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DANGEROUS GOODS


CAPT.M.SAFAHANI
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What are dangerous goods?
Goods which are classified in the IMDG
code and other certain IMO publications
such as Bulk Dangerous Chemicals
Code
Any other substance which might be
dangerous if transported by sea.
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The expression also includes empty
receptacles, empty tanks, unless
cleaned dried and purged.
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Chapter VII SOLAS
Reg 1 Application
Reg 2 Classification
Reg 3 Packaging
Reg 4 Marking and labeling
Reg 5 Documents
Reg 6 Stowage requirement
Reg 7 Explosives in pax ships
7.1 reporting of incidents involving DG
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Classes:
Class 1 Explosives
Class 2 Gases
2.1 Flammable
2.2 non-flammable, being compressed
2.3 Poisonous gases
Class 3 Flammable liquid
3.1 low flashpoint
3.2 intermediate flashpoint
3.3 high flashpoint
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Class 4.1 flammable solids
Class 4.2 liable to spontaneous
combustion
Class 4.3 emit flammable gas in contact
with water
Class 5.1oxidizing substances
Class 5.2organic peroxides

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Class 6.1 poisonous substances
Class 6.2 infectious substances
Class 7 radioactive substances
Class 8 corrosives
Class 9 miscellaneous
(not covered in other classes)
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DG under the HVRs
Goods of an inflammable,explosive or
dangerous nature, if not properly
marked or if shipped without the
knowledge and consent of the carrier
may be landed, destroyed, jettisoned or
rendered innocuous at any time before
discharge.
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Such goods may be dealt in the same
way even if they are loaded with the
knowledge of the carrier if they become
dangerous.
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No compensation is payable by the
carrier in first case and the shipper is
liable for all damages.
In the second case it is the same
principle except general average.
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Packaging:
To withstand ordinary risks of handling
and transport by sea
The shipper must provide a declaration
stating the goods are packed in
accordance with the regulations.
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Markings:
Correct technical name
Comply with IMDG code
Outer material survive 3 months
immersion, marking durable
If outer material not durable inner
receptacle should be durable
Label on each side and end
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Documents:
Document of compliance for the ship
Dangerous goods declaration from the
shipper
Packing certificate
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Document of compliance:
Ensures that the stowage spaces are
appropriately equipped with fire
prevention,fire detection, and fire
fighting equipment.
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Dangerous goods declaration:
Proper shipping name
Class and division
UN number
Packing group
Number and kind of package
Total quantity
Indicate if marine pollutant
Any other relevant information
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Declaration:
The responsibility lies with the
forwarder who delivers the cargo to the
ship and not to the stevedores
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Offence:
Failure to provide a declaration
Provide a declaration which he knows it
is false
An offence is committed by the master
if he accepts a package without
declaration if it is required
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IMDG code
Uniform, global rules for the safe transport by
sea of dangerous goods and marine
pollutants in packaged form are now
compulsory, following the entry into force on
1 January 2004 of the 2002 amendments to
the International Convention for the Safety of
Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, making the
International Maritime Dangerous Goods
(IMDG) Code mandatory.

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IMDG code
The IMDG Code was developed as a
uniform international code for the
transport of dangerous goods by sea
covering such matters as packing,
marking, libeling and stowage of
dangerous goods with particular
reference to the segregation of
incompatible substances.

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IMDG code
The IMDG Code lays down basic principles
and contains detailed recommendations for
individual substances, materials and articles,
as well as a number of recommendations for
good operational practice including advice on
terminology, packing, labelling, stowage,
segregation and handling, and emergency
response action.

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IMDG code
Two Volumes+ one Supplement
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Volume 1 (parts 1, 2 and 4
to 7 of the Code) :

general provisions, definitions and training
classification
consignment procedures
construction and testing of packagings,
International Bulk Containers (IBCs), large
packagings, portable tanks and road tank
vehicles
transport operations

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Volume 2 (part 3, appendix A
and appendix B)

Dangerous Goods List (equivalent to the
schedules in previous editions of the Code),
presented in tabular format
limited quantities exceptions
Proper shipping Names including generic and
N.O.S. (not otherwise specified) entries
Glossary of Terms
Index

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The provisions of the following parts of the
Code are recommendatory:

Chapter 1.3 (Training)
Chapter 2.1 (Explosives, Introductory Notes 1
to 4 only)
Chapter 2.3, section 2.3.3 (Determination of
flashpoint only)
Chapter 3.2 (columns 15 and 17 of the
Dangerous Goods List only)
Chapter 3.5 (Transport schedules for Class 7
radioactive material only)

