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(Jane Taylor wrote the lyrics in 1806)

http://kids.niehs.nih.gov/games/songs/childrens
/twinklemid.htm



BINTANG
Sebiji bola gas yang panas dan bercahaya di angkasa
lepas membebaskan haba dan cahayanya sendiri.
Tenaga dihasilkan melalui tindak balas nuklear.

Terdiri daripada terutamanya hidrogen dan helium. Stars
produce energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium.

Matahari ialah bintang yang paling dekat dgn. Bumi.
Bintang-bintang lain terletak sangat jauh dari Bumi,
oleh itu kelihatan sebagai titik-titik cahaya sahaja.

Pada waktu malam yang tidak berawan, cuma dengan
mata kasar kita dapat melihat sebanyak 3000 bintang di
langit. Dengan menggunakan teleskop lebih daripada
sejuta bintang dapat dilihat.
Contoh: Bintang dedua (binary stars) iaitu dua bintang
yang berputar mengelilingi satu sama lain, bintang
kerdil putih, bintang neutron,

Properties of Stars
Binary stars and stellar mass
Binary stars
Two stars orbiting one another
Stars are held together by mutual
gravitation
Both orbit around a common center of
mass


Properties of Stars
Binary stars and stellar mass
Binary stars
Visual binaries are resolved telescopically
More than 50% of the stars in the universe
are binary stars
Used to determine stellar mass
Stellar mass
Determined using binary starsThe center
of mass is closest to the most massive star


Binary Stars
Orbit Each Other
Around Their
Common Center
of Mass
Properties of Stars
Stellar mass
Mass of most stars is
between one-tenth and
fifty times the mass of
the Sun
The more massive a
star is, the brighter it is

L ~ M
3.5
How Far Away Are Stars?
The distance to a star is measured in light-years.
A light-year is the distance that light travels in one
year. About 5.8 trillion miles (9.5 trillion kilometers).

The nearest star (besides our sun) is 4.24 light-
years from earth. This means that light emitted for
this star takes 4.24 years to reach earth.

Some stars are over millions of light-years away.
The closest star is the Sun. (150 juta km)
Beyond that is Proxima Centauri, at 4.24 light-years
away. (40 trillion km)
Alpha Centauri is at 4.37 light-years, and beyond
that is Barnard's star at 5.97 light-years away.
Measuring Distances to Stars
Properties of Stars
Parallax
Astronomers often used parallax to measure distances to
nearby stars.
The nearest stars have the largest parallax angles, while
those of distant stars are too small to measure.

Parallax cannot be used to measure distances any
greater than 1000 light years using existing technology.
Too small to measure accurately.

Parallax
Original Photo (now)
Photo taken 6 months later
Parallax is the slight shifting of the apparent position of a
star due to the orbital motion of Earth. (viewed from two
different positions. (The less the star appears to move, the
farther away it is.)
Distances to Stars
Trigonometric Parallax:
Star appears slightly shifted from different
positions of the Earth on its orbit
The farther away the star is (larger d),
the smaller the parallax angle p.
d =
__
p
1
d in parsec (pc)
p in arc seconds
1 pc = 3.26 LY
The Trigonometric Parallax
Example:
Nearest star, a Centauri, has a parallax of p = 0.76 arc seconds
d = 1/p
= 1.3 pc
=1.3 x 3.26 = 4.3 LY
With ground-based telescopes, we can measure
parallaxes p 0.02 arc sec
=> d 50 pc
This method does not work for stars
farther away than 50 pc.
Measuring Distances to Stars
Properties of Stars
Light-Year
A light-year is the distance light travels in a year, about
9.5 trillion kilometers in one year. (Light travels at 300,000
km/s)
Jarak bintang dari Bumi diukur dalam unit tahun cahaya
Satu tahun cahaya ialah jarak yang dilalui oleh
cahaya dalam masa satu tahun.

Proxima Centauri is 4.3 light years away (40 trillion km)
Nearest star to Earth other than the Sun (150 juta km)
Measuring Distances to Stars
Properties of Stars
Matahari berada 150 juta km dari Bumi. Jika cahaya bergerak
dengan kelajuan 300,000,000 ms
-1
(300,000 km/s)

Berapa lamakah masa yang diambil untuk cahaya Matahari
sampai ke Bumi?

