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CH11 6-1

Chemistry 11 Unit 6
CH11 6-2
Products: What is produced by the reaction
Chemical equations describe chemical reactions
Reactants: What you start with in the reaction
Chemical Equations: tell us amounts, state, and ratios of
atoms in the reactants and products
Formulas: represent chemicals
Subscripts: represent phases: (s) solid, (l) liquid,
(g) gas, (aq) aqueous dissolved in water
Coefficients: used to balance the equation
Ca
(s)
+ 2H
2
O
(l)
H
2(g)
+ Ca(OH)
2(s)
Ca
(s)
+ 2H
2
O
(l)
H
2(g)
+ Ca(OH)
2(s)
Ca
(s)
+ 2H
2
O
(l)
H
2(g)
+ Ca(OH)
2(s)
Ca
(s)
+ 2H
2
O
(l)
H
2(g)
+ Ca(OH)
2(s)
Ca
(s)
+ 2H
2
O
(l)
H
2(g)
+ Ca(OH)
2(s)
Ca
(s)
+ 2H
2
O
(l)
H
2(g)
+ Ca(OH)
2(s)

CH11 6-3
1. Write correct formulas for
the reactants and products
2. Check each type of atom to see
if it is equal on both sides of
the equation. Add coefficients
to balance the atoms.
3. Recheck each atom and add
additional coefficients if
necessary. (repeat this step until
no more coefficients are
required)
Remember the Law of Conservation of Mass
H
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
H
2
O
(l)

H
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
H
2
O
(l)
H
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
2H
2
O
(l)
2H
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
2H
2
O
(l)

2H
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
2H
2
O
(l)

2 H 2 O 2 H, 1 O
2 H 2 O 4 H, 2 O
4 H 2 O 4 H, 2 O
Zn + HNO
3
Zn(NO
3
)
2
+ H
2
Total atoms of
each element:
Zn H N O Zn H N O
1 1 1 3 1 2 2 6
Are they balanced?

Add a coefficient to
HNO
3
and check again: 1 2 2 6 1 2 2 6
Are they balanced?
Zn + 2HNO
3
Zn(NO
3
)
2
+ H
2
Is that
your final
answer?
Zn + 2HNO
3
Zn(NO
3
)
2
+ H
2


CH11 6-4
CH11 6-5
Remember the following elements exist as diatomic
molecules:
H
2
N
2
O
2
F
2
Cl
2
Br
2
I
2
At
2

Balance atoms which occur in only one molecule on each side
of the equation first.
Balance groups of atoms when possible (SO
4
2-
, NO
3
-
, NH
4
+
,)
Balance atoms in elemental form last (O
2
, Cl
2
, Fe,)
Always try to be systematic
PbO
2
+ HBr H
2
O + PbBr
2
+ Br
2
e.g.
1. Pb already balanced
2. Balance O

3. Balance H
4. Balance Br
Always check your answer!!!
CHEM11 6-6
Na
2
O
2
+ H
2
O NaOH + O
2
e.g.
1. Balance Na
2. Balance H

3. Balance O (use a fraction)
4. Remove fraction (multiply both sides of
equation by 2)
Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ Ba(NO
3
)
2
Al(NO
3
)
3
+ BaSO
4
e.g.
1. Balance Al
2. Balance SO
4
3. Balance Ba
4. NO
3
already balanced
2 2 4

3 2 3

CH11 6-7
Cu + HNO
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ NO + H
2
O
(Cu) A = C
(H) B = 2E
(N) B = 2C + D
(O) 3B = 6C + D + E
A B

C D E
3(N) - (O): 3B = 6C + 3D
- (3B = 6C + D + E)
0 = 0 + 2D + E
E = 2D
Let E = 1, then B = 2, D =
CH11 6-8
From (N): B = 2C + D
2 = 2C +
3/2 = 2C
C =
From (Cu): A = C =
A B C D E
2 1
3 8 3 2 4
3 Cu + 8 HNO
3
3 Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2 NO + 4 H
2
O