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J.

McCalley
d-q transformation
Machine model
2
Consider the DFIG as two sets of abc windings, one on the stator and one on the rotor.

m

Machine model
3
The voltage equation for each phase will have the form:
That is, we can write them all in the following form:
dt
t d
t ri t v
) (
) ( ) (

+ =
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

'
'
'
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

'
'
'
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

'
'
'
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

'
'
'
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
r
r
r
s
s
s
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
dt
d
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
All rotor terms are given on the
rotor side in these equations.
We can write the flux terms as functions of the currents, via an equation for each flux of
the form =L
k
i
k
, where the summation is over all six winding currents. However, we
must take note that there are four kinds of terms in each summation.
Machine model
4
Stator-stator terms: These are terms which relate a stator winding flux to a stator
winding current. Because the positional relationship between any pair of stator
windings does not change with rotor position, these inductances are not a function of
rotor position; they are constants.
Rotor-rotor terms: These are terms which relate a rotor winding flux to a rotor
winding current. As in stator-stator-terms, these are constants.
Rotor-stator terms: These are terms which relate a rotor winding flux to a stator
winding current. As the rotor turns, the positional relationship between the rotor
winding and the stator winding will change, and so the inductance will change.
Therefore the inductance will be a function of rotor position, characterized by rotor
angle .
Stator-rotor terms: These are terms which relate a stator winding flux to a rotor
winding current. As described for the rotor-stator terms, the inductance will be a
function of rotor position, characterized by rotor angle .
Machine model
5
There are two more comments to make about the flux-current relations:
Because the rotor motion is periodic, the functional dependence of each rotor-stator
or stator-rotor inductance on is cosinusoidal.
Because changes with time as the rotor rotates, the inductances are functions of
time.
We may now write down the flux equations for the stator and the rotor windings.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
r rs
sr s
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
i
i
i
i
i
i
L L
L L

Each of the submatrices in the inductance matrix is a 3x3, as given on the next slide
Note here that all quantities are now referred to the
stator. The effect of referring is straight-forward,
given in the book by P. Krause, Analysis of Electric
Machinery, 1995, IEEE Press, pp. 167-168. I will
not go through it here.
Machine model
6
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
m s m m
m m s m
m m m s
s
L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L
o
o
o
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
m r m m
m m r m
m m m r
r
L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L
o
o
o
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (
(
(

+
+
+
=
m m m
m m m
m m m
m sr
L L
u u u
u u u
u u u
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos
Diagonal elements are the self-inductance of
each winding and include leakage plus mutual.
Off-diagonal elements are mutual inductances
between windings and are negative because
120 axis offset between any pair of windings
results in flux contributed by one winding to
have negative component along the main axis
of another winding.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
T
sr
m m m
m m m
m m m
m rs
L L L =
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
u u u
u u u
u u u
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos

m

Machine model
7
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
m s m m
m m s m
m m m s
s
L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L
o
o
o
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
m r m m
m m r m
m m m r
r
L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L
o
o
o
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
Summarizing.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

'
'
'
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
r
r
r
s
s
s
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
dt
d
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
r rs
sr s
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
i
i
i
i
i
i
L L
L L

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
T
sr
m m m
m m m
m m m
m rs
L L L =
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
u u u
u u u
u u u
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (
(
(

+
+
+
=
m m m
m m m
m m m
m sr
L L
u u u
u u u
u u u
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos
Machine model
8
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
m s m m
m m s m
m m m s
s
L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L
o
o
o
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
m r m m
m m r m
m m m r
r
L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L
o
o
o
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
r rs
sr s
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
r
r
r
s
s
s
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
i
i
i
i
i
i
L L
L L
dt
d
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
Combining.
It is here that we observe a difficulty that the stator-rotor and rotor-stator terms, L
sr
and
L
rs
, because they are functions of
r
, and thus functions of time, will also need to be
differentiated. Therefore differentiation of fluxes results in expressions like
The differentiation with respect to L, dL/dt, will result in time-varying
coefficients on the currents. This will make our set of state equations difficult to solve.
L
dt
di
i
dt
dL
dt
d
+ =

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
T
sr
m m m
m m m
m m m
m rs
L L L =
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
u u u
u u u
u u u
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (
(
(

