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Communication Theory

Unit 3
Lecture-1
1) AM Transmitters Block schematic
2) AM broadcast transmitter
AM Transmitters
Definition:
Any set-up that transmits AM signal is called as AM
transmitter.
Two types
1) Low level AM transmitter:
If the amplification process takes place after
the modulation, then it is called low level transmitter.

2) High level AM transmitter:
If the amplification process takes place before
the modulation, then it is called low level transmitter.


AM Transmitters Block Schematic
Low level transmitter:



High level transmitter:

Modulator
Input message
signal
Input carrier
signal
Class B
amplifier
Input message
signal
Input carrier
signal
Class B
Amplifier
Modulator
Antenna
Antenna
AM Broadcast Transmitter
It is an example for high level transmitter
Used for transmission of speech, talk,
entertainment programmes, etc.
Power output is in the range of 1KW to 100KW
Block Diagram:
Master
oscillator
Buffer
Amplifier
Frequency
Multiplier
Driver
Amplifier
Modulator
AF voltage
amplifier
Class B Push
Pull Amplifier
Microphone
AM Broadcast Transmitter

Master Oscillator (MO):
The circuit must provide a carrier of specific frequency.
Frequency should be drift free
The generated frequency must be easily adjustable
Must withstand changes in supply voltage
Commonly used master oscillators are Clapp, Colpitt, Hartley, etc.
Buffer Amplifier:
To provide isolation between the MO and the subsequent stages
Buffer amplifier is normally a storage circuit
If the subsequent stages suddenly draw huge current from MO, then the
frequency stability will be affected. Buffer amplifier is used to prevent this
situation
A tuned class A voltage amplifier is used as buffer amplifier
Hence, even if there is a change in MO, it will not affect the rest of the circuits.








AM Broadcast Transmitter
Frequency Multiplier:
MO cannot generate very high frequency since this will affect the frequency
stability .
Hence, MO will generate only sub-multiple of the frequency which will be
further increased with frequency multipliers.
Also called as harmonic generators.
Normally, it is a class-C tuned amplifier
Driver Amplifier:
Also called as Intermediate Power Amplifier (IPA)
To increase the power of the output signal
More than one stage of amplification is also used.
It is a class C amplifier
Modulator:
Any one of the modulators can be used.
All the above mentioned five blocks are called as RF Chain








AM Broadcast Transmitter
The second part of the AM transmitter is called as AF chain
It consist of a microphone (message signal) and a voltage
amplifier
Finally, the amplified signals are supplied to the modulator along
with the carrier.
The modulated AM signal is transmitted through the transmitting
antenna
For safety purpose (to avoid over-heating), the following cooling
systems are employed
(a) Forced air cooling
(b) Water cooling







Communication Theory
Lecture -4
1) TRF receiver
TRF receiver
TRF = Tuned Radio Frequency
First framed receiver
Block Diagram:





1st RF
amplifier
2nd RF
amplifier
Detector Audio
amplifier
Power
amplifier
Loud
Speaker
TRF receiver
1
st
RF amplifier:
Normally, a tuned amplifier
It is used to select only the desired frequency
range
Amplifies the voltage of the desired received signal
2
nd
RF amplifier:
A tuned amplifier
It will reject the unwanted frequencies escaped
from the 1
st
RF amplifier
TRF receiver
Detector:
Any one of the demodulator (detector) can be
used.
a) Square law detector
b) Envelope detector
c) Synchronous detector
Audio amplifier:
Increases the voltage of the received signal
Power amplifier:
Increases the power level of the received signal

Advantages:
Simple to design
Disadvantages:
Instability in gain
Wide variation in bandwidth
QUESTIONS??
Why RF amplifier?
Communication Theory
Lecture -5
1) Superhetrodyne receiver
Superhetrodyne receiver
Super Supersonic signals (very high frequency)
Hetro different
Dyne Beating (or) mixing
Thus, in superhetrodyne receiver, the incoming signal is modified
before given to the user.
Single superhetrodyne : one time frequency changes
Double superhetrodyne : two time frequency changes
Block Diagram:





RF
amplifier
Mixer Detector
Audio
amplifier
Power
amplifier
Loud
Speaker
IF
amplifier
Local
oscillator Ganged
tuning

fo

fs

fo- fs


Superhetrodyne receiver
RF amplifier:
Normally, a tuned amplifier
It is used to select only the desired frequency range
Amplifies the voltage of the desired received signal
Mixer:
Generates both the sum and the different of input frequencies.
One input is signal frequency (fs) and the other input is local
oscillator frequency (fo).
But, only the difference is chosen and it is called as Intermediate
Frequency (IF). fi = fo fs
The RF amplifier, mixer and local oscillator are joined together by
ganged tuning and hence the difference will be always (fi)
Even if the incoming signal changes, the local oscillator frequency
also changes correspondingly to maintain constant IF.


