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Defined as the transfer

of information from a
sender to a receiver,
with the information
being understood by the
receiver.
C
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E
S
T
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B
A
R
N
A
R
D

An essential means by
which people are linked
together to an organization
to achieve a common
purpose.
THE PURPOSE
OF
COMMUNICATION
To effect change, to
initiate and influence
action for the welfare of
the organization.
THE
COMMUNICATION
PROCESS
Communication begins with the
sender of the message who has
an idea which is encoded in a
way that can be understood by
both the sender and the receiver.
SENDER- The one who is sending the
message, the initiator of communication.

IDEA- Message; topic

ENCODE- Oral or written

TRANSMISSION- telephone, telegram,
computer, television, conversation

RECEPTION- place or area
DECODE- Interpretation of the message

UNDERSTANDING- the understanding of
the person receiving the message

RECEIVER- The one who is receiving the
message

FEEDBACK- return or reply of the receiver

NOISE- a term which hinder the success
of communication
SITUATIONAL AND
ORGANIZATIONAL
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE
COMMUNICATION
PROCESS
EDUCATIONAL
SOCIOLOGICAL
LEGAL-POLITICAL
CULTURAL and
ECONOMIC
GEOGRAPHIC
DISTANCE
In selecting the best method of
transmission, the manager must
remember three important
things:
1) Direct, personal contact
allows the other party to
respond to the message and
when the feedback is
important, this
communication medium is
useful.
2) If a record of the
communication is
needed, a memo or a
letter should be
written.
3) Time is money.
FLOW OF
COMMUNICATION
IN THE
ORGANIZATION

D
O
W
N
W
A
R
D

Downward communication
flows from people at higher
levels in the organizational
hierarchy.
Common with an
authoritarian climate.
Ex: handbooks, letters, policy
statements
U
P
W
A
R
D

Upward communication flows
from subordinates to superiors
and continues up the
organizational hierarchy.
Non-directive, participative,
consultative
Ex: suggestion system,
counseling sessions
CROSSWISE
Comprises the horizontal flow
of information and the
diagonal flow of
communication.
Speeds information flow,
improves understanding and
coordinates efforts to achieve
organizational objectives.
TYPES OF
COMMUNICATION
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
Has the advantage of
providing records, references,
and legal briefs.
Promotes uniformity in policy
and procedure and reduces
costs.
Disadvantage is space,
quantity
ORAL COMMUNICATION
occurs in a face-to-face
meeting of two persons or in a
managers presentation to a
big audience.
Speedy interchange of ideas
with immediate feedback.
NON-VERBAL
COMMUNICATION
Facial expressions and
bodily gestures
may support or contradict
verbal communication

COMMON
PROBLEMS OF
COMMUNICATION
1) Lack of planning
2) Semantic distortion
3) Poorly expressed message
4) Communication problem in
the International
environment
5) Loss by transmission and
poor retention
6) Poor listening
7) Impersonal
communication
8) Distrust, threat, and fear
9) Inadequate time for
adjustment to change
10) Information overload

1) LACK OF PLANNING

Good communication
does not happen by
chance.
2) SEMANTIC DISTORTION

This can be deliberate or
accidental, another problem
of effective communication.
3) POORLY EXPRESSED
MESSAGE

Clarity and precision are given
due care in encoding the
message.
4) COMMUNICATION PROBLEM IN
THE INTERNATIONAL
GOVERNMENT

Communication in the international
environment becomes more difficult
because of the different languages,
cultures, and etiquette.
5) LOSS BY TRANSMISSION
AND POOR RETENTION

The necessity of repeating
of repeating the message
and using several channel is
very important.

6) POOR LISTENING

Listening demands full
attention and self-
discipline.
7) IMPERSONAL
COMMUNICATION

Communication requires
face-to-face contact in an
environment of openness
and trust.
8) DISTRUST,
THREAT,AND FEAR

A climate of trust
facilitates open and
honest communication.

9) INADEQUATE TIME FOR
ADJUSTMENT TO CHANGE

The primary purpose of
communication is to effect
change.
10) INFORMATION
OVERLOAD

Unrestricted flow may result
in too much information.
EFFECTIVE
GUIDELINES FOR
IMPROVING
COMMUNICATION
1) Clarify the purpose of the message
and the plan to achieve the
intended end.
2) Effective communication requires
that encoding and decoding be
done with symbols that are
familiar to the sender and to the
receiver of the message.
3) The planning of the communication
should encourage people to
participate to collect facts, analyze
the message, and select the
appropriate media.

4) Consider the needs of the receiver
of the information: communicate
something.
5) The communication should
be complete so that the
message will be understood by
the receiver.
6) The communication should
be complete so that the
message will be understood by
the receiver.
7) One of the primary
functions of communication
is to transmit information.
8) Effective communication
is the joint responsibility of
the sender and the receiver
of the information.
ELECTRONIC MEDIA
IN
COMMUNICATION
Softwares and hardwares
Bank-by-phone services
Facsimile
Inventory systems
Computerized airline reservation
system facilities
Data banks

ELECTRONIC
DATA
PROCESSING
Makes it possible to
handle big amounts of
data and make
information available to
a large number of
people.