+
+
+
=
m m m
m m m
m m m
m sr
L L
u u u
u u u
u u u
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos
Transformation
9
This presents some significant difficulties, in terms of solution, that we would like to
avoid. We look for a different approach. The different approach is based on the
observation that our trouble comes from the inductances related to the stator-rotor
mutual inductances that have time-varying inductances.
In order to alleviate the trouble, we project the a-b-c currents onto a pair of axes which
we will call the d and q axes or d-q axes. In making these projections, we want to obtain
expressions for the components of the stator currents in phase with the and q axes,
respectively. Although we may specify the speed of these axes to be any speed that is
convenient for us, we will generally specify it to be synchronous speed,
s
.
i
a

a
a'
i
d
i
q

d-axis
q-axis

One can visualize the projection by thinking of the a-b-c currents as having sinusoidal
variation IN TIME along their respective axes (a space vector!). The picture below
illustrates for the a-phase.
Decomposing the b-phase currents and the c-phase currents
in the same way, and then adding them up, provides us with:
( ) ) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos + + + = u u u
c b a q q
i i i k i
( ) ) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin + + + = u u u
c b a d d
i i i k i
Constants k
q
and k
d
are chosen so as to simplify the numerical
coefficients in the generalized KVL equations we will get.
Transformation
10
We have transformed 3 variables i
a
, i
b
, and i
c
into two variables i
d
and i
q
, as we did in
the - transformation. This yields an undetermined system, meaning
We can uniquely transform i
a
, i
b
, and i
c
to i
d
and i
q

We cannot uniquely transform i
d
and i
q
to i
a
, i
b
, and i
c
.
We will use as a third current the zero-sequence current:
Recall our i
d
and i
q
equations:
( )
c b a
i i i k i + + =
0 0
We can write our transformation more compactly as
( ) ) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos + + + = u u u
c b a d q
i i i k i
( ) ) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin + + + = u u u
c b a q d
i i i k i
(
(
(

(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

c
b
a
d d d
q q q
d
q
i
i
i
k k k
k k k
k k k
i
i
i
0 0 0 0
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
u u u
u u u
Transformation
11
(
(
(

(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

c
b
a
d d d
q q q
d
q
i
i
i
k k k
k k k
k k k
i
i
i
0 0 0 0
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
u u u
u u u
A similar transformation resulted from the work done by Blondel (1923), Doherty and
Nickle (1926), and Robert Park (1929, 1933), which is referred to as Parks
transformation. In 2000, Parks 1929 paper was voted the second most important
paper of the last 100 years (behind Fortescues paper on symmertical components).
R, Park, Two reaction theory of synchronous machines, Transactions of the AIEE, v. 48, p. 716-730, 1929.
G. Heydt, S. Venkata, and N. Balijepalli, High impact papers in power engineering, 1900-1999, NAPS, 2000.
Robert H. Park,
1902-1994
See
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php
?record_id=5427&page=175 for
an interesting biography on Park,
written by Charles Concordia.
Parks transformation uses a frame of
reference on the rotor. In Parks case,
he derived this for a synchronous
machine and so it is the same as a
synchronous frame of reference. For
induction motors, it is important to
distinguish between a synchronous
reference frame and a reference frame
on the rotor.
Transformation
12
Here, the angle is given by
) 0 ( ) (
0
u e u
}
+ =
t
d
where is a dummy variable of integration.
The constants k
0
, k
q
, and k
d
are chosen differently by different authors. One popular
choice is 1/3, 2/3, and 2/3, respectively, which causes the magnitude of the d-q
quantities to be equal to that of the three-phase quantities. However, it also causes a
3/2 multiplier in front of the power expression (Anderson & Fouad use k
0
=1/3,
k
d
=k
q
=(2/3) to get a power invariant expression).
The angular velocity associated with the change of variables is unspecified. It
characterizes the frame of reference and may rotate at any constant or varying angular
velocity or it may remain stationary. You will often hear of the arbitrary reference
frame. The phrase arbitrary stems from the fact that the angular velocity of the
transformation is unspecified and can be selected arbitrarily to expedite the solution of
the equations or to satisfy the system constraints [Krause].
(
(
(

(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

c
b
a
d d d
q q q
d
q
i
i
i
k k k
k k k
k k k
i
i
i
0 0 0 0
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
u u u
u u u
Transformation
13
The constants k
0
, k
q
, and k
d
are chosen differently by different authors. One popular
choice is 1/3, 2/3, and 2/3, respectively, which causes the magnitude of the d-q
quantities to be equal to that of the three-phase quantities. PROOF (i
q
equation only):
( ) ) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos + + + = u u u
c b a d q
i i i k i
Let i
a
=Acos(t); i
b
=Acos(t-120); i
c
=Acos(t-240) and substitute into i
q
equation:
( )
( ) ) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos cos
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos cos
+ + + + =
+ + + + =
u e u e u e
u e u e u e
t t t A k
t A t A t A k i
d
d q
Now use trig identity: cos(u)cos(v)=(1/2)[ cos(u-v)+cos(u+v) ]
{
} ) 120 120 cos( ) 120 120 cos(
) 120 120 cos( ) 120 120 cos(
) cos( ) cos(
2
+ + + + + +
+ + + +
+ + =
u e u e
u e u e
u e u e
t t
t t
t t
A k
i
d
q
{
} ) 240 cos( ) cos(
) 240 cos( ) cos(
) cos( ) cos(
2
+ + + +
+ + +
+ + =
u e u e
u e u e
u e u e
t t
t t
t t
A k
i
d
q
Now collect terms in t- and place brackets around what is left:
| | { } ) 240 cos( ) 240 cos( ) cos( ) cos( 3
2
+ + + + + + + = u e u e u e u e t t t t
A k
i
d
q
Observe that what is in the brackets is zero! Therefore:
{ } ) cos( 3
2
3
) cos( 3
2
u e u e = = t
A k
t
A k
i
d d
q
Observe that for 3k
d
A/2=A,
we must have k
d
=2/3.
Transformation
14
Choosing constants k
0
, k
q
, and k
d
to be 1/3, 2/3, and 2/3, respectively, results in
The inverse transformation becomes:
(
(
(