Masa = jarak = 150, 000, 000 km

kelajuan 300, 000 kms
1


= 500 s

= 8.33 minit
Characteristics of Stars
Properties of Stars
Star Color and Temperature
Color is a clue to a stars temperature.
Hot stars are blue-white colour
Cool star looks orange or red
Stars that have same temperature as the Sun
have a yellow colour
Properties of Stars
Color and temperature
Hot star
Temperature above 30,000 K (>25,000C)
Emits short-wavelength light
Appears blue-white eg. Rigel
Cool star
Temperature less than 3000 K (< 3500 C)
Emits longer-wavelength light
Appears red/orange eg. Betelgeuse
Between 5000 and 6000 K (same
temperature as the Sun)
Stars appear yellow



Lifetimes of Stars
How long a star lives depends on how much mass it has.
Stars age at different rates.
Massive stars use fuel faster and exist for only a few
million years (shorter lifetime).
Small stars use fuel slowly and exist for perhaps
hundreds of billions of years.
Medium-mass stars like the sun live for about 10
billions years.
Astronomers think the sun is about 4.6 billion years
old, so it is almost halfway through its lifetime.
Masses of Stars in the H-R Diagram
High-mass stars have
much shorter lives
than low-mass stars:
Sun: ~ 10 billion yr.
10 M
sun
: ~ 30 million yr.
0.1 M
sun
: ~ 3 trillion yr.
t
life
~ M
-2.5
Stellar Brightness
25.1 Properties of Stars
Apparent Magnitude (Magnitud ketara)
Apparent magnitude is the brightness of a star
when viewed from Earth.
Three factors control the apparent brightness of
a star as seen from Earth: how big it is, how hot
it is, and how far away it is.
Absolute Magnitude (Magnitud mutlak)
Absolute magnitude is the apparent brightness
of a star if it were viewed from a distance of 32.6
light-years.
Is a measure of the amount of light it gives off.
Properties of Stars
Stellar brightness
Apparent magnitude (m
V
)
Brightness when a star is viewed
from Earth
Decreases with distance
Numbers are used to designate
magnitudesDim stars have large
numbers and negative numbers are
also used

Properties of Stars
Stellar brightness
Absolute magnitude (M
V
)
"True" or intrinsic brightness of a star
Is a measure of the amount of light it
gives off.
Brightness at a standard distance of
32.6 light-years
Most stars' absolute magnitudes are
between 5 and +15

Distance, Apparent Magnitude, and
Absolute Magnitude of Some Stars
Rigel -distance from Earth = 900 light years
app mag (m
V
) =0.14, abs mag (M
V
) = - 6.8
Distance and Intrinsic/Absolute Brightness
Betelgeuse
Rigel
Example:
App. Magn. m
V
= 0.41
Recall that:
Magn.
Diff.
Intensity Ratio
1 2.512
2 2.512*2.512 = (2.512)
2

= 6.31

5 (2.512)
5
= 100
App. Magn. m
V
= 0.14
For a magnitude difference of
0.41 0.14 = 0.27,
we find an intensity ratio of
(2.512)
0.27
= 1.28
Distance and Intrinsic Brightness (2)
Betelgeuse
Rigel
Rigel is appears 1.28 times
brighter than Betelgeuse,
Thus, Rigel is actually
(intrinsically) 1.28*(1.6)
2

= 3.3 times brighter than
Betelgeuse.
but Rigel is 1.6 times further
away than Betelgeuse.
Absolute Magnitude (2)
Betelgeuse
Rigel
Betelgeuse Rigel
m
V
0.41 0.14
M
V
-5.5 -6.8
d 152 pc 244 pc
520 LY 900 LY
Back to our example of
Betelgeuse and Rigel:
Difference in absolute magnitudes: 6.8 5.5 = 1.3
=> Luminosity ratio= (2.512)
1.3
= 3.3
m
V
= apparent magnitude

