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2005 JDSU. All rights reserved.

ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 1


Eugen Takcs
JDSU - AUSTRIA
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 2
Untersttzung fr Innovationen in Breitbandnetzen
JDSU ist der weltgrsste Hersteller von Messtechnologien fr
Kommunikationsmesstechnologien


2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 3
San Jose, CA
Worldwide locations*
Corporate Headquarters
* Not including sales offices
10 manufacturing sites
3 countries
ISO 9001 certified
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 4
Verkauf- und Service Bros
Bros
Divisionen
Weltweite Vertretungen
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 5
Modulator
Decoder oder
Set-Top-Box
(STB)
1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1
Encoders
.
.
.
Multiplexer
Das digitale Fernsehsystem
Bild- und Sprachquellen komprimieren
Dateninformationen vorbereiten
Bild, Sprache und Daten multiplexen
Zugangs- und Serviceinformationen beifgen
bertragung ber
Kabel/Satellit/Richtfunk
Demultiplexen
Decodieren
Ansehen im Fernsehen
Irrelevanz-
Redundanz-
Reduktion
Quellenkodierung
nach MPEG-2
Multiplex Signal
Fehlerschutz
Fehlerschutz
Kanalkodierung
nach DVB
Bitrate
nach
Kanalkodierung
EPG: Electronic Program Guide
: Conditional Access keys
SI: Service Information
PSI: Program Specific Information
: Synchronization
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 6
Video Dienste in ADSL Netzen
IP/ATM
Core
DSLAM
DSLAM
DSLAM
MPEG demux
POTS Splitter
PC
xDSL
Modem
IGMP v2 (TVoDSL)
Video
RTSP (VoD)
Internet
xDSL links
ADSL (up to 8 Mbit/s) : 1 quality
video stream

ADSL2+ (up to 24 Mbit/s)

VDSL (up to 26/52 Mbit/s) : 3
simultaneous quality video
Multiple VCs
Broadcast Video: Channel changing is
accomplished by sending IP data-grams
(IGMP RFC-2236)
Video-on-Demand (VoD) : Programs are
requested using real Time Streaming
Protocol (RTSP), RFC 2326.
G
i
g
E

Video
Server
G
i
g
E

Head-end
switch node
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 7
HOCHFREQUENZ STRUNGEN



Das digitale Signal kann 2 verschiedene Strungen haben.

HF Strungen

Tabellenstrungen
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 8
C/N vs. BER/SES* vs. MER
* Bit Error Rate/Severely Errored Seconds
No FEC
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 9
(Gradually poorer C/N)
Effect of Noise on Analog Systems
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 10
(Gradually poorer MER)
Noise has very little affect on digital systems
until the system fails completely
Effect of Noise on Digital Systems
No FEC
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 11
C/N vs. BER/SES vs. MER
No FEC
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 13
RMS
Error
Magnitude
Ideal
Symbol
Average
Symbol
Magnitude
Modulation Error Ratio (MER)
MER is defined as follows:

Expressed in dB
RMS error magnitude
Average symbol magnitude
-20 log
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 14
Error Vector Magnitude
Q
I
Transmitted
Symbol
Target Symbol
Error Vector
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 15
Error
Magnitude
Ideal
Symbol
Max Symbol
Magnitude
Average error magnitude
Max symbol magnitude
X 100%
Error Vector Magnitude (EVM)
EVM is defined as follows:

Expressed in percentage
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 16
64 QAM
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 17
256 QAM
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 18
Ingress under carrier
In-service !!!!
Interference will cause poor
MER
Noise
Discreet Signal
Ingress
Bad Modulator
CSO/CTB (TV)
CSO/CTB Digital
Only SDA can show ingress in-
service under the digital carrier
without interrupting the digital
services
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 20
Automatic Distance to Fault (TDR)
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 21
Encapsulation of Video, Audio and Multiplexing
CAT: Conditional Access Table
ES: Elementary Stream
ECM:Entitlement Control Message
EMM: Entitlement Management Message
PAT: Program Association Table
PCR: Program Clock Reference
PMT: Program Map table
PES: Packetized ES
PID: Packet IDentification
PTS: Presentation Time Stamp
SPTS: Single Programme TS
TS: Transport Stream
Video
C
l
o
c
k

(
2
7
M
H
z
)

a
n
d

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

Audio
coding coding
PES PES
SPTS SPTS
MUX
ES ES
ES
Image
structure
MPEG-2
Video syntax
MPEG-2
System Syntax
Pictures: I P B
MPEG Video ES/PES and TS:
PES
PES Header
contains
PTS