(
(
(

+ +
=
(
(
(

0
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
i
i
i
i
i
i
d
q
c
b
a
u u
u u
u u
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

c
b
a
d
q
i
i
i
i
i
i
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
0
u u u
u u u
Example
15
Krause gives an insightful example in his book, where he specifies generic quantities
f
as
, f
bs
, f
cs
to be a-b-c quantities varying with time on the stator according to:
t f
t
f
t f
cs
bs
as
sin
2
cos
=
=
=
The objective is to transform them into 0-d-q quantities, which he denotes as f
qs
, f
ds
, f
0s
.
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

t
t
t
f
f
f
f
f
f
cs
bs
as
s
ds
qs
sin
2 /
cos
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
0
u u u
u u u
u u u
u u u
Note that these are not
balanced quantities!
Example
16
This results in
Now assume that (0)=-/12 and =1 rad/sec. Evaluate the above for t= /3 seconds.
First, we need to obtain the angle corresponding to this time. We do that as follows:
4 12 3
)
12
( 1 ) 0 ( ) (
3 /
0 0
t t t t
u e u
t
= = + = + =
} }
d d
t
Now we can evaluate the above equations 3A-1, 3A-2, and 3A-3, as follows:
Example
17
This results in
Example
18
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

t
t
t
f
f
f
s
ds
qs
sin
2 /
cos
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
0
u u u
u u u
Resolution of f
as
=cost into directions
of f
qs
and f
ds
for t=/3 (=/4).
Resolution of f
bs
=t/2 into directions
of f
qs
and f
ds
for t=/3 (=/4).
Resolution of f
cs
=-sint into directions
of f
qs
and f
ds
for t=/3 (=/4).
Composite
of other 3
figures
Inverse transformation
19
The d-q transformation and its inverse transformation is given below.
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

c
b
a
K
d
q
i
i
i
i
i
i
s

2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
0
u u u
u u u
(
(
(

(
(
(

+ +
=
(
(
(

0
1
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
i
i
i
i
i
i
d
q
K
c
b
a
s

u u
u u
u u
(
(
(
(

+
+
=
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
u u u
u u u
s
K
(
(
(

+ +
=

1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(

1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
1
u u
u u
u u
s
K
It should be the case that K
s
K
s
-1
=I, where I is the 3x3 identity matrix, i.e.,
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

+ +

(
(
(
(

+
+
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
u u
u u
u u
u u u
u u u
Balanced conditions
20
Under balanced conditions, i
0
is zero, and therefore it produces no flux at all. Under
these conditions, we may write the d-q transformation as
(
(
(

+
+
=
(

c
b
a
d
q
i
i
i
i
i
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
u u u
u u u
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

c
b
a
d
q
i
i
i
i
i
i
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
0
u u u
u u u
(
(
(

(
(
(

+ +
=
(
(
(

0
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
i
i
i
i
i
i
d
q
c
b
a
u u
u u
u u
(

(
(
(

+ +
=
(
(
(

d
q
c
b
a
i
i
i
i
i
) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
sin cos
u u
u u
u u
Rotor circuit transformation
21
We now need to apply our transformation to the rotor a-b-c windings in order to obtain
the rotor circuit voltage equation in q-d-0 coordinates. However, we must notice one
thing: whereas the stator phase-a winding (and thus its a-axis) is fixed, the rotor
phase-a winding (and thus its a-axis) rotates. If we apply the same transformation to
the rotor, we will not account for its rotation, i.e., we will be treating it as if it were fixed.
(
(
(
(