M
V
= absolute magnitude
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
A HertzsprungRussell diagram shows the
relationship between the absolute magnitude
(luminosity) and temperature of stars (spectral
class).
A main-sequence star is a star that falls into the
main sequence category on the HR diagram.
This category contains the majority of stars and
runs diagonally from the upper left to the lower
right on the HR diagram.
Idealized Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
About 100 years ago, Ejnar Hertzsprung in Denmark and Henry Norris Russell
in USA made graphs to find out if temperature and brightness is related. The
graph is still used by astronomers and is called H-R diagram.
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Shows the relation between stellar
Luminosity (brightness) and absolute
magnitude)
Temperature and spectral class

Diagram is made by plotting
(graphing) each star's
Luminosity (brightness) and
Temperature


Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Parts of an H-R diagram
Main-sequence stars (bintang jujukan utama)
90% of all stars
Band through the center of the H-R diagram
Sun is in the main-sequence

Giants (or red giants) A red giant is a large,
Very luminous
Cool
Large
Upper-right on the H-R diagram

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Very large giants are called supergiants
A supergiant is a very large, very bright red
giant star.
Only a few percent of all stars
White dwarfs
Fainter than main-sequence stars
Small (approximately the size of Earth)
Lower-central area on the H-R diagram
Not all are white in color
Perhaps 10% of all stars
Susunan bintang menurut saiz
Bintang neutron<Kerdil putih<Matahari < Raksasa <
Superraksasa


Organizing the Family of Stars:
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
We know:
Stars have different temperatures, different
luminosities, and different sizes.
To bring some order into that zoo of different
types of stars: organize them in a diagram of
Luminosity
versus
Temperature (or spectral type)
L
u
m
i
n
o
s
i
t
y

Temperature
Spectral type: O B A F G K M
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
o
r

A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

m
a
g
.

KELAS KOMPOSISI KIMIA
O (biru) Helium terion, atom helium, sedikit hidrogen
B (biru-putih) Atom helium , hidrogen
A (putih) Hidrogen, Kalsium terion
F (kuning) Kalsium terion, hidrogen

G Jingga) Kalsium terion, hidrogen, logam terutamanya ferum
K (Jingga-merah) Logam, kumpulan CH dan CN
M (merah) Titanium oksida
Komposisi kimia yang membina sebuah bintang berbeza mengikut
kelasnya. Rujuk Jadual Spectral type: O B A F G K M
Komposisi ini ditentukan dgn mengkaji spektrum cahaya bintang
tersebut
HertzsprungRussell Diagram
In general,
stars with higher
temperature also
have brighter
absolute
magnitudes
Main sequence band
(jujukan utama)
contains hot, blue,
bright stars in the
upper left and cool,
red, dim stars in the
lower right while the
yellow star, sun fall
in between.
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
1. To which group do most stars belong?
a. supergiants b. giants c. main sequence
d. white dwarfs
2. Which star is hotter than the Sun?
a. Betelgeuse b. Aldebaran c. Alpha Centauri B
d. Sirius B
3. Which star is most likely to be red?
a. Rigel b. Sirius A c. Sirius B d. Betelgeuse
4. Compared to Rigel, Alpha Centauri B is
a. cooler and brighter
b. cooler and dimmer
c. hotter and brighter
d. hotter and dimmer
5. Which star has a greater absolute magnitude?
a. Rigel b. Aldebaran c. Sirius B d. Betelgeuse

Properties of Stars
Interstellar Matter
A nebula is a cloud of gas and/or dust in space.
There are two major types of nebulae:
1. Bright nebula
Such as Orion Nebula and Eagle Nebula contain
hot glowing gases that are forming into stars.
2. Dark nebula
Contain cool gases
- Emission nebula
- Reflection nebula
Interstellar Matter
The Orion Nebula Is a Well-Known
Emission Nebula
Nebula, Birthplace of Stars
Globules = sites where stars are
being born right now!
Trifid
Nebula
Stellar Evolution
Stars exist because of gravity
Two opposing forces in a star are
GravityContracts
Thermal nuclear energyExpands
Stages
Birth
In dark, cool, interstellar clouds
Gravity contracts the cloud
Temperature rises
Becomes a protostar
Stellar Evolution
Stages
Protostar
Gravitational contraction of gaseous cloud
continues
Core reaches 10 million K
Hydrogen nuclei fuse
Become helium nuclei
Process is called hydrogen burning
Energy is released
Outward pressure balanced by gravity
pulling in
Star becomes a stable main-sequence star
90% of a star's life is in the main-sequence

