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Presented by

K. Saiguru Raghavendra Guptha


Enrl no. 12523008
Structural engineering
Under the guidance of
Dr. Pradeep Bhargava
Sequence of Presentation:

1. Introduction on the RC Flat slab framed structure.

2. Objective and Scope of Flat slab structure performance when it
subjected to fire.

3. Modelling of prototype structure in ABAQUS.

4. Theory of Heat transfer and Thermal analysis on ABAQUS model.

5. Thermal stress analysis on the Model based on the temperature
distribution
that is carried out in the thermal analysis.

6. Future work that has to be carried out in Research.


INTRODUCTION:


In the context of Structural engineering understanding the
performance of response of structures in fire has become very
essential after the collapse of World Trade Centre in 2011.

RC Flat slab system is a beamless slab directly support on a
columns

Flat slab is a typical structural system generally used for office
buildings and Residential buildings.

The slabs of flat-plates generally have very thin concrete cover
leaving steel reinforcement more sensitive to thermal loads.

Less information available in the engineering community about
the structural performance of flat Slab structures subjected to fire.



Aims and Objectives:

To understand the various aspects of modelling techniques and
features which are defined in ABAQUS.

To understand the variation of temperature across the structural
members in Flat slab structure by carrying out heat transfer analysis.

Performing the Non linear finite element thermal stress analysis on
the protoype model .

To investigate response ( deflections, membrane forces and punching
shear) of Flat slab structure at elevated temperatures.

Analyse the difference in behaviour of Flat slab frame and regular
RC structure of same configuration at elevated temperatures.






Scope of work:

1. This Research is on the Flat slab structures where slabs
design has been primarily governed by gravity load.

2. Shear reinforcement has not been provided in slab -column
connection .

3. The Flat slab is analyzed for standard ISO 834 time-
temperature curve.
This is analyzed for only single storey single bay RC flat
slab frame






METHODOLOGY

Modeling in ABAQUS :

ABAQUS software is capable of simulating the real behavior of
Engineering materials such as rubber, polymer, reinforced concrete and
geotechnical materials such as rocks and soil etc. The modeling of
prototype structure has been doing in this software because of two
reasons.

1. when slabs are modelled using solid or shell elements reinforcement
can be modelled conventionally.
2. Reliability of Non-linear analysis solvers has been acknowledged.

.
Element types used :

ABAQUS has extensive element library. The behavior
of elements is characterized by five aspects namely
family, degrees of freedom,
Number of nodes, Formulation and Integration


Element library in ABAQUS
Different analysis may require different types of
elements based on the required degree of freedom at
nodal level. This can be explained
below example.

C3D8 is used for continuum elements for
stress/displacement analysis.
DC3D8 used for a heat transfer analysis as their d.o.f
are different.

The order of the element is also highlighted in the element
name by indicating the number of nodes.





Modeling of prototype structure:

The concrete part of slab, columns, plinth beams are
modelled by 3D solid continuum elements and
Reinforcement is modelled by wire shape element.

The concrete frame model and reinforcement cage models
are created as different parts and they are merged in the
instances which is available in ABAQUS software.

The various elements that are used in this study are C3D8,
T3D2, B31, S4R, DC3D8 and DC1D2. The usage of these
elements are mentioned in at the appropriate analysis.





DIMENSIONS OF FRAME MODEL:

Slab - 1.96 X 1.96 X 0.12 m
Columns 0.3 X 0.3 m
Plinth beams-0.23 X 0.23m
In slab Reinforcement grid is at 0.3 and 0.8 m from
bottom face.
12mm diameter bars are used
In Columns 16mm diameter bars are used.
In Plinth beams 12mm diameter bars are used.
M35 grade concrete and Fe415 grade steel is used for
whole structure.
Concrete Frame modelled by
Solid elements
Rebar cage modeled by
truss elements
Concrete flat slab frame after merging with reinforcement

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS:

Temperature dependent thermal properties of concrete and reinforcing steel
areimportant for understanding the fire response of RC structures.
These properties include
1.Thermal conductivity.
2.Specific heat.
These properties determine the extent of heat transfer inside the material.
Thermal conductivity of concrete is given as input parameters with respect
to temperature



0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 500 1000 1500
c
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

Temperature
concrete conductivity
Thermal
conductivity
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 500 1000 1500
c
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

Temperature
Steel conductivity
Steel
conductivity
THERMAL ANALYSIS
Thermal stress analysis is carried out in two phases.

1. Conducting a time dependent heat transfer analysis in
which temperature distributions at various time
stages are computed.

2. By using the Temperature distributions that are
obtained in the first stage Thermal stress analsyis
has been carried out.

In ABAQUS heat transfer can be done in two ways. one
is by giving surface film condition and another by
giving boundary conditions to the exposed and
unexposed surfaces. But researches have shown that 1st
method represents better realistic condition .



Uncoupled Heat Transfer Analysis :

The ABAQUS Standard capability for uncoupled heat transfer analysis
is intended to model solid body heat conduction with general,
temperature dependent conductivity, internal energy (including latent
heat effects) and quite general convection and radiation boundary
conditions. This section describes the basic energy balance,
constitutive models, boundary conditions, finite element
discretization, and time integration procedures used.