+
+
=
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
u u u
u u u
s
K
Our d-q transformation is as follows:
But, what, exactly, is ?
) 0 ( ) (
0
u e u
}
+ =
t
d
can be observed in the below figure as the angle between the rotating d-q reference
frame and the a-axis, where the a-axis is fixed on the stator frame and is defined by the
location of the phase-a winding. We expressed this angle analytically using
where is the rotational speed of the d-q coordinate axes (and in our case, is
synchronous speed). This transformation will allow us to operate on the stator circuit
voltage equation and transform it to the q-d-0 coordinates.
Rotor circuit transformation
To understand how to handle this, consider the below figure where we show our
familiar , the angle between the stator a-axis and the q-axis of the synchronously
rotating reference frame.
22
i
a

a
a'
i
d

i
q

d-axis
q-axis

m

We have also shown

m
, which is the angle
between the stator a-axis and
the rotor a-axis, and
, which is the angle between
the rotor a-axis and the q-axis
of the synchronously rotating
reference frame.
The stator a-axis is stationary,
the q-d axis rotates at , and the
rotor a-axis rotates at
m
.
Consider the i
ar
space vector, in blue,
which is coincident with the rotor a-axis.
Observe that we may decompose it
in the q-d reference frame only by
using instead of .
Conclusion: Use the exact same transformation, except substitute for , and.
account for the fact that to the rotor windings, the q-d coordinate system appears to
be moving at -
m

Rotor circuit transformation
We compare our two transformations below.
(
(
(
(

+
+
=
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
u u u
u u u
s
K
) 0 ( ) (
0
u e u
}
+ =
t
d

) 0 (
0
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) ( ) (
| e
u u e e |
m
t
m
d
r
+ =
}
(
(
(
(

+
+
=
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
| | |
| | |
r
K
Stator winding transformation, K
s
Rotor winding transformation, K
r

23
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

cs
bs
as
s
ds
qs
i
i
i
i
i
i
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
0
u u u
u u u
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

+
+
=
(
(
(

cr
br
ar
r
dr
qr
i
i
i
i
i
i
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
0
u u u
u u u
We now augment our notation to distinguish between q-d-0 quantities from the
stator and q-d-0 quantities from the rotor:
Transforming voltage equations
24
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
r
r
r
s
s
s
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

rc
rb
ra
sc
sb
sa
r rs
sr s
rc
rb
ra
sc
sb
sa
i
i
i
i
i
i
L L
L L

(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
m r m m
m m r m
m m m r
r
L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L
o
o
o
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
m s m m
m m s m
m m m s
s
L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L
o
o
o
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
Recall our voltage equations:
Lets apply our d-q transformation to it.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
T
sr
m m m
m m m
m m m
m rs
L L L =
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
u u u
u u u
u u u
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (
(
(

+
+
+
=
m m m
m m m
m m m
m sr
L L
u u u
u u u
u u u
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos
Transforming voltage equations
25
Lets rewrite it in compact notation
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
r
r
r
s
s
s
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
(
(

+
(

=
(

abcr
abcs
abcr
abcs
r
s
abcr
abcs
i
i
r
r
v
v

0
0
Now multiply through by our transformation matrices. Be careful with dimensionality.

3
2 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
r
s
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
K
K
i
i
r
r
K
K
v
v
K
K
(
(

+
(

=
(

Transforming voltage equations Term 1

26
Therefore: the voltage equation becomes
(

=
(

=
(

qdor
s qd
abcr r
abcs s
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
v
v
v K
v K
v
v
K
K
0
1
0
0

3
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
r
s
qdor
s qd
K
K
i
i
r
r
K
K
v
v
(
(

+
(

=
(

Transforming voltage equations Term 2

27
What to do with the abc currents? We need q-d-0 currents!
(

=
(

abcr
abcs
r r
s s
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
r
s
i
i
r K
r K
i
i
r
r
K
K
0
0
0
0
0
0
2

Recall:
(

=
(

r qd
s qd
r
s
abcr
abcs
i
i
K
K
i
i
0
0
1
1
0
0
and substitute into above.
(

=
(

r qd
s qd
r
s
r r
s s
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
r
s
i
i
K
K
r K
r K
i
i
r
r
K
K
0
0
1
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Perform the matrix multiplication:
(

=
(

r qd
s qd
r r r
s s s
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
r
s
i
i
K r K
K r K
i
i
r
r
K
K
0
0
1
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

Fact: KRK
-1
=R if R is diagonal having equal elements on the diagonal.
Proof: KRK
-1
=KrUK
-1
=rKUK
-1
=rKK
-1
=rU=R.
Therefore.
Transforming voltage equations Term 2
28
(

=
(

=
(

r qd
s qd
r
s
r qd
s qd
r r r
s s s
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
r
s
i
i
r
r
i
i
K r K
K r K
i
i
r
r
K
K
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Therefore: the voltage equation becomes

3
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
r qd
s qd
r
s
qdor
s qd
K
K
i
i
r
r
v
v
(
(

+
(

=
(

29

3
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
r qd
s qd
r
s
qdor
s qd
K
K
i
i
r
r
v
v
(
(

+
(

=
(

Focusing on just the stator quantities, consider:

abcs s s qd
K =
0
Differentiate both sides
abcs s abcs s s qd
K K

+ =
0
Solve for
abcs s
K

abcs s s qd abcs s
K K

=
0
Use
abcs
=K
-1

qd0s
:
s qd s s s qd abcs s
K K K
0
1
0

=

(
(

=
(
(

abcr r
abcs s
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
K
K
K
K

3
0
0
Term 3 is:
A similar process for the rotor quantities results in
r qd r r r qd abcr r
K K K
0
1
0