Formation of a Star
Interstellar Cloud (cloud of gas and/or dust)

Collapsing cloud fragment

Fragmentation ceases

A protostar (developing star not yet hot enough to engage
in nuclear fusion)

Protostellar evolution (Temp.10 million K, pressure within
is so great that nuclear fusion of hydrogen begins)

A Newborn star

Star died
Star Birth
Stellar Evolution
Protostar Stage
A protostar is a collapsing cloud of gas and dust
destined to become a stara developing star not
yet hot enough to engage in nuclear fusion.
When the core of a protostar has reached about
10 million K, pressure within is so great that
nuclear fusion of hydrogen begins, and a star is
born.
Kelahiran Bintang
Bintang dipercayai berasal daripada Nebula (kepulan awan
besar yang terdiri daripada gas hidrogen dan debu)
Gas hidrogen dan debu itu terkumpul akibat daya tarikan graviti
antara gas dan debu. Semakin banyak gas dan debu
terkumpul, semakin kuat tarikan graviti yang terhasil.
Nebula mengecut secara berterusan dan termampat menjadi
protostar.
Daya tarikan graviti yang semakin bertambah menyebabkan
suhu dan tekanan pada teras semakin meningkat.
Apabila suhu dan tekanan dalam teras cukup tinggi, pelakuran
nuklear gas hidrogen berlaku dan menghasilkan helium dan
banyak haba dan cahaya.
Bola gas itu mula bersinar dan sebuah bintang dilahirkan
Proses kelahiran ini mengambil masa berjuta-juta tahun
lamanya.
Kelahiran Bintang
Kelahiran Bintang
Nebula

Daya graviti


Penyejatan


Pengecutan


Jasad bintang
Protostars
Protostars =
pre-birth state
of stars:
Hydrogen to
Helium fusion
not yet ignited
Still enshrouded in opaque cocoons of dust =>
barely visible in the optical, but bright in the infrared.
Heating By Contraction
As a protostar contracts, it heats up:
0 K = -273 C
X - A young protostar begins as an invisible concentration of gas deep
inside a cloud
Y- A contracting protostar grows hotter but is hidden inside its dusty
cocoon and is detectable only in infrared
Z - A newborn star becomes visible as it blows its dust cocoon away.
X
Y
Z
Protostellar Disks
Conservation of angular
momentum leads to the
formation of protostellar
disks birth place of
planets and moons
From Protostars to Stars
Ignition of H
He fusion
processes
Star emerges
from the
enshrouding dust
cocoon
M
o
solar mass
The most massive
stars contract to the
main sequence over
1000 times faster
than the lowest mass
stars .

Death of the Star (The End of a Stars Life)
When all the nuclear fuel in a star is used up, gravity
will win over pressure and the star will die.
High-mass stars will die first, in a
gigantic explosion, called a supernova.
Less massive
stars will die in
a less dramatic
event, called a
nova
Stellar Evolution (Death of the Star)
Burnout and Death
Stellar Evolution
All stars, regardless of their size, eventually
run out of fuel and collapse due to gravity.
Stars less than one-half the mass of the sun never
evolve to the red giant stage but remain in the stable
main-sequence stage until they consume all their
hydrogen fuel and collapse into a white dwarf.
White dwarf cools to become black dwarf.
Death of Low-Mass Stars
Burnout and Death of Medium-Mass Stars
Stellar Evolution
Stars with masses similar to the sun evolve in
essentially the same way as low-mass stars.
During their collapse from red giants to white dwarfs,
medium-mass stars are thought to cast off their
bloated outer layer, creating an expanding round
cloud of gas called planetary nebula.
Medium-mass star
Between 0.5 and 3 solar masses
Red giant collapses
Planetary nebula forms
Becomes a white dwarf
Life Cycle of a Sunlike Star
The Fate of Our Sun and the
End of Earth
Sun will expand to a
Red giant in ~ 5 billion
years
Expands to ~ Earths
radius
Earth will then be
incinerated!
Sun may form a
planetary nebula (but
uncertain)
Suns C,O core will
become a white dwarf
Planetary Nebula
Burnout and Death
25.2 Stellar Evolution
In contrast to sun-like stars, stars that are over
three times the suns mass have relatively short
life spans, which end in a supernova event.
Death of Massive Stars
A supernova is an exploding massive star that
increases in brightness many thousands of
times.
The massive stars interior condenses and may
produce a hot, dense object that is either a
neutron star or a black hole.
Crab Nebula in the
Constellation Taurus
Supernova of 1054.
Stellar Remnants
White Dwarfs
A white dwarf is a star that has exhausted most
or all of its nuclear fuel and has collapsed to a
very small size, believed to be near its final stage
of evolution.
The sun begins as a nebula, spends much of its
life as a main-sequence star, and then becomes
a red giant, a planetary nebula, a white dwarf,
and, finally, a black dwarf.
Stellar Remnants
White dwarf
Small size (some no larger than Earth)
Dense
Can be more massive than the Sun
Spoonful weighs several tons
Atoms take up less space
Electrons displaced inward
Called degenerate matter
Hot surface
Cools to become a black dwarf

