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ACTIVATED SLUDGE

&
ITS PROCESS
MODIFICATION
INTRODUCTION TO THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS


Historical Development
a) Developed around 1913 in Manchester
b) It is a Biological, secondary treatment

Activated sludge:
Settled Biomass
Activated micro-organism

Function of activated sludge:
1. Biodegradation of the influent organic material
2. To formation of floc particles

BASIC PRINCIPLE:


COHNS + O2 + bacteria CO2 + H2O+NH3
+ Energy + other end products
Synthesis:
COHNS + O2 + bacteria + energy C5H7NO2

( new cell tissue )
Chemoheterotrophic bacteria
Micro-organisms grow and form particles that clamp
together



ACTIVATED SLUDGE PLANT
INVOLVES:


1. Wastewater aeration in the presence
of a microbial suspension,
2. Solid-liquid separation following
aeration,
3. Discharge of clarified effluent,
4. Wasting of excess biomass, and
5. Return of remaining biomass to the
aeration tank.

ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
VARIABLES
MIXING REGIME :
LOADING RATE :
A) Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT)
B) Sludge Retention Time (SRT)
C) Volumetric Organic Loading
D) Food To Microorganism Ratio ( F/ M )
FLOW SCHEME :
The pattern of sewage addition
The pattern of sludge return to the aeration tank and
The pattern of aeration





Activated Sludge Process &
Modification :-


CONVENTIONAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

STEP FEED SYSTEM

EXTENDED AERATION ASP

OXIDATION DITCH ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

CONTACT STABILIZATION ACTIVATED SLUDGE

HIGH PURITY OXYGEN ACTIVATED SLUDGE


CONVENTIONAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE
PROCESS
Advantages :

Allows smaller volume
Flexible operation & zone aeration.
Less aeration
Better settling characteristics


Disadvantages

High oxygen demand in inlet zone
May not buffer peak loads as well, although less likely in
activated sludge with high biomass
Less efficiency due to uniform aeration through out the
length of aeration tank but demand is less.

Step Feed System
nptel.iitm.ac.in

ADVANTAGES :

Suitable for high Bod wastewaters. Eg;
food processing industry wastewater
Lower the peak oxygen demand
Better equalization of waste load ( within
aeration tank )
Better distribution of oxygen demand over
entire length of A.T.
Smaller aeration tank volume compared to
conventional activated sludge unit
Extended Aeration System









External substrate is completely removed.
Auto oxidation (internal substrate is used).
Net growth =0
If Q, So, Se & X are the same
Volume required in extended aeration system = 30 times that
of conventional ASP

Advantages :

Sludge production minimum
Stabilized sludge no digesters are required
Nutrient requirement minimal

Disadvantages :

High power requirement
Large volume of aeration tank
Suitable for small communities
Oxidation ditch
nptel.iitm.ac.in
Secondary
clarifier
Influent
Sludge
return
Effluent
Brush-type
aerators
Working on the principle of extended
aeration.

Compact unit ( sedimentation, aeration &
sludge stabilization in one)

Used for small communities

Q < 3,800 cum m/day
- This unit is preferred

Advantages :

Typically small systems

Flexible operation with placement and use of
aerators can be used for nutrient removal

Very stable process

No primary clarifier simpler sludge handling

Good settling characteristics

Disadvantages :

Long aeration time, larger reactor.

Higher aeration requirement.

Mechanical aeration equipment (rotors, large
turbines)required to move water around the
channel as well as aerate. Can create zones of
high oxygen and add maintenance costs. More
recent designs use diffusers for aeration and
reduce mechanical requirement.

Contact Stabilization Process








Wastewater rich in colloidal organic solids
besides soluble BOD
Eg: Dairy industry, meat processing industry
www.webapps.cee.vt.edu
CONTACT TANK

Design is based on separation time.
Separation of colloidal and soluble substrate
based on MLSS.

No increase in biomass concentration (during
separation process no energy generated )
STABILIZATION TANK

Stabilization of colloidal and soluble BOD by
microbes.

Increase in biomass

Detention time in stabilization tank is 3 to 4 hrs.
Advantages

Reduced aeration requirement with short
contact tank residence time
Reportedly better settling sludge

Disadvantages

Complex operation
Possible reduced treatment for soluble
contaminants in contact tank
HIGH PURITY OXYGEN ACTIVATED
SLUDGE


Oxygen added under pressure to keeps dissolved oxygen level
high

Advantages:

Five times oxygen transfer rate over air
Smaller volume
Higher biomass concentration possible, but limited by
secondary settler capacity

Disadvantages :

Very expensive: covered tanks, high energy cost for O2
generation, gas recirculation equipment
No flexibility (all aerobic processes)
Settling problems have been reported

THANK
YOU