=

Substituting these last two expressions into the term 3 expression above results in
(
(

(
(

=
(
(

=
(
(

r qd r r
s qd s s
r qd
s qd
abcr r
abcs s
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
K K
K K
K
K
K
K
0
1
0
1
0
0
3
0
0

Substitute this back into voltage equation

Transforming voltage equations Term 3
30

3
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
r qd
s qd
r
s
qdor
s qd
K
K
i
i
r
r
v
v
(
(

+
(

=
(

(
(

(
(

=
(
(

=
(
(

r qd r r
s qd s s
r qd
s qd
abcr r
abcs s
Term
abcr
abcs
r
s
K K
K K
K
K
K
K
0
1
0
1
0
0
3
0
0

(
(

(
(

+
(

=
(

r qd r r
s qd s s
r qd
s qd
r qd
s qd
r
s
qdor
s qd
K K
K K
i
i
r
r
v
v
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0 0
0
0

Transforming voltage equations Term 3

31
Now lets express the fluxes in terms of currents by recalling that
(

=
(
(

abcr
abcs
r
s
r qd
s qd
K
K

0
0
0
0
(

=
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

abcr
abcs
r rs
sr s
abcr
abcs
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
r rs
sr s
cr
br
ar
cs
bs
as
i
i
L L
L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
L L
L L

and the flux-current relations:

Now write the abc currents in terms of the qd0 currents:
(

=
(

r qd
s qd
r
s
abcr
abcs
i
i
K
K
i
i
0
0
1
1
0
0
Substitute the third equation into the second:
(

=
(

r qd
s qd
r
s
r rs
sr s
abcr
abcs
i
i
K
K
L L
L L
0
0
1
1
0
0

(

=
(
(

r qd
s qd
r
s
r rs
sr s
r
s
r qd
s qd
i
i
K
K
L L
L L
K
K
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

32
(

=
(
(

r qd
s qd
r
s
r rs
sr s
r
s
r qd
s qd
i
i
K
K
L L
L L
K
K
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

(

=
(
(

r qd
s qd
r
s
r r rs r
sr s s s
r qd
s qd
i
i
K
K
L K L K
L K L K
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0

(

=
(
(

r qd
s qd
r r r s rs r
r sr s s s s
r qd
s qd
i
i
K L K K L K
K L K K L K
0
0
1 1
1 1
0
0

Transforming voltage equations Term 3

33
(

=
(
(

r qd
s qd
r r r s rs r
r sr s s s s
r qd
s qd
i
i
K L K K L K
K L K K L K
0
0
1 1
1 1
0
0

Now we need to go through each of these four matrix multiplications. I will here omit
the details and just give the results (note also in what follows the definition of
additional nomenclature for each of the four submatrices):
0
1
0
1 1
0
1
0 0
0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0 0
0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
rqd
r
m r
m r
r r r
mqd m
m
s rs r r sr s
sqd
s
m s
m s
s s s
L
L
L L
L L
K L K
L L
L
K L K K L K
L
L
L L
L L
K L K

(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
=

(
(
(
(
(
(

= =

(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
=

o
o
o
o
o
o
(

=
(
(

r qd
s qd
rqd mqd
mqd sqd
r qd
s qd
i
i
L L
L L
0
0
0 0
0 0
0
0

And since our inductance matrix is

constant, we can write:
(

=
(
(

r qd
s qd
rqd mqd
mqd sqd
r qd
s qd
i
i
L L
L L
0
0
0 0
0 0
0
0

Substitute the above expression for flux

derivatives into our voltage equation:
Transforming voltage equations Term 3
(

=
(
(

r qd
s qd
rqd mqd
mqd sqd
r qd
s qd
i
i
L L
L L
0
0
0 0
0 0
0
0

(
(

(
(

+
(

=
(

r qd r r
s qd s s
r qd
s qd
r qd
s qd
r
s
qdor
s qd
K K
K K
i
i
r
r
v
v
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0 0
0
0

Substitute the above expressions for flux & flux derivatives into our voltage equation:
(
(

+
(

=
(

r qd r r
s qd s s
r qd
s qd
rqd mqd
mqd sqd
r qd
s qd
r
s
qdor
s qd
K K
K K
i
i
L L
L L
i
i
r
r
v
v
0
1
0
1
0
0
0 0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0

We still have the last term to obtain. To get this, we need to do two things.
1. Express individual q- and d- terms of
qd0s
and
qd0r
in terms of currents.
2. Obtain and
1
s s
K K

1
r r
K K

34
Transforming voltage equations Term 3
1. Express individual q- and d- terms of
qd0s
and
qd0r
in terms of currents:
35
(