ENERGY BALANCE:




Where V = Volume of solid material with surface area
S = Density of the material
q = Heat flux per unit area of the body
r = Heat supplied externally into the body per unit volume



V S V
rdV qdS dV U

Boundary conditions:-
1) Prescribed temperature = (x, t)
2) Prescribed surface heat flux, q = q(x, t) per area
3) Prescribed volumetric heat flux, q = r(x, t) per volume;
4) Surface convection q = h (
0
), where h = h(x, t) is the film
coefficient And
0
=
0
(x, t) is the sink temperature: and
5) Radiation q = A ((
Z
)
4
(
0

Z
)
4
), where A is the radiation
constant (emissivity times the Stefan-Boltzmann constant) and
Z
is
the absolute zero on the temperature scale used.The boundary
conditions 4 and 5 are used in this analysis.

Time integration:
Abaqus uses the backward difference algorithm




) / 1 )( ( t U U U
t t t t t

Introducing the operator into the energy balance equation gives





Sq
N
V
N
V V
N
t t t
N
qdS N rdV N dV
x
k
x
N
dV U U N
t
0 . . ) (
1

This Nonlinear system is solved by a modified Newton method. The


method is modified Newton because the tangent matrix (the Jacobian
matrix) i.e.the rate of change of the left-hand side of equation with
respect to is not formed exactly.

The first-order heat transfer elements use a numerical integration rule
with the integration stations located at the corners of the element for
the heat capacitance terms. This approach is especially effective when
strong latent heat effects are present.

The second-order elements use conventional Gaussian integration.
Thus second-order elements are to be preferred for problems when the
solution will be smooth (without latent heat effects), whereas the
first-order elements should be used in non smooth cases (with latent
heat).

N
t t

Analysis Procedure:

The assumption made with the boundary conditions used in this analysis is
that the temperatures achieved in the surrounding gases and that of the surface
are equal.

Heat transfer from the gas phase to the structural elements (beam/column) was
modelled by applying appropriate convection and radiation boundary
conditions.

A convection coefficient of 25 W/m
2

0
C for exposed surface and 9 W/m
2

0
C for
other ambient exposed surfaces and emissivity of 0.7 are given as input
parameters as shown in below.





Exposed surface
UNEXPOSED SURFACE:
Input parameters for unexposed surface
In Heat transfer analysis concrete is modeled using continuum elements
with thermal degree of freedom
In general a tie constraint can be used in between concrete and rebars in
order to transmit temperatures in to the bars from surrounding concrete.
But it must be done by picking the nodes of concrete and rebar
simultaneously and then the tie constraint must be defined. In case of a frame
it is not practical to define the tie constraint.
In Heat transfer analysis special properties called stringers is used. All the
rebars in the frame are replaced with stringers with the same geometric and
material properties.

Usage of any other constraints between concrete and rebars is unnecessary if
Stringers are implemented.

Mesh details:
Solid concrete has been discretized using DC3D8 element which is having
Nodal temperatures are only active degrees of freedom. Reinforcement has been
discretized using DC1D2 element having Node temperature as the only active
degree of freedom.
The approximate mesh size used for concrete and rebar elements is 90mm
Total no. of elements = 66868






ELEMENT TYPE NUMBER OF ELEMENTS
2 Node heat transfer link
(DC1D2)
10645
8 Node Heat transfer brick
(DC3D8)
28816
For Heat transfer analysis temperature is applied on the model according to
the
standard ISO-834 time-temperature curve as shown below.

ISO 834 time-temperature Equation:



ISO -834 time-temperature curve
Temperature is applied on the exposed surface of the model upto 60 min
according toThe curve shown above.
Before Heat transfer entire
model is given initial
temperature as 20C.

Initial state of Heat
transfer
Final state of Heat transfer
Slab sectional temperature distribution with
respect to time:

1.Initial temperature(t=0)
2.At time t=455sec
3. At time t=1062sec
4. At time t=2209sec
5.At time t=3600sec
Distribution of temperature across slab
For validation of Modeling techniques and Thermal loads the
results of heat transfer are compared with the eurocode.


0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 50 100 150
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e


i
n

C

Distance from exposed surface across slab in 'm'
Temperatures profiles for
slabs-EURO code
temperature profile for
slabs-
analytical+She+Sheet1
As shown in above curve the results are in good agreement with the
Euro code values.
THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS
Theory and Analysis procedure:
The temperature gradients induced in the structural elements give
rise to thermal loads because of different thermal distributions and
coefficient of expansion of materials.

Supports and rigid connections don't allow the structure to undergo
deformation so there need to be study of thermal stress analysis.