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Chapter 5.4, section 5.4.5 (Multimodal
dangerous goods form), insofar as
layout of the form is concerned
Chapter 7.3 (Special requirements in
the event of an incident and fire
precautions involving dangerous goods
only)
Appendix B


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Who classifies the DGs?
Shipper/Consignor or competent
authority where specified by this code.
Competent authority is the national
regulatory body.
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Packing groups:
Group I present high danger
Group II medium danger
Group III low danger
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Packing group I,II,III:
Packaging for packing group I must
survive a drop test of height of 1.8m
Group II 1.2m
Group III 0.8m
The code specifies packing group for all
classes except 1,2,6.2and 7.
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Precedence of hazards:
The precedence table shows
which hazard is the primary
hazard.
page 34 IMDG code 2.0.3.6 vol 1
If hazard is uncertain to be
determined by lab.
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Explosives:
1.1 mass explosion hazard
1.2
1.3 a)give rise to considerable radiant heat
b)burn one after another
1.4
1.5
1.6 limited to explosion of one article
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Compatibility groups, Classification codes
Considered compatible if:
can be safely stowed or transported
together without increasing the
probability of an accident, or the
magnitude of the effect of such
accident.
Page 38 tables:2.1.2.2, 2.1.2.3 vol 1
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Gases:
Class 2.1 flammable gases
Class 2.2 non-flammable, non-toxic
but compressed
Class 2.3 Toxic gases

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What is a gas?
At 50c vapour pressure greater than
300kPa or
Completely gas at 20c at pressure of
101.3kPa
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Class 3 flammable liquids:
Flash point:lowest temperature of a
liquid at which its vapour forms an
ignitable mixture with air.
A flammable liquid can not be ignited so
long as its temperature remains below
the flash point.
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Class 3 flammable liquids:
Ignition temperature:is the temperature
to which an explosive vapour-air
mixture must be heated to cause an
actual explosion.
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Determination of flash point:
Specified quantity of liquid in a
receptacle, well below flash point.
Heat up slowly and periodically bring a
flame near to the liquid surface
The lowest temperature you observe a
flash is the flash point temperature
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Two types of flash point:
Closed-cup
Open-cup
Open-cup few degrees higher.
Closed-cup is recommended to be used.
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Class 4 flammable solids:
Class 4.1 flammable solids
During transport readily combustible
through friction, or exothermic reaction.
Powdered, granular,pasty substances
according to the time and rate of
burning as per UN manual of tests and
criteria.

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Self reactive substances:
The decomposition can be initiated by
heat,contact with catalytic impurities
such as acids.
If the SADT is less than 55c it is
subject to temperature control during
transport. (Self Accelerating Decomposition Temperature)
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Packing methods:
Self reactive substances:
Page 47 down the page,page 48 and
page 49.
OP1 to OP8 in P520 page147.
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Class 4 flammable solids:

Class 4.2 liable to spontaneous
combustion
Liable to catch fire through self heating
in contact with air or through conditions
being developed while transported.
1)ignite in 5 minutes of coming into contact with air(pyrophoric)
2)liable to self heating in contact with air without energy supply(self
heating)
3)may give off toxic gases if involved in a fire
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Class 4 flammable solids:
Class 4.3 emit flammable gas in contact
with water
These are substances which in contact
with water become spontaneously
flammable or emit flammable gases
Naked lights,sparking hand tools,
unprotected light bulbs
Flammable gas is generated at a rate of one litre per kg
of substance per hour.
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Class 5.1 oxidizing substances
Not necessarily combustible, but by
yielding oxygen may cause or
contribute to the fire of other material.
Evolve oxygen so increase risk of fire or
its intensity.
Mixture even with flour,sugar,edible
oils,mineral oils dangerous.
Violent reaction with liquid acids.
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Class 5.1 oxidizing substances
Assign a packing group according to
mean burning time as specified in:
united nations manual of
tests and criteria
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Class 5.2 organic peroxides
Thermally unstable
May undergo exothermic self-
accelerating decomposition.
Divided into 7 categories according to
the danger they present. A-G