=
(
(

r qd
s qd
rqd mqd
mqd sqd
r qd
s qd
i
i
L L
L L
0
0
0 0
0 0
0
0

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
+
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
m r m
m r m
s
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
i
i
i
i
i
i
L
L L L
L L L
L
L L L
L L L
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
o
o
o
o
o
o

dr m r ds m dr dr m ds m s ds
qr m r qs m qr qr m qs m s qs
i L L i L i L i L L
i L L i L i L i L L
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = +
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = +
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
o o
o o

From the above, we observe:
Transforming voltage equations Term 3
2. Obtain and
1
s s
K K

1
r r
K K

36
(
(
(
(

+
+
=
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
u u u
u u u
s
K
(
(
(
(

+
+
=
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
| | |
| | |
r
K
(
(
(

+ +
=

1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(

1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
1
u u
u u
u u
s
K
(
(
(

+ +
=

1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(

1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
1
| |
| |
| |
r
K
To get , we must consider:
e u u e u = + =
}
) ( ) 0 ( ) ( ) (
0
t d t
t

m m
t
m
t d
r
e e | u u e e |
| e
= + =
}
) ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) ( ) (
) 0 (
0

s
K

Therefore:
(
(
(

+
+
=
0 0 0
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
3
2
u u u
u u u
e
s
K

Likewise, to get , we must consider:

r
K

Therefore:
( )
(
(
(

+
+
=
0 0 0
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
3
2
| | |
| | |
e e
m r
K

Transforming voltage equations Term 3

2. Obtain
1
s s
K K

1
r r
K K

37
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

+ +

(
(
(

+
+
=

0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0
0 0
2
3
0
2
3
0
3
2
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
0 0 0
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
3
2
1
e
e
e
u u
u u
u u
u u u
u u u
e
s s
K K

( )
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

+ +

(
(
(

+
+
=

0 0 0
0 0
0 ) ( 0
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
0 0 0
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
3
2
1
m
m
m r r
K K
e e
e e
| |
| |
| |
| | |
| | |
e e

Obtain
Substitute into voltage equations
Transforming voltage equations Term 3
38
(
(
(

0 0 0
0 0
0 0
1
e
e
s s
K K

(
(
(

0 0 0
0 0
0 ) ( 0
1
m
m
r r
K K e e
e e

(
(

+
(

=
(

r qd r r
s qd s s
r qd
s qd
rqd mqd
mqd sqd
r qd
s qd
r
s
qdor
s qd
K K
K K
i
i
L L
L L
i
i
r
r
v
v
0
1
0
1
0
0
0 0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
+
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
m
m
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
m r m
m r m
s
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
r
r
s
s
s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
i
i
i
i
i
i
L
L L L
L L L
L
L L L
L L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 ) ( 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

e e
e e
e
e
o
o
o
o
o
o

This results in:

Note the Speed voltages in the
first,
second,
fourth, and
fifth equations.
-
ds

qs
-(-
m
)
dr
(-
m
)
qs

Transforming voltage equations Term 3
39
Some comments on speed voltages: -
ds,

qs,
-(-
m
)
dr,
(-
m
)
qs:

These speed voltages represent the fact that a rotating flux wave will create
voltages in windings that are stationary relative to that flux wave.
Speed voltages are so named to contrast them from what may be called
transformer voltages, which are induced as a result of a time varying magnetic
field.
You may have run across the concept of speed voltages in Physics, where you
computed a voltage induced in a coil of wire as it moved through a static
magnetic field, in which case, you may have used the equation Blv where B is flux
density, l is conductor length, and v is the component of the velocity of the moving
conductor (or moving field) that is normal with respect to the field flux direction (or
conductor).
The first speed voltage term, -
ds
, appears in the v
qs
equation. The second
speed voltage term,
qs
, appears in the v
ds
equation. Thus, we see that the d-
axis flux causes a speed voltage in the q-axis winding, and the q-axis flux causes
a speed voltage in the d-axis winding. A similar thing is true for the rotor winding.

Transforming voltage equations Term 3
40
(
(
(

0 0 0
0 0
0 0
1
e
e
s s
K K

(
(
(

0 0 0
0 0
0 ) ( 0
1
m
m
r r
K K e e
e e

Substitute the matrices into voltage equation and then expand. This results in:
(
(

+
(

=
(

r qd r r
s qd s s
r qd
s qd
rqd mqd
mqd sqd
r qd
s qd
r
s
qdor
s qd
K K
K K
i
i
L L
L L
i
i
r
r
v
v
0
1
0
1
0
0
0 0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
+
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
m
m
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
m r m
m r m
s
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
r
r
s
s
s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
i
i
i
i
i
i
L
L L L
L L L
L
L L L
L L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 ) ( 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

e e
e e
e
e
o
o
o
o
o
o

Lets collapse the last matrix-vector product by performing the multiplication.