Useful data
. . . .
Payload
SPTS
Stuffing/Adaptation Field
contains PCR infromation
Fixed length (188 bytes)
Transport Packets
GOP
Video Fromat:
MPEG-2 (ISO/IEC IS 13818-2) 2-8/20 Mbps
MPEG-4 Part 10 = Advanced Video Coding (AVC) =
H.264 File Format 1-4/10 Mbps
VC-1: SMPTE Standard fr Video Codec used
by WM9: Microsoft Windowss Media 9
H.263 Used in 3GPP File Format (3rdGeneration
Partnership Project)

Audio Format:
MPEG-2 (ISO/IEC IS 13818-3)
Layer: L1, L2 (DVB, DVD), L3 (MP3)
MPEG-2/4 AAC (Advanced Audio Coder): For
Surround sound
Dolby Digital AC3 (Audio Code N3): For stereo and
surround sound
AMR Adaptive Multi-Rate codec (GSM
networks):has been adopted by 3GPP for 3G
Transport Stream
PMT Prgm 1
PID 0x100
PMT Prgm 2
PID 0x110
EMM
Sys 1
Video Prgm 1
PID 0x1000
Audio Prgm 1
PID 0x1010
...
ECM ES j
PAT
PID 0x00
CAT
PID 0x01
System Tables System Tables System Tables
TV
HDTV
720x576
1920x1080 / 1280x720
TS Header
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 22
Bouquet :
BAT (DVB).
Network :
NIT (DVB).
Channel (TS) :
SDT (DVB services),
PAT (MPEG PMTs).
Programs in current channel :
EIT (DVB events),
PMT (MPEG ESs).
oder
DVB-SI (Service Information)
Network
Transport
Stream
Service
Bouquet
Grnde fr die Service Information:
Erweitert die MPEG-2 Kanalweiterschaltung zu allen Kanlen innerhalb eines
Netzwerks oder zu allen Netzwerken welche von einem Reception Point
zugnglich sind.

DVB macht die Programmwahl mglich;
MPEG-2 ermglicht das Auffinden der Programme.
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 23
Warum ist eine MPEG Analyse notwendig ?
Zeit
Bild Qualitt:
prgm 1
prgm 2
prgm 3
Birate
1
st
scene 2
nd
scene
PMT
CAT
PID 0x00
PID 0x01
PAT
PID 0xYY
Program
Association
Table
Conditionnal Access Table
Program Map Table
MPEG-2
PSI
Quality of Service ist nicht
selbstverstndlich
abhngig von der effizienten Nutzung der
verfgbaren Bandbreite
abhngig von der Konsistenz und dem
Vorhandensein der Daten:
Transport Pakete werden ber eine PID
referenziert
Tabellen und Deskriptoren enthalten kritische
Service Information
hohe Wiederholungsraten fr Tabellen
notwendig
relevante Information ist in verschiedenen
Tabellen verteilt
Verantwortung fr die Qualitt ber die
gesamte bertragungskette ist auf
verschiedene Parteien aufgeteilt.
Eine neue Technologie, die es zu
beherrschen gilt.