in addition:
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Class 5.2 organic peroxides
Decompose at normal or elevated
temperature
May be initiated in contact with
impurities(acids)
Some may decompose explosively
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Class 5.2 organic peroxides
Be liable to explosive decomposition
Burn rapidly
Be sensitive to impact or friction
React dangerously with other
substances
Cause damage to the eye
Pages 57-66 vol 1
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Class 5.2 organic peroxides
All organic peroxides are assigned
packing group II
Page 67 vol 1 contains useful
information regarding the classification
of organic peroxides.
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Class 6.1 toxic substances
Harming health by:
If swallowed or
If inhaled or
Contact by skin
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Class 6.1 toxic substances
LD50 for acute oral toxicity is the dose
which is most likely killing one half of
the albino rats within 14 days in young
adults. (Mg in kg body mass)
LD50 for acute dermal toxicity
LD50 for acute toxicity on inhalation
for inhalation it is only if a mist is
produced
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Class 6.1 toxic substances
Nearly all toxic
substances evolve toxic
gases if involved in a fire.
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Class 6.1 toxic substances
3 packing groups according to the
dangers they present.
As per human accidental poisoning or
tested on animals.
The toxicity data can be obtained from
the current WHO recommended classification of
pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification
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Class 6.2 infectious substances
Known or expected to contain
pathogens:
(bacteria, viruses,parasites, fungi)
Expected to cause infectious diseases in
animals or humans
Or spread diseases if exposure to them
occurs.
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Class 6.2 infectious substances
Biological products, derived from living
organisms.
Diagnostic specimens, any human or
animal material.
Genetically modified micro-organisms
Wastes derived from medical treatment
of humans and animals.
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Class 7 radioactive material
Packaging means the assembly of
components necessary to enclose the
radioactive contents completely.
Approved type either multilateral or
unilateral.
page 76-97 vol 1 covers radioactive materials
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Class 7 radioactive material
One or more receptacles,absorbent
materials, spacing structures, radiation
shielding and service equipment for
filling, emptying, venting and pressure
relief; devices for cooling, absorbing
mechanical shocks, handling, thermal
insulation.
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Class 8 corrosive substances
Cause severe damage if in contact with
living tissue.
In case of leakage damage or destroy
other goods or means of transport.
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Class 8 corrosive substances
In chapter 3.2 VOL 2 the wording:
burns to skin, eyes, and mucous
membranes can be seen.
Or sometimes corrosive to most metals
Corrosive to aluminium
Many substances in this class becomes
corrosive after being in contact with moisture.
Some generate heat in contact with water,
organic material such as woods

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Class 9 miscellaneous
Not covered in other classes
substances offered for transport at
temperatures equal or exceeding 100c
in a liquid state.
Solids that are transported at
temperatures equal or exceeding 240c
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Marine pollutants:
Substances which because of their
potential to bio-accumulate in seafood
or because of their toxicity to marine
life are subject to the provisions of
Annex III MARPOL 73/78.
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Marine pollutants:
P marine pollutants
PP severe marine pollutants
Potential for pollution
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Marine pollutants:
A solution or mixture containing 10% or
more of a marine pollutant is a marine
pollutant.
A solution or mixture containing 1% or
more of a severe marine pollutant is a
marine pollutant.
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Examples of DG packaging:

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Examples of IBCs:

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Dangerous goods list(DGL)
1.&18. A unique four-digit number, the
UN number, it identifies the substance
unmistakably
2. The proper shipping name
3. Class and subdivision
4. The class of any subsidiary risk(s)
Packing group I,II,III

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Dangerous goods list(DGL)
6. Any special provisions- a number that
refers to a separate table in volume 2
7. Limited quantities- to indicate if
goods can be carried in restricted
quantities, if so what maximum quantity
in each inner packaging
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Dangerous goods list(DGL)
8.&9. Details of packing instructions
and any packing provisions- tables in
volume one
10.&11. Instructions and provisions
relating to carriage in IBCs- tables are
found in vol one
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Dangerous goods list(DGL)
12,13.&14. Instructions regarding in
carriage in tanks- tables in vol one
15. The EmS for the substance there
are now separate codes for spillage and
the tables can be found in supplement
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Dangerous goods list(DGL)
16. Stowage and segregation
requirements found in vol one
17. Properties and observations-
sometimes a description of the
substance with specific details
concerning it properties in relation to
fire, spillage, handling, etc
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MHB materials:
It should be remembered that only
packaged dangerous goods details are
given in the DGL; those that are
dangerous in bulk quantities are dealt
with in IMO code of practice for solid
bulk cargoes (BC Code).
Referred to later in this unit.
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an example of container
containing packages of
dangerous substances
belonging to different
classes. Only placards have to
be affixed.