Transforming voltage equations Term 3
41
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
+
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
m
m
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
m r m
m r m
s
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
r
r
s
s
s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
i
i
i
i
i
i
L
L L L
L L L
L
L L L
L L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 ) ( 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

e e
e e
e
e
o
o
o
o
o
o

dr m r ds m dr dr m ds m s ds
qr m r qs m qr qr m qs m s qs
i L L i L i L i L L
i L L i L i L i L L
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = + |
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = + |
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
o o
o o

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
+
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

0
) (
) (
0
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
qr m
dr m
qs
ds
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
m r m
m r m
s
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
r
r
s
s
s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
i
i
i
i
i
i
L
L L L
L L L
L
L L L
L L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v
e e
e e
e
e
o
o
o
o
o
o

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
(

+ |
.
|

\
|
+
(

+ |
.
|

\
|
+

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
+
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

0
2
3
2
3
) (
2
3
2
3
) (
0
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
qr m r qs m m
dr m r ds m m
qr m qs m s
dr m ds m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
m r m
m r m
s
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
r
r
s
s
s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
i L L i L
i L L i L
i L i L L
i L i L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
L
L L L
L L L
L
L L L
L L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
e e
e e
e
e

From slide 35,

we have the
fluxes expressed
as a function of
currents
And then substitute
these terms in:
Results
In
Transforming voltage equations Term 3
42
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
(

+ |
.
|

\
|
+
(

+ |
.
|

\
|
+

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
+
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

0
2
3
2
3
) (
2
3
2
3
) (
0
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
qr m r qs m m
dr m r ds m m
qr m qs m s
dr m ds m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
m r m
m r m
s
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
r
r
s
s
s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
i L L i L
i L L i L
i L i L L
i L i L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
L
L L L
L L L
L
L L L
L L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
e e
e e
e
e

Observe that the four non-zero elements in the last vector are multiplied by two currents
from the current vector which multiplies the resistance matrix. So lets now expand back
out the last vector so that it is a product of a matrix and a current vector.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
+

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
+
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
m r m m
m
m r m m
m
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
m r m
m r m
s
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
r
r
s
s
s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
i
i
i
i
i
i
L L L
L L L
L L L
L L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
L
L L L
L L L
L
L L L
L L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
2
3
) ( 0 0
2
) ( 3
0
2
3
) ( 0 0
2
) ( 3
0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
e e
e e
e e
e e
e
e
e
e

Now change the

sign on the last
matrix.
Transforming voltage equations Term 3
43
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
+
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
m r m m
m
m r m m
m
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
m r m
m r m
s
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
r
r
s
s
s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
i
i
i
i
i
i
L L L
L L L
L L L
L L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
L
L L L
L L L
L
L L L
L L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v
v
v
v
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
2
3
) ( 0 0
2
) ( 3
0
2
3
) ( 0 0
2
) ( 3
0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
e e
e e
e e
e e
e
e
e
e

Notice that the resistance matrix and the last matrix multiply the same vector,
therefore, we can combine these two matrices. For example, element (1,2) in the
last matrix will go into element (1,2) of the resistance matrix, as shown. This results in
the expression on the next slide.
Final Model
44
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
+
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
m r m
m r m
s
m m s
m m s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
r
r m r m m
m
m r m r m
m
s
m s m s
m m s s
r
dr
qr
s
ds
qs
i
i
i
i
i
i
L
L L L
L L L
L
L L L
L L L
i
i
i
i
i
i
r
r L L L
L L r L
r
L r L L
L L L r
v
v
v
v
v
v
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0
0 0
2
3
0 0
2
3
0 0 0 0 0
0
2
3
) ( 0 0
2
) ( 3
0
2
3
) ( 0
2
) ( 3
0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0
2
3
0
2
3
0
2
3
0 0
2
3