Synchronisation ist obligatorisch
fr den Datenmultiplex
Ende-zu-Ende Synchronisierung
innerhalb jedes Programmes
Audio / Video / Daten
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 24
TS Analyse in MPEG-2/DVB Systemen
Szenarien fr Inbetriebnahme, Wartung und berwachung
Modulator
Demod.
A
Network
Adapter
Distribution
ATM, SDH...
A
Encoder
Multiplexer
Access
control
Remux
A
Contribution
A
A: TS Analyzer
TS: Transportstrom
A
A
Prioritt der Fehler gemss ETR 290 (ETSI TR 101 290)
Prioritt 1: Notwendig fr die Decodierbakeit (Basis berwachung)
Prioritt 2: Empfohlen fr die kontinuierliche/periodische
berwachung
Prioritt 3: Anwendungsabhngige berwachung
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 25
TR 101 290
Prioritt 1, Notwendig fr die Decodierbakeit
ETR Type Description Condition
1.1 Stream Transport Stream Synchronization Loss 2 consec. Pkt 0x47
1.2 Stream Received single sync byte error synch byte 0x47
1.3 Stream Invalid scrambling on PAT PID Scrambling_ctrl_field 00
1.3 Table PAT not found
1.3 Table PAT repetition rate too slow 0,5s
1.3 Table PAT no longer present 2s
1.3 Table Received table other than PAT on PID 0x0
1.4 Stream Received more than two duplicate packets
1.4 Stream Continuity Counter Error
1.5 Stream Invalid scrambling on PMT PID Scrambling_ctrl_field 00
1.5 Table PMT not found
1.5 Table PMT repetition rate too slow 0,5s
1.5 Table PMT no longer present 2s
1.6 Stream Referred PID not found
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 26
TR 101 290 Prioritt 2,
Empfohlen fr die kontinuierliche oder periodische berwachung
ETR Type Description Condition
2.1 Stream Transport Error Indicator Bad RS TEI=1
2.2 Table Table CRC Error
2.3 Timing Referenced PCR not found
2.3 Timing DVB interval too long between PCR arrivals 40ms
2.3 Timing PCR discontinuity greater than user selected value 100ms
2.4 Timing PCR accuracy is not within 500 ns
2.5 Timing Interval too long between PTS arrivals 700ms
2.6 Table CAT not found
2.6 Table CAT repetition rate too slow 2s
2.6 Table CAT no longer present 8s
2.6 Table Received table other than CAT on PID 0x1
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 27
TR 101 290
Prioritt 3, Anwendungsabhngige berwachung
ETR Type Description Condition
3.1 Table NIT Actual not found
3.1 Table NIT Actual repetition rate too slow 10s
3.1 Table NIT Actual no longer present 40s
3.1 Table NIT Other repetition rate too slow 10s
3.1 Table Received table other than NIT/ST on PID 0x10
3.2 Table SI repetition rate too slow
3.2 Table Spacing between SI sections too short 25ms
3.3 Stream Buffer overflow
3.4 Stream Unreferenced PID detected 0,5s
3.5 Table SDT Actual not found
3.5 Table SDT Actual repetition rate too slow 2s
3.5 Table SDT Actual no longer present 8s
3.5 Table SDT Other repetition rate too slow 10s
3.5 Table Received table other than SDT/BAT/ST on PID
0x11
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 28
TR 101 290
Prioritt 3, Anwendungsabhngige berwachung
ETR Type Description Condition
3.6 Table EIT P/F Actual not found
3.6 Table EIT P/F Actual repetition rate too slow 2s
3.6 Table EIT P/F Actual no longer present 8s
3.6 Table EIT P/F Other not found
3.6 Table EIT P/F Other repetition rate too slow 10s
3.6 Table EIT P/F Other no longer present 40s
3.6 Table EIT Schedule Actual not found
3.6 Table EIT Schedule Actual repetition rate too slow 10s
3.6 Table EIT Schedule Actual no longer present 40s
3.6 Table EIT Schedule Other not found
3.6 Table EIT Schedule Other repetition rate too slow 30s
3.6 Table EIT Schedule Other no longer present 120s
3.6 Table Received table other than EIT/ST on PID 0x12
3.7 Table Received table other than RST/ST on PID 0x13
3.8 Table TDT not found
3.8 Table TDT repetition rate too slow 30s
3.8 Table TDT no longer present 120s
3.8 Table Received table other than TDT/TOT/ST on PID 0x14
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 29
System clock
27 MHz
PES time stamp:
PTS und DTS
PCR:
33 bit counter (Zyklus: 26,5 Std.)
1xPCR pro Programm oder pro
Transportstrom
System clock
27 MHz
PES time stamp: PTS und DTS
PCR
P.L.L.
P.L.L.
P.L.L.
Presentation
frequency
Presentation
frequency
MPEG-2 System
Zeitstempel (time stamp) und Synchronisation (PCR)
1/ Encoder 2/ Multiplexer 3/ STB: Demux, Decoder, Buffer 4/ TV
DEMUX
TS
PCR: Program Clock Reference
PTS: Presentation Time Stamp
DTS: Decoding Time Stamp
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 30
PCR Jitter [2.3, 2.4] ETR Value
PCR spacing: 2.3 40 ms
PCR discontinuity: 2.3 100 ms
PCR jitter: 2.4 +/- 500 ns
PCR frequency offset: +/- 810 Hz
PCR drift rate: 75 mHz
PTS spacing: 2.5 700 ms
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 31
Referred PID [1.6, 3.4]
Characteristics
Prgm 1
ES n1
PID
ESn1
PID
ESn2
ES n2
Characteristics
Prgm 2
Characteristics
Prgm i
ES nj PID
ESnj
PMT (Program Map Table)
ECM
PMT
Prgm 1
Video Audio Data
...
MPEG-2
Transport stream
1.6 Ref. PID not Found
Characteristics
Prgm 1
PID
ESn2
ES n2
Characteristics
Prgm 2
Characteristics
Prgm i
ES nj PID
ESnj
PMT (Program Map Table)
ECM
PMT
Prgm 1
Video Audio Data
...
MPEG-2
Transport stream
3.4 Unref. PID detected
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 32
GigE Interface

