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The frontal lobes are one of the four main lobes or
regions of the cerebral cortex. They are positioned
at the frontmost region of the cerebral cortex and
are involved in movement, decision-making,
problem solving, and planning. There are three main
divisions of the frontal lobes. They are the prefrontal
cortex, the premotor area and the motor area. The
prefrontal cortex is responsible for personality
expression and the planning of complex cognitive
behaviors. The premotor and motor areas of the
frontal lobes contain nerves that control the
execution of voluntary muscle movement.

The frontal lobes are involved in several functions of the
body including:

Motor Functions
Higher Order Functions
Impulse Control


Directionally, the frontal lobes are located in the anterior
portion of the cerebral cortex.


The frontal lobe of the brain is viewed as the emotional and
personality control center for a person's mind and body that is
responsible for how a person acts and reacts to information,
other people and situations in life. The frontal lobe is
extremely vulnerable and is often injured due to its location
within the body, and the over-all large size of the entire frontal
lobe. Below are facts about frontal lobe damage including
body and mind function involvement, causes, effects and
diagnosis methods.

The frontal lobe controls the following:

Drive; Mood; Memory; Attention; Initiation; Language;
Judgment; Spontaneity; Motor function; Impulse control;
Problem solving; Social behavior; Feeling of empathy and
sympathy; Mental planning and execution and Ability to
understanding humor, irony, sarcasm and dishonesty.

The average cause of frontal lobe damage is a result of
major or mild head trauma in which a person's head
collides against another object with extreme force.
When a person suffers a major head injury the brain
actually slams against the inside walls of the skull during
the accident. The injuries are typically severe enough for
newly developed mental problems to be witnessed
immediately after an accident. In the case when a
person suffers a mild head injury, which is classified as a
brief loss of consciousness and/or loss of memory
before and after a head injury, the person often appears
uninjured, but later suffers from unexplained negative
actions, thoughts and personality changes. Frontal lobe
damage may also be caused by a loss of oxygen to the
brain, such as in the case of a stroke or suffocation.

It was once believed that brain injuries, especially in
regards to children, would naturally recover in time. It is
true that other parts of the brain will compensate for
non-functioning portions, but severely damaged areas of
the brain often do not recover. Evidence now shows
when people suffer a severe brain injury, especially
children, the effects often do not manifest until several
years after the person seemed to fully recover. In some
cases the effects of head trauma continue to progress in
severity as more time passes. Because the frontal lobe
is such a large size and contains numerous sections the
amount of possible effects a person with frontal lobe
brain damage could suffer is significant.


Mood and personality changes such as excessive sleeping or restlessness;
lack of spontaneity; inability to plan ahead and lack of concern for anything,
especially the future.
Inability to interpret external input and adjust behavior accordingly;
excessive risk taking and inability to comply or conform to established rules.
Difficulty communicating in regards to speaking too much or not enough
and inaudible or incoherent speech patterns.
Improper motor functions such as lack of arm, hand and finger strength;
lack of or impaired facial expressions, balance and coordination
Lack of information processing such as not having the ability to understand
when a person is being dishonest or deceitful; unable to understand the
experiences, emotions and feelings of another person and difficulty in
problem-solving, especially in regards to mathematics and questions or tasks
that require multiple steps.
Lack of attention and memory consisting of limited amount of short term
memory and altered or distorted long term memory.
A non-Alzheimer's type of dementia in which a person will develop
relationship and communication problems with other people, lose personal
insight, show signs of manic-type behavior and experience a decline in the
ability to recall memories
Diagnosis of frontal lobe brain damage is often very
difficult and the symptoms are often described through a
different disorder. The ability to diagnose children is
even more difficult since most effects do not become
noticeable until numerous years later. If a person
believes they might suffer from frontal lobe brain
damage it is best to consult a doctor who specializes in
head trauma. There are numerous tests that measure a
person's thinking, response, motor and communication
skills. In most cases a frontal lobe injury will have no
negative results on IQ scores. The best way to receive a
proper diagnosis is to have a professional perform an
MRI, CAT or PET scan which will provide an accurate
detailed picture of healthy and diminished portions of the