Superhetrodyne receiver
Mixer:
IF is constant for specific applications. E.g: for audio signals, IF is 455
KHz.
IF amplifier:
It is a tuned voltage amplifier.
It increases the voltage of the input signal (amplifies) only if the
frequency is equal to IF.
Detector:
Any one of the demodulator (detector) can be used.
a) Square law detector; b) Envelope detector; c) Synchronous
detector
Audio amplifier:
Increases the voltage of the received signal
Power amplifier:
Increases the power level of the received signal



Superhetrodyne receiver
Advantages:
Uniform gain and uniform bandwidth
Improved stability
Improved selectivity
Questions??
1) Why the frequency is fo fs and not fs - fo?
2) Why IF is fo fs and not fo + fs ?

Communication Theory
Lecture -6
1) Image frequency signals and their
rejection
Image frequency signals
Case (1):
fi = fo-fs
For an audio signal, if fs = 545KHz, then fo adjust itself to
1000KHz to make sure fi=455 KHz.
Case (2):
fi =fs-fo
Suppose, if noise affects the input signal and fs increases
to 645KHz, then fo can also adjust itself to 200KHz to
make sure fi=455 KHz.
You do not know that noise has affected the signal. But
on seeing 455KHz at the output of mixer, you may
think that fs=645KHz which is actually wrong


Image frequency signals
Definition:
Any unwanted signals which enter the receiver by
generating the required IF is called as image
frequency signals
(fs) = fs+2fi
Ways of rejecting image frequency signals:
1) Increasing the number of tuned circuits
2) High IF
3) Increasing the quality factor (Q)

Communication Theory
Unit 3
Lecture-7
1) Frequency conversion
2) IF amplifier
Frequency Conversion
Definition:
A frequency changer is a device that mixes the
incoming signal and generates the sum and
difference of the input signals. It is also called as
mixer.
Two types
1) Additive Mixer:
If both the input signals are given to the same
electrode, then it is called as additive mixer.
2) Multiplicative mixer
If the two input signals are given to different
electrodes, then it is called as multiplicative mixer.


Schematic of mixers
Additive Mixer:




Mixer
Output
message
Carrier
Operation of Additive Mixer
Any non-linear device can be called as mixer.
It is same as that of square law demodulator.
The input expression is:

Let
The output expression is

From the output, we can see that both sum
and difference frequencies are generated.
.. ..........
3
1 3
2
1 2 1 1 0
e a e a e a a i + + + =
t E t E e
m m c c
e e sin sin
1
+ =
( ) ( ) { } t t E E a t E a i
m c m c m c c c
e e e e e + + = cos cos sin
2 1
IF AMPLIFIER
Schematic of mixers
Multiplicative Mixer:




Mixer
Output
message
Carrier
IF AMPLIFIER
IF is a tuned voltage amplifier
It amplifies only if the incoming frequency is IF
Circuit diagram: Refer the lab observation
Choice of IF:
If IF is too high, adjacent channel rejection will be poor
If IF is too high, tracking becomes difficult
If IF is too high, selectivity becomes poor
If IF is too low, image signal rejection will be poor
If IF is too low, gain will be low.
Values of IF:
TV receivers = 26 MHz to 45 MHz
FM receivers = 10 MHz
Microwave receivers = 30 MHz
Audio signals = 455 KHz







Communication Theory
Lecture -8
1) Characteristics of receiver
2) Merits and demerits of receivers
Characteristics of receiver
Sensitivity:
Measure of the receivers ability to receive the
weak signal.
Usually in the range of few microvolts
Selectivity:
Capability to pick up a desired signal while
rejecting other signals.
Adjacent channel (or) second channel selectivity:
The ratio of the adjacent (or) second channel input
to the desired input is called as adjacent channel
selectivity
Characteristics of receiver
Fidelity:
The ability of the receiver to exactly reproduce the
original signal is called as fidelity.
Signal to noise ratio:
Signal to noise ratio (SNR) is the ratio of the signal
power to the noise power at the receiver output.
Usually measured in dB.
MERITS AND DEMERITS OF RECIVERS:
Refer TRF receiver and superhetrodyne receiver
Communication Theory
Lecture -9
1) Tracking and alignment
Tracking and Alignment
The local oscillator frequency (fo) track the input signal
frequency (fs) to ensure constant IF in superhetrodyne
receiver.
The input signal (fs) is always a frequency range. (e.g
audio signal is 20Hz to 20KHz).
To track the lower value of (fs), the formula is:


To track the upper value of (fs), the formula is:





max
2
1
(min)
LC
f
s
t
=
min
2
1
(max)
LC
f
s
t
=
Tracking and Alignment
Selection of Cmax and Cmin are crucial for proper tracking.
The ratio of Cmax : Cmin should be close to each other for practical feasibility.
But, Cmax and Cmin are calculated based on the formula:




Cp = Padder capacitor (series capacitor)
CT = Trimmer capacitor (shunt capacitor)
Thus, proper selection of Cp and CT which leads to proper selection of Cmax and Cmin for
proper tuning is called as tracking.
Types:
a) Two point tracking:
If the minimum and maximum ranges are tracked, then it is called as two-point tracking.
b) Three point tracking:
If the minimum, maximum and mid ranges are tracked, then it is called as three-point tracking
Tracking error:
The error occurred during tracking (non-constant IF) is called as tracking error











| |
max 1
max 1
max
C C C
C C C
C
T p
T p
+ +
+
=
| |
min 1
min 1
min
C C C
C C C
C
T p
T p
+ +
+
=