White Dwarfs
Degenerate stellar remnant (C,O core)
Extremely dense:
1 teaspoon of WD material: mass 16 tons!!!
White Dwarfs:
Mass ~ M
sun
Temp. ~ 25,000 K
Luminosity ~ 0.01 L
sun
Chunk of WD material the size of a beach ball would
outweigh an ocean liner!
White Dwarfs (2)
Low luminosity; high temperature => White
dwarfs are found in the lower left corner of the
Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
Stellar Remnants
Neutron Stars
A neutron star is a star of extremely high density
composed entirely of neutrons. (Electrons combine with
protons to produce neutrons.)
Neutron stars are thought to be remnants of supernova
events.
A teaspoonful of neutron star weigh about 100 million
metric tons in Earths gravity
Neutron stars are even smaller and denser than white
dwarfs.
May contain as much as 3x the mass of the Sun but be
only about 20 km in diameter, the size of a large asteroid
or a town on Earth.
Stellar Remnants
Supernovae
A pulsar is a source that radiates short bursts or pulses
of radio energy in very regular periods.
A pulsar found in the Crab Nebula during the
1970s is undoubtedly the remains of the supernova of
1054.
A pulsars short for pulsating radio sources are
neutron stars.
In 1967, a British astronomy student Jocelyn Bell
detected an object in space which give off regular
pulses of radio waves and later concluded as neutron
star.
The Famous Supernova of 1987: SN 1987A
Before At maximum
Unusual type II Supernova in the
Large Magellanic Cloud in Feb. 1987
Supernova Remnants
The Cygnus Loop
The Veil Nebula
The Crab Nebula:
Remnant of a
supernova
observed in a.d.
1054
Cassiopeia A
Optica
l
X-
rays
Stellar Remnants
Black Holes
A black hole is a massive star that has collapsed to
such a small volume that its gravity prevents the
escape of everything, including light.

Scientists think that as matter is pulled into a black
hole, it should become very hot and emit a flood of X-
rays before being pulled in.

Stellar Remnants
Black hole
More dense than a neutron star
Intense surface gravity lets no light
escape
As matter is pulled into it
Becomes very hot
Emits x-rays
Likely candidate is Cygnus X-1, a strong
x-ray source

