts of isotropic damaged elasticity in combination with

isotropic tensile

and compressive plasticity to represent the inelastic behavior of concrete;

Can be used for plain concrete, even though it is intended primarily for the

analysis

of reinforced concrete structures;

Designed for applications in which concrete is subjected to monotonic,

cyclic,

and/or dynamic loading under low confining pressures;

Allows user control of stiffness recovery effects during cyclic load

reversals;

Can be defined to be sensitive to the rate of straining;

Requires that the elastic behavior of the material be isotropic and linear

The model is a continuum, plasticity-based, damage model for concrete. It

assumes

that the main two failure mechanisms are tensile cracking and compressive

crushing

of the concrete material. The evolution of the yield (or failure) surface is

controlled by

two hardening variables, and , linked to failure mechanisms under tension and

compression loading, respectively. and represent tensile and compressive

equivalent

plastic strains, respectively

(a) Uniaxial tensile behavior o f concrete (b) Uniaxial compressive behavior

of concrete

Under uni-axial tension the stress-strain response follows a linear elastic

relationship until the value of the failure stress, is reached. The failure stress

corresponds to the onset of micro-cracking in the concrete material. Beyond the

failure stress the formation of micro-cracks is represented macroscopically with

a softening stress-strain response which induces strain localization in the

concrete structure. Under uni-axial compression the response is linear until the

value ofinitial yield . In the plastic regime the response is typically

characterized by stress hardening followed by strain softening beyond the

ultimate stress.

CONSTITUTIVE MODELS :

Youssef and Moftah proposed two models for confined concrete based

upon Mander et al. and Scott et al., which are successful in modeling the

behaviour of concrete at ambient temperature.

The models are modified by replacing f

c

and

oc

with the temperature

dependent terms f

cT

and

oTc

.

The Model used in this study is the modified version of the model

proposed by Scott et.al

The tensile behaviour of concrete is assumed to be bi-linear in this study

i.e. the behavior assumed is to be linear up to peak stress, and the

descending branch is also taken as linear.

Abaqus assumes the value of E to be same in both compression and tension

For reinforcing bars the constitutive model used is according to the Euro code

Meshing of structure for structural analysis is done by taking stress

elements as shown in below table.

The approximate mesh size used for concrete elements and re-bar elements

is 90mm

Total no. of elements =39461

Element Type Number

Truss element (T3D2) 10645

Continuum element (C3D8) 28816

Reinforcement is assigned as T3D2 and Concrete element is

assigned with C3D8

Results of Structural analysis:

The Flat slab is designed for self weight, Super imposed dead load 1.44

KN/m^2

and live load of 2.39 KN/m^2.

It is assumed that in the event of a fire, the prototype structure is subject

to a uniformly distributed gravity load of 1.0D + 0.5L..

The deflected shape is as shown in below figure.

RESULTS OF THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS :

Presentation of total analysis results will be difficult

for entire structure. So for convenience results are

presented at specified points as shown in below

figure. point 'C' is located at 150 mm from column

face. Point 'B' is the mid-point of column centre

line. Pont 'A' is the centre of slab panel.

Reference diagram of Prototype structure plan

Slab vertical deflection :

Initially gravity load causes a deflection of 1.3 mm, 0.6 mm at the points

A and B.because of thermal stress anslysis after the 1 hr deflections at

A and B is to 62mm and 25mm.

The largest deflection always occur at the centre of the heated slab panel.

As shown in below increase in the deflection rate for the midpoint of slab

panel 'A' is much higher than the midpoint of centre line 'B' and column

face point 'C'

At this loading stage

there is no

sign of generating a

collapse mechanism

associated with

flexural yielding

because the slab has

not experienced a

rapid increase in

deflection at either

location.

0.00E+00

1.00E-02

2.00E-02

3.00E-02

4.00E-02

5.00E-02

6.00E-02

0 1000 2000 3000 4000

D

e

f

l

e

c

t

i

o

n

i

n

m

Time (sec)

Deflection at point 'B'

Deflection at point 'B'

In plane slab Expansion

The figure shows the In plane displacement in X-direction.

The Thermal expansion of heated panel leads to the steadily increased

outward Displacements at all three locations i.e. A, B and C.

At location A the displacement is 10mm and at B is 16mm. A large

deformation enough to cause column cracking.

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

0 20 40 60 80

d

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

s

m

m

Time (min)

In plane slab

displacement at 'A'

Inplane slab

displacement at 'B'

The main steps of this research Heat transfer and thermal stress

analysis is carried out.

FUTURE WORK :

1.In depth scrutiny of thermals stress analysis has to be done.

2.The thermal stress analysis has to be carried out under the load of

gravity load and live load and lateral loads.

3.Response and Risk of punching shear failure of flat slab at elevated

temperature has to be studied based on the results of analysis and

validity of equations on punching failure has to be studied.

REFERENCES:

1.ABAQUS analysis users Manual,version-6.10

2. Eurocode 2, "Design of concretestructures.Part1.2.

General rules-Structural Fire design", Commission of

European communities, Brussels,2004

3. Journal structural fire engineering, Multi-science

publishing ISSAN 2040-2317.,vol 4., November 4.,2013

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