The temperature distributions across entire structure can be
imported from heat transfer odb file as shown below.
THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS
Mechanical properties of Materials :


The concrete damaged plasticity model in ABAQUS :

Provides a general capability for modeling concrete and other quasi-brittle
materials
in all types of structures (beams, trusses, shells, and solids);
Uses concepts of isotropic damaged elasticity in combination with
isotropic tensile
and compressive plasticity to represent the inelastic behavior of concrete;
Can be used for plain concrete, even though it is intended primarily for the
analysis
of reinforced concrete structures;
Designed for applications in which concrete is subjected to monotonic,
cyclic,
and/or dynamic loading under low confining pressures;
Allows user control of stiffness recovery effects during cyclic load
reversals;
Can be defined to be sensitive to the rate of straining;
Requires that the elastic behavior of the material be isotropic and linear

The model is a continuum, plasticity-based, damage model for concrete. It
assumes
that the main two failure mechanisms are tensile cracking and compressive
crushing
of the concrete material. The evolution of the yield (or failure) surface is
controlled by
two hardening variables, and , linked to failure mechanisms under tension and
compression loading, respectively. and represent tensile and compressive
equivalent
plastic strains, respectively










(a) Uniaxial tensile behavior o f concrete (b) Uniaxial compressive behavior
of concrete




Under uni-axial tension the stress-strain response follows a linear elastic
relationship until the value of the failure stress, is reached. The failure stress
corresponds to the onset of micro-cracking in the concrete material. Beyond the
failure stress the formation of micro-cracks is represented macroscopically with
a softening stress-strain response which induces strain localization in the
concrete structure. Under uni-axial compression the response is linear until the
value ofinitial yield . In the plastic regime the response is typically
characterized by stress hardening followed by strain softening beyond the
ultimate stress.

CONSTITUTIVE MODELS :


Youssef and Moftah proposed two models for confined concrete based
upon Mander et al. and Scott et al., which are successful in modeling the
behaviour of concrete at ambient temperature.


The models are modified by replacing f
c
and
oc
with the temperature
dependent terms f
cT
and
oTc
.
The Model used in this study is the modified version of the model
proposed by Scott et.al
The tensile behaviour of concrete is assumed to be bi-linear in this study
i.e. the behavior assumed is to be linear up to peak stress, and the
descending branch is also taken as linear.

Abaqus assumes the value of E to be same in both compression and tension
For reinforcing bars the constitutive model used is according to the Euro code
Meshing of structure for structural analysis is done by taking stress
elements as shown in below table.

The approximate mesh size used for concrete elements and re-bar elements
is 90mm

Total no. of elements =39461
Element Type Number
Truss element (T3D2) 10645
Continuum element (C3D8) 28816
Reinforcement is assigned as T3D2 and Concrete element is
assigned with C3D8
Results of Structural analysis:

The Flat slab is designed for self weight, Super imposed dead load 1.44
KN/m^2
and live load of 2.39 KN/m^2.

It is assumed that in the event of a fire, the prototype structure is subject
to a uniformly distributed gravity load of 1.0D + 0.5L..

The deflected shape is as shown in below figure.

RESULTS OF THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS :
Presentation of total analysis results will be difficult
for entire structure. So for convenience results are
presented at specified points as shown in below
figure. point 'C' is located at 150 mm from column
face. Point 'B' is the mid-point of column centre
line. Pont 'A' is the centre of slab panel.

Reference diagram of Prototype structure plan
Slab vertical deflection :

Initially gravity load causes a deflection of 1.3 mm, 0.6 mm at the points
A and B.because of thermal stress anslysis after the 1 hr deflections at
A and B is to 62mm and 25mm.

The largest deflection always occur at the centre of the heated slab panel.
As shown in below increase in the deflection rate for the midpoint of slab
panel 'A' is much higher than the midpoint of centre line 'B' and column
face point 'C'


At this loading stage
there is no
sign of generating a
collapse mechanism
associated with
flexural yielding
because the slab has
not experienced a
rapid increase in
deflection at either
location.
0.00E+00
1.00E-02
2.00E-02
3.00E-02
4.00E-02
5.00E-02
6.00E-02
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

i
n

m

Time (sec)
Deflection at point 'B'
Deflection at point 'B'
In plane slab Expansion
The figure shows the In plane displacement in X-direction.

The Thermal expansion of heated panel leads to the steadily increased
outward Displacements at all three locations i.e. A, B and C.

At location A the displacement is 10mm and at B is 16mm. A large
deformation enough to cause column cracking.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
0 20 40 60 80
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
s

m
m

Time (min)
In plane slab
displacement at 'A'
Inplane slab
displacement at 'B'
The main steps of this research Heat transfer and thermal stress
analysis is carried out.

FUTURE WORK :
1.In depth scrutiny of thermals stress analysis has to be done.
2.The thermal stress analysis has to be carried out under the load of
gravity load and live load and lateral loads.
3.Response and Risk of punching shear failure of flat slab at elevated
temperature has to be studied based on the results of analysis and
validity of equations on punching failure has to be studied.
REFERENCES:

1.ABAQUS analysis users Manual,version-6.10

2. Eurocode 2, "Design of concretestructures.Part1.2.
General rules-Structural Fire design", Commission of
European communities, Brussels,2004

3. Journal structural fire engineering, Multi-science
publishing ISSAN 2040-2317.,vol 4., November 4.,2013