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IMDG software:
Shippers, forwarders and agents worldwide
use
check their DG shipments, produce
documentation and to e-mail a booking
request to their shipping line.
especially useful for occasional consignments
and for document generation and
transmission without the need for an in-house
system.





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IMDG software:
Display key information on any hazardous
substance or article listed in the IMDG Code
Check that substances loaded together in a
container or vehicle comply with the stowage
and segregation requirements of the IMDG
Code, including substance-specific
requirements and Chemical Group
prohibitions

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IMDG software:
Check if shipments are allowed on
passenger or cargo-only sailings
Guide users through packaging checks
and options, including inner and outer
packaging limits and Intermediate Bulk
Container (IBC) types

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IMDG software:
Display Limited Quantity exemptions
that may be utilised
Specify relevant portable tank container
and road tank vehicle types

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IMDG software:
When all the substances in the load
have been processed, produce a
Dangerous Goods Note (DGN) that can
be saved on the user's computer,
printed out and also sent to a selected
shipping line as an e-mail. An EDI
message that eliminates re-keying of
the information by the shipping line can
be automatically attached.

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IMDG software, benefits:
Simplifies and speeds DG process
A cost-effect
Reduces error
Supports booking staff
Enhances customer service
Improves safety


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IMDG software:
Refer to case studies 1,2.
container and chemical cases
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IMDG code supplement:
Emergency schedule or EmS
MFAG for use in accidents involving
dangerous goods

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Emergency schedule or EmS:
Identifies the emergency actions for
both fire and spillage situations
involving dangerous goods being
carried on board.
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Emergency schedule or EmS
information regarding Fire
Immediate action the crew should
undertake and the possible effects on
the ship.
Methods to employ to fight fire for
both on deck and under deck
Prevention action direction
Actions in special cases
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Emergency schedule or EmS
information regarding spillage
Comments on protective equipment and
immediate action to take
Action in response to spillage,
information regarding collection of
residues
Instructions regarding marine pollutants

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EmS for fire:
Examples from the book:
Pages 17,19 supplement
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EmS for spillage:
Pages 53,54 of supplement
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MFAG:
IMO/WHO/ILO medical first aid guide
for use in accidents involving dangerous
goods.
Substances and materials covered in
IMDG and Appendix B of the code of
safe practice for solid bulk cargoes(BC)
code.
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Code of safe practice for solid bulk cargoes
Introductions, 10 sections and 6
appendices.
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Section 1 definitions:
Angle of repose
Flow moisture point
Flow state
Moisture migration
Stowage factor
Transportable moisture limit
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Section 2 General precautions
Distribution F&A
Maximum number of tons 0.9LBD tons
If untrimmed pile peak 1.1D*SF

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Section 3 safety of personnel
Poisoning and asphyxiation
Health hazard due to dust
Flammable atmosphere
Ventilation systems
In transit fumigation
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Section 4 assessment for acceptability
Certificates
Sampling procedures
Frequency of sampling
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Section 5 trimming procedures
Angle of repose less than or equal
to35
Angle of repose more than 35
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Section 6 determining A.R
How the cargo is loaded
Tilting box method
In site method
On board method
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Section 7,8,9,10
7 cargoes which may liquefy
8 cargoes which may liquefy test
procedures
9 material possessing chemical hazards
10 stowage factor conversion table

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Pages 31,32,33 of BC code
shows the segregation
requirements of solid bulk
cargoes
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Appendix A
List of bulk materials
which may liquefy

Example:Iron ore

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Appendix B
List of bulk material
possessing chemical
hazards
Example:Ammonium
Nitrate
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Appendix C
List of bulk material
neither in A nor in B
Example:Cement
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Appendix D
Laboratory test procedures,
associated apparatus and
standards
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Appendix E
EmS no and application
Special emergency equipment to be
carried
Emergency procedures
Emergency action
Medical first aid
example: page 129 BC code
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Examples of special
equipments to be
carried on board:
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Appendix F
Entering cargo
spaces,tanks,pump rooms,fuel
tanks,cofferdams,duct keels,
ballast tanks and similar
enclosed compartments.
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What is an enclosed space?
The atmosphere may be incapable of
supporting life due to oxygen deficiency
or presence of toxic or flammable
gases.
Best to employ permit to wok system
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Examples of enclosed space:

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Note
Any one who attempts to carry out
a rescue without following correct
procedures is endangering his own
life and that of the person he is
attempting to rescue.
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Thank you very much for
your patience
Please do not
hesitate to ask
your questions