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
e e
e e
e e
e e
e
e
e
e
This is the complete
transformed electric
machine state-space
model in current form.
45
i
ds
and i
qs
are currents in a fictitious pair of windings fixed on a synchronously
rotating reference frame.
These currents produce the same flux as do the stator a,b,c currents.
For balanced steady-state operating conditions, we can use i
qd0s
= K
s
i
abcs
to show
that the currents in the d and q windings are dc! The implication of this is that:
The a,b,c currents fixed in space (on the stator), varying in time produce the
same synchronously rotating magnetic field as
The ds,qs currents, varying in space at synchronous speed, fixed in time!
i
dr
and i
qr
are currents in a fictitious pair of windings fixed on a synchronously
rotating reference frame.
These currents produce the same flux as do the rotor a,b,c currents.
For balanced steady-state operating conditions, we can use i
qd0r
= K
r
i
abcr
to show
that the currents in the d and q windings are dc! The implication of this is that:
The a,b,c currents varying in space at slip speed s
s
=(
s
-
m
) fixed on the
rotor, varying in time produce the same synchronously rotating magnetic
field as
The dr,qr currents, varying in space at synchronous speed, fixed in time!
Torque in abc quantities
46
The electromagnetic torque of the DFIG may be evaluated according to
m
c
em
W
T
O c
c
=
m
f
em
W
T
O c
c
=
The stored energy is the sum of
The self inductances (less leakage) of each winding times one-half the square of
its current and
All mutual inductances, each times the currents in the two windings coupled by
the mutual inductance
Observe that the energy stored in the leakage inductances is not a part of the
energy stored in the coupling field.
Consider the abc inductance matrices given in slide 6.
where W
c
is the co-energy of the coupling fields associated with the various windings.
We are not considering saturation here, assuming the flux-current relations are linear,
in which case the co-energy W
c
of the coupling field equals its energy, W
f
, so that:
We use electric rad/sec by substituting
m
=
m
/p where p is the number of pole pairs.
m
f
em
W
p T
u c
c
=
Torque in abc quantities
47
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
m s m m
m m s m
m m m s
s
L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L
o
o
o
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
m r m m
m m r m
m m m r
r
L L L L
L L L L
L L L L
L
o
o
o
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (
(
(

+
+
+
=
m m m
m m m
m m m
m sr
L L
u u u
u u u
u u u
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
T
sr
m m m
m m m
m m m
m rs
L L L =
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
u u u
u u u
u u u
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos
The stored energy is given by:
abcr r r
T
abcr abcr sr
T
abcs abcs s s
T
abcs f
i U L L i i L i i U L L i W ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
o o
+ + =
Applying the torque-energy relation
abcr sr
T
abcs
m m
f
i L i
W
u u c
c
=
c
c
m
f
em
W
p T
u c
c
=
to the above, and observing that dependence
on
m
only occurs in the middle term, we get
abcr sr
T
abcs
m
em
i L i p T
u c
c
=
So that
But only L
sr
depend on
m
, so
abcr
m
sr
T
abcs em
i
L
i p T
u c
c
=
Torque in abc quantities
48
We may go through some analytical effort to show that the above evaluates to
abcr sr
T
abcs
m
em
i L i p T
u c
c
=
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
)
`

+ + +

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
m br ar cs ar cr bs cr br as
m ar br cr cs cr ar br bs cr br ar as m em
i i i i i i i i i
i i i i i i i i i i i i pL T
u
u
cos
2
3

sin
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
To complete our abc model we relate torque to rotor speed according to:
m
m
em
T
dt
d
p
J
T + =
e
Inertial
torque
Mech
torque (has
negative
value for
generation)
J is inertia of the rotor
in kg-m
2
or joules-sec
2

Negative value for
generation
Torque in qd0 quantities
However, our real need is to express the torque in qd0 quantities so that we may
complete our qd0 model.

To this end, recall that we may write the abc quantities in terms of the qd0 quantities
using our inverse transformation, according to:
r qd r abcr
s qd s abcs
i K i
i K i
0
1
0
1

=
=
( )
r qd r sr
m
T
s qd s abcr sr
m
T
abcs em
i K L i K p i L i p T
0
1
0
1
c
c
=
c
c
=
u u
Substitute the above into our torque expression:
49
Torque in qd0 quantities
50
(
(
(

+ +
=

1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(

1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
1
u u
u u
u u
s
K
(
(
(

+ +
=

1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(

1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
1
| |
| |
| |
r
K
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (
(
(

+
+
+
=
m m m
m m m
m m m
m sr
L L
u u u
u u u
u u u
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

)

(
(
(

(
(
(

+ +

(
(
(

+
+
+
c
c
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
(

(
(
(

+ +
=
r
dr
qr
m m m
m m m
m m m
m
m
T
s
ds
qs
em
i
i
i
L
i
i
i
p T
0 0
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
cos 120 cos 120 cos
120 cos cos 120 cos
120 cos 120 cos cos
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
| |
| |
| |
u u u
u u u
u u u
u
u u
u u
u u
( )
r qd r sr
m
T
s qd s em
i K L i K p T
0
1
0
1
c
c
=
u
I will not go through this differentiation but instead provide the result:
( )
qr ds dr qs m em
i i i i pL T =
4
9
Torque in qd0 quantities
51
Some other useful expressions may be derived from the above, as follows:
( )
qr ds dr qs m em
i i i i pL T =
4
9
( )
qr dr dr qr em
i i p T =
2
3
( )
ds qs qs ds em
i i p T =
2
3
Final comment: We can work with these expressions to show that the
electromagnetic torque can be directly controlled by the rotor quadrature current i
qr

At the same time, we can also show that the stator reactive power Q
s
can be directly
controlled by the rotor direct-axis current i
dr
.

This will provide us the necessary means to control the wind turbine.