Support IGMP Multicast Control:
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 33
Video Decoding
Provides viewing of Video
elementary stream in the transport
stream:
Thumbnail of all Video Programs in
Transport Stream
Real-time decode of 1 Video
Program at a time
View 6 parameters for each Video
Program
MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 Videos
supported
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 34
MPEG-4 / H.264 Analysis in TS
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 35
Complementary application
VISUALmpeg - Offline Video analysis
VISUALmpeg 110 Video Elementary Stream Analzer :
- Header information, picture coding type, quantizer values,
motion vectors, macro block types, VBV buffer model
- Bit allocation, DCT coefficients, picture frequencies, MPEG
artefacts,
VISUALmpeg 150
Video Elementary Stream Analyzer and Quality
Analyzer:
All features of VISUALmpeg 110 plus video quality
measurements:
Bit rate viewer, bits per frame diagram, frame
distortion index, frame quality index
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 36
Complementary application
Interra H264 Analyzer - Offline A/V Compliance Checker
Key Features
Supports the H.264, MPEG-2
Transport, MPEG-4 Video,
MP4, and the AAC Audio
standards
Has an extensible architecture
to support other audio (i.e.
AC3), video formats
Provides powerful debug
capabilities to quickly locate
problem areas
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 37
Supported formats:
VC1 (WMV)
MPEG-4 Part 2 Visual
MPEG-1/MPEG-2 Video
AC-3 Audio
AAC Audio
AMR Audio
MP4 File Format
3GPP
MPEG-2 Transport
Complementary application
Interra VC1 Analyzer - Offline A/V Compliance Checker
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 38
End to End solution architecture
Copper
Plant
DSLAM
DTS-200/330
G
b
E

DVB TS
IP MUX
ATM / IP
QT-200
Pre-qualify copper plant capability
Permanently check the Validity
of the source
Measure the End Customer
experience
End to End trouble shoot on demand.
Check of the MPEG services a the source
TR 101 290 Monitoring
Bit rate measurement
PCR analysis
Table analysis
ES offline analysis (VISUALmpeg/Interra H.264)
HST-3000
QPSK
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 39
IPTV&MPEG measurement with DTS-200/330
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 40
Electronic Program Guide (EPG)
Conditional Access (CA) keys
Service Information (SI)
Program Specicific Information (PSI)
PCR Synchronization
Re-multiplexing
TS
TS
(Transportstrom)

DVB-C
QAM
Zubringer
IP, SDH, ATM,
Satellit und Funk
STB
(Set Top Box)
SDH
Studio A
Studio Z
IP
Router/Gateway
DTS Messgerte
DVB-T
COFDM
MPEG-2/DVB Messtechnik
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 41
Acterna MPEG-2/DVB Produktangebot
DTS-200 - MPEG-2 Field Instrument
Der DTS-200 erlaubt den Betreibern digitaler Netze und
Systemanbietern die Fernanalyse ihrer MPEG-Datenstrme
sowie die Ausfhrung verschiedener Testanwendungen.

DTS-330 - Digital Broadcast Test Platform
Die DTS-330 Digital Broadcast Test Platform ermglicht die
Analyse, Simulation und Erzeugung von MPEG-2 ATSC- und
DVB-Transportstrmen.

Multiple
Interfaces:
ASI/LVDS
QAM
QPSK
GigE
COFDM
2005 JDSU. All rights reserved. ACTERNA TEST & MEASUREMENT SOLUTIONS 42
DTS-200 bersicht
Player / Recorder
DTS-PR:
Play (P)
Record (R)
Filter on PID
Analyse
DTS-A:
Echtzeit-Analyse
Capture on trigger
Tx ASI / SPI-LVDS Interface Rx ASI / SPI-LVDS und/oder GigE/RF Interface
Optionen:
MHP, OpenTV Analyse
Interfaces:
GigE
RF: QAM, QPSK, COFDM
DTS-200 PR DTS-200 P
DTS-200 RA
DTS-200 PRA
Dual Play, 2Tx
DTS-200 A
DTS-200 R
Dual analysis, 2Rx