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Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

, publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Fundamentals of
Anatomy & Physiology
SIXTH EDITION
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PowerPoint

Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by


Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii
Chapter 19, part 1
Blood
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Learning Objectives
List the components of the cardiovascular system
and explain the major functions of this system.
Describe the important components and major
functions of the blood
List the characteristics and functions of red blood
cells.
Describe the structure of hemoglobin and indicate
its functions.
Discuss red blood cell production and maturation.
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Learning Objectives
Explain the importance of blood typing and the
basis for ABO and Rh incompatibilities.
Categorize the various white blood cells on the
basis of structure and function.
Describe the structure, function and
production of platelets.
Describe the reaction sequences responsible
for blood clotting.
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
SECTION 19-1
The Cardiovascular System: An Introduction
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Provides a mechanism for rapid transport of
nutrients, waste products, respiratory gases
and cells
The cardiovascular system
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SECTION 19-2
Functions and Composition of Blood
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Fluid connective tissue
Functions include
Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients,
hormones, and metabolic wastes
Regulating pH and ion composition of
interstitial fluids
Restricting fluid loss at injury sites
Defending the body against toxins and
pathogens
Regulating body temperature by absorbing
and redistributing heat
Blood
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The composition of blood
Plasma and formed elements comprise whole
blood
Red blood cells (RBC)
White blood cells (WBC)
Platelets
Can fractionate whole blood for analytical or
clinical purposes
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Figure 19.1a
Figure 19.1 The Composition of Whole Blood
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Figure 19.1b
Figure 19.1 The Composition of Whole Blood
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Figure 19.1c
Figure 19.1 The Composition of Whole Blood
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Process of blood cell formation
Hemocytoblasts are circulating stem cells that
divide to form all types of blood cells
Whole blood from anywhere in the body has
roughly the same temperature, pH and viscosity
Hemopoiesis
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SECTION 19-3
Plasma
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Accounts for 46-63% of blood volume
92% of plasma is water
Higher concentration of dissolved oxygen and
dissolved proteins than interstitial fluid
Plasma
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more than 90% are synthesized in the liver
Albumins
60% of plasma proteins
Responsible for viscosity and osmotic pressure
of blood
Plasma proteins
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Globulins
~35% of plasma proteins
Include immunoglobins which attack foreign
proteins and pathogens
Include transport globulins which bind ions,
hormones and other compounds
Fibrinogen
Converted to fibrin during clotting
Removal of fibrinogen leaves serum
Additional Plasma Proteins
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SECTION 19-4
Red Blood Cells
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Erythrocytes account for slightly less than half
the blood volume, and 99.9% of the formed
elements
Hematocrit measures the percentage of whole
blood occupied by formed elements
Commonly referred to as the volume of packed
red cells
Abundance of RBCs
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Biconcave disc, providing a large surface to
volume ration
Shape allows RBCs to stack, bend and flex
RBCs lack organelles
Typically degenerate in about 120 days.
Structure of RBCs
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Figure 19.2
Figure 19.2 The Anatomy of Red Blood Cells
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Molecules of hemoglobin account for 95% of the
proteins in RBCs
Hemoglobin is a globular protein, formed from
two pairs of polypeptide subunits
Each subunit contains a molecule of heme
which reversibly binds an oxygen molecule
Damaged or dead RBCs are recycled by
phagocytes
Hemoglobin
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Figure 19.3
Figure 19.3 The Structure of Hemoglobin
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Figure 19.4
Figure 19.4 Sickling in Red Blood Cells
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Replaced at a rate of approximately 3 million new
blood cells entering the circulation per second.
Replaced before they hemolyze
Components of hemoglobin individually recycled
Heme stripped of iron and converted to
biliverdin, then bilirubin
Iron is recycled by being stored in phagocytes, or
transported throughout the blood stream bound
to transferrin
RBC life span and circulation
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Figure 19.5
Figure 19.5 Red Blood Cell Turnover
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Erythropoeisis = the formation of new red blood
cells
Occurs in red bone marrow
Process speeds up with in the presence of EPO
(Erythropoeisis stimulating hormone)
RBCs pass through reticulocyte and
erythroblast stages
RBC Production
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Figure 19.6
Figure 19.6 Stages of RBC Maturation