Black Hole
No light can escape a black hole
=> Black holes can not be observed directly.
Black Hole
=> Strong X-ray source!
Matter gets
pulled off
from the
companion
star, forming
an accretion
disk.
Heats up to a few million K.
Mass > 3 M
sun
=> Black hole!
Summary of Evolution for
Stars of Various Masses
KESIMPULAN-KEMATIAN BINTANG
Apabila semua gas hidrogen di teras bintang telah
habis digunakan, teras itu akan mengecut.
Pengecutan ini membebaskan banyak haba lalu
memanaskan lapisan luar bintang.
Lapisan luar yang masih kaya dengan gas hidrogen
itu akan terbakar. Hal ini menyebabkan bintang
mengembang dengan hebatnya serta bersinar dengan
warna merah menjadi bintang raksasa merah.
Raksasa merah mempunyai diameter yang boleh
mencapai 100 kali diameter Matahari. Peringkat ini
menandakan bintang sudah hampir ke akhir hayat.
Contoh bintang raksasa merah ialah bintang Arcturus
Kematian bintang (1-3) X Sun medium-mass star
KEMATIAN BINTANG
Perubahan berikut akan berlaku:
(a) Lapisan luarnya akan tersebar jauh ke angkasa
lepas secara perlahan-lahan, mengembang menjadi
raksasa merah meninggalkan teras bintang. Teras
bintang akan mengecut menjadi planetary nebula
dan seterusnya menjadi kerdil putih
(b) Kerdil putih ialah bintang yang kecil yang
sebahagian besar terdiri daripada jisim elektron yang
merosot, amat tumpat dan malap
(c) Apabila kerdil putih kehabisan semua tenaganya,
ia akan kelihatan gelap di angkasa dan dikenal
sebagai kerdil hitam.
Kematian bintang (1-3) X Sun - medium-mass star
KEMATIAN BINTANG
Perubahan berikut akan berlaku:
(a) Raksasa merah akan semakin mengembang
sehingga menjadi sangat besar dan dikenal sebagai
superraksasa merah. Superraksasa merah mungkin
mempunyai diameter 400-500 kali diameter Matahari.
Contoh bintang superraksasa ialah Antares dan
Betelgeuse.
(b) Akhirnya superraksasa merah akan meletup dengan
kuat. Letupan tersebut dipanggil supernova. Semasa
letupan berlaku, banyak tenaga haba dan cahaya
dihasilkan. Lapisan luar bintang pula tercampak jauh ke
angkasa lepas meninggalkan terasnya.
Kematian bintang (Massive star ~6x Sun)
KEMATIAN BINTANG
Perubahan berikut akan berlaku:
(c) Teras bintang yang tertinggal akan mengecut sehingga
menjadi sangat tumpat dan mempunyai daya tarikan
graviti yang tinggi.
(d) Jika teras bintang itu terdiri terutamanya neutron
ia disebut bintang neutron. Bintang neutron amat
kecil, diameternya beberapa kilometer sahaja tetapi
amat tumpat (3x the mass of the Sun but be only
about 20 km in diameter). Bintang ini berputar dengan
cepat dan memancarkan denyutan gelombang radio.
Bintang neutron juga dikenali sebagai pulsar. Ia
akan menyejuk dan akhirnya lenyap.

Kematian bintang (Massive star ~ 6x Sun)
KEMATIAN BINTANG
Teras bintang yang tertinggal akan mengecut sehingga
menjadi sangat tumpat dan mempunyai daya tarikan
graviti yang tinggi.

Teras yang tertinggal itu sangat besar dan sangat
tumpat ia disebut lubang hitam (lohong hitam).

Lubang hitam mempunyai daya tarikan graviti yang
amat kuat sehinggakan semua objek berhampiran
dengannya termasuk cahaya ditarik ke dalamnya. Hal
ini menjadikan kawasan ini kelihatan hitam.
Kematian bintang (Massive star ~20x Sun)
BINTANG

Tamat

Organizing the Family of Stars:
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
We know:
Stars have different temperatures, different
luminosities, and different sizes.
To bring some order into that zoo of different
types of stars: organize them in a diagram of
Luminosity
versus
Temperature (or spectral type)
L
u
m
i
n
o
s
i
t
y

Temperature
Spectral type: O B A F G K M
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
o
r

A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

m
a
g
.

The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (2)
Same
temperature,
but much
brighter than
Main
Sequence
stars
The Radii of Stars in the H-R Diagram
Rigel
Betelgeuse
Sun
Polaris
The Relative Sizes of Stars in
the HR Diagram
Luminosity Classes
Ia Bright Supergiants
Ib Supergiants
II Bright Giants
III Giants
IV Subgiants
V Main-Sequence
Stars
Ia
Ib
II
II
I
I
V
V
Masses of Stars in the H-R Diagram
The more massive a star is, the brighter it is:
High-mass stars have
much shorter lives
than low-mass stars:
Sun: ~ 10 billion yr.
10 M
sun
: ~ 30 million yr.
0.1 M
sun
: ~ 3 trillion yr.
L ~ M
3.5
t
life
~ M
-2.5