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18th

C
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Bengal - Richest and
most profitable
province

It became a profitable base for their trade
and commerce





Most prosperous settlements was the British
settlement at Calcutta
Issued by Mughal Emperor
E.I.C. right to carry duty-free
trade in Bengal i.e. without
paying any taxes to the
government
Right to issue passes or dastaks
for the free movement of their
goods.
Employees of the company were not
entitled to companys privilege of
duty free trade.
They had to pay taxes.
Fought between Siraj
ud Daulah and the
British East India
Company.

On 23
rd
June,1757.

Turning point in
Indian History

In 1756, Nawab of Bengal
had died.
Alivardi Khan was
Succeeded by his
grandson Siraj ud Daulah
Wanted to curb the
growing power of the
British

Siraj
British
Ordered the British to pay
taxes
Attack on Nawabs power
Ordered british and french
to dismantle their
fortifications as he didnt
want them to become the
masters.French agreed.
Thus he wanted to teach
them a lesson
They refused to do
so.
British began to
fortify Calcutta ,in
anticipation of a war
with the French
British refused.
Siraj- ud Daulah captured fort William
in June 1756.
Robert Clive
reconquered Calcutta
by January 1757.
Nawab had to
Restore trading
privileges to E.E.I.C
Concede(grant) the
right to fortify Calcutta
Siraj had accepted
all the British
demands
The British wanted
to replace Siraj-ud
Daulah with a
puppet ruler
Made Negotiations with Mir
Jafar

Mir Jafar, the commander in
Chief of the Nawabs army
was promised to be made
the Nawab of Bengal in
return for a large amount of
money and trading
privileges
After a secret treaty was signed with Mir
Jafar British presented with an impossible
set of demands to siraj.
British
forces led
by Robert
Clive

Siraj also
advanced

However a major part of Nawabs army was
under Mir Jafar who did nt participate

Realizing he was
betrayed Siraj fled the
battlefield
But was captured and put
to death
Mir Jafar was proclaimed
the Nawab of Bengal

EEIC got
right to free trade in
Bengal,Bihar and Orissa
Zamindari of the 24
parganas
300 lakh rupees from Mir
Jafar
1.Paved the way for the establishment of
British rule in Bengal and later rest of India

2.Transformed the trading company into
political power
3.Nawab of Bengal- puppet ruler and
British virtual rulers of Bengal

Bengal nawab
4.Vast resources of Bengal helped to win
Carnatic war and finance military
expeditions in other parts of India

When Mir Jafar was unable to meet the
demands of the British ,they deposed him and
made his son-in law, Mir Qasim the new
Nawab of Bengal in 1760.
Zamindari of the
Burdawan,
Midnapur and
Chittagong district.
Competent and efficient ruler
Determined to free himself from
foreign control
He improved the financial position of Bengal
Raised a modern, disciplined and well equipped
army trained by the Europeans
The employees of the company
misused their trade privileges
Sold duty free trade permits to Indian
merchants
Thus deprived the nawab of large revenues
Unfair to those merchants who paid heavy duties
To put an end to corrupt practices, Mir Qaim
abolished all duties on internal trade for the
British.

Between Mir Qasim and the British
Nawab was defeated
Mir Jafar reinstated (put back) on
the throne
Mir Qasim was determined to recover his
throne
Escaped to Awadh and formed an Alliance
Alliance- Mir Qasim( Nawab of Bengal) , Shuja
ud Daulah (Nawab of Awadh) and Shah Alam II
(the Mughal Emperor)
Fought in the year 1764
Between the combined forces of the Alliance
and the British troops at Buxar
The alliance was defeated
Established British as masters of Bengal,
Bihar and Orissa

Gave them the political control over Awadh
and the Mughal emperor

Laid the foundation of the British rule in India

Robert Clive as Governor of Bengal
Robert Clive signed the Treaty of Allahabad
with Shuja-ud-Daulah(Nawab of Awadh) and
Shah Alam II in 1765
Awadh was returned to Shuja ud daula
2 districts of Kora and Allahabad were
taken away from Shuja ud daula
He had to pay a war indemnity of 50
lakh rupees

British agreed to defend the nawab against his
enemies
Nawab had to pay for the British troops
Awadh became a buffer state(a small state
between 2 powerful states that helps keep peace
between them) between Bengal and Maharashtra

The British gave Shah Alam II the districts of
Kora and Allahabad
An annual pension of 26 lakh rupees was
also given to him
In return- Shah Alam II granted the
company the Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar
and Orissa

Diwani rights - Right to collect revenue and
Also judge civil cases
Companys control over Bengal was made
legal

No military and administrative powers i.e.
puppet rulers
In 1765, Mir Jafar died and his son became the
nawab
He signed a treaty with Clive.
The EEIC became real powers of Bengal from
1765
Nawab had to disband most of his army
Transfer the Nizamat powers( general
administration and criminal justice) to a Deputy
nawab
Deputy nawab was appointed by the British and
could not be dismissed by the Nawab of Bengal

Nawabs allowance of 53 lakh rupees was
also reduced.
Thus EEIC became real ruler of Bengal from
1765.

Introduced by Robert Clive in Bengal in
1765
Bengal had Dual Governments
1) the Nawab
2) the company
Nawab English east India
company
1. General administration 1. Collection of revenue
2. Maintenance of law
and order
2. Justice (civil cases)
3. Justice (criminal
cases)
3. Defence and military
power
Responsibility without
power
Power without
responsibility
Conditions worsened
One third population
perished
The company nor the
nawab cared
In 1772, court of Directors appointed Warren
hastings as Governor of Bengal
In 1773, the Regulating act introduced the
Governor General as the most important
functionary of the EEIC
Warren Hastings First governor-general of British
territories in India
Warren Hastings, the governor-general of
British territories in India , abolished it

Bengal was brought under direct and complete
control of the Company

Nawab was deposed and pensioned off

Treasury was shifted from Murshidabad to
Calcutta (new capital)

Competent administratior
Many reforms introduced in
administration
Laid foundation of organised
system of Government in
Bengal
Period Events
1717

FARMAN ISSUED BY MUGHAL EMPEROR
1756





CAPTURE OF CALCUTTA BY SIRAJ-UD DAULAH
1757

BATLE OF PLASSEY BETWEEN BRITISH AND SIRAJ-UD DAULAH

1760

MIR QASIM THE NEW NAWAB OF BENGAL
1763

WAR BETWEEN BRITISH AND MIR QASIM
1764
BATTLE OF BUXAR BETWWEN THE COMBINED FORCES AND THE BRITISH

1765

THE TREATY OF ALLAHABAD
1772

DUAL GOVERNMENT IN BENGAL INTRODUCED BY CLIVE
1773
WARREN HASTING IS APPOINTED AS THE GOVERNOR GENERAL OF OF THE
BRITISH TERRITORIES IN INDIA
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