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Microelectronic circuits by

Meiling CHEN
1
Lecture 13
MOSFET Differential
Amplifiers
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
2
topics
Ideal characteristics of differential
amplifier
Input differential resistance
Input common-mode resistance
Differential voltage gain
CMRR
Non-ideal characteristics of differential
amplifier
Input offset voltage
Input biasing and offset current
Differential Amplifier with active load
Frequency response
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
3
Figure 7.1 The basic MOS differential-pair configuration.
MOS differential pair
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
4

+
CS
V
Figure 7.2 The MOS differential pair with a common-mode input voltage v
CM
.
Common mode operation
D D DD D D
t GS n D
GS CM s
D D
R I V v v
V V
L
W
k
I
I
V v v
I
I I
Q Q
= =
= =
=
= =
=
2 1
2 '
2 1
2 1
) (
2
1
2
2

Q
1
and Q
2
in saturation mode
) (
2
(min)
(max)
t GS t CS ss CM
D DD t CM
V V V V V v
R
I
V V v
+ + + =
+ =
BJTs differential pair V
CM
no bound
Make sure current source is working
t s CM S D D DD
t GS DS
V v v v R I V
V v v
>
>
) (
GS SS CS CM
t SS CS CM
t s CM t GS
v V V v
V V V v
V v v V v
+ =
=
=
) (
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
5
Exercise 7.1
k R mA I V V V mA
L
W
k V V V
D t n SS DD
5 . 2 , 4 . 0 , 5 . 0 , / 4 , 5 . 1
2 '
= = = = = =
5 . 0 816 . 0
1 5 . 2 2 . 0 5 . 1
816 . 0
) 5 . 0 ( 2 2 . 0
2
) (
2
1
2
2 '
= >
= =
=
= =
=
t GS DS
DS
GS
GS
t GS n D
V V V
V k m V
V V
V m
I
V V
L
W
k I
Saturation mode
5 . 0 1 1
1
> =
> >
>
>
=
D
t CM D t G D
t S G S D
t GS DS
CM
V
V V V V V V
V V V V V
V V V
V V
Saturation mode
V V
CM
5 . 1
(max)
=
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
6
Figure 7.3 (Continued)

+
48 . 0
V V
V
CM
CS
2 . 0 5 . 1 48 . 0 82 . 0
48 . 0
(min)
(min)
= + =
=
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
7
Figure 7.5 The MOSFET differential pair for the purpose of deriving the
transfer characteristics, i
D1
and i
D2
versus v
id
= v
G1
v
G2
.
Large signal operation
2
2
'
2
2
1
'
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
t GS n D
t GS n D
V v
L
W
k i
V v
L
W
k i
=
=
2 1 2 1 G G GS GS id
v v v v v = =
2
'
'
1
2
'
'
1
2 '
2 !
2 1
'
2 1
2
1
2 /
1
2 2
1
2
2
1
2 /
1
2 2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
=
= +
=
L
W
k
v v
I
L
W
k
I
i
L
W
k
v v
I
L
W
k
I
i
v
L
W
k I i i
I i i
v
L
W
k i i
n
id id
n D
n
id id
n D
id n D D
D D
id n D D
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
8
Figure 7.6 Normalized plots of the currents in a MOSFET differential pair. Note that V
OV
is
the overdrive voltage at which Q
1
and Q
2
operate when conducting drain currents equal to
I/2.
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
9
Figure 7.7 The linear range of operation of the MOS differential pair can
be extended by operating the transistor at a higher value of V
OV
.
2
'
'
1
2
1
2 /
1
2 2
1
2
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
L
W
k
v v
I
L
W
k
I
i
n
id id
n D
More k is bigger more linear
range of v
id
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
10
Figure 7.8 Small-signal analysis of the MOS differential amplifier: (a) The circuit with
a common-mode voltage applied to set the dc bias voltage at the gates and with v
id

applied in a complementary (or balanced) manner. (b) The circuit prepared for small-
signal analysis. (c) An alternative way of looking at the small-signal operation of the
circuit.
7-2.1 Small signal operation (differential gain)
id CM G
id CM G
v v v
v v v
2
1
2
1
2
1
=
+ =
2 1
2 1
2
v v v
v v
v
id
CM
=
+
=
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
11
) // (
) // (
2
1
), // (
2
1
) // (
2
) // (
2
1 2
2
2
1
1
2 2
1 1
o D m
id
o o
d
o D m
id
o
o D m
id
o
o D
id
m o
o D
id
m o
r R g
v
v v
A
r R g
v
v
r R g
v
v
r R
v
g v
r R
v
g v
=

= =
=
=
D
R

+
gs
v
gs m
v g
o
r
1 o
v
2
id
v
D o
o
id
R r R
R
//
2
1
=
=
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
12
r
o
effects
id o D m o o o
id o D m o
id o D m o
v r R g v v v
v r R g v
v r R g v
) // (
) 2 / )( // (
) 2 / )( // (
1 2
2
1
= =
=
=
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
13
2
id
m
V
g
1 o
V
+
gs
V
2
id
V
2
id
V

gs
V

2
id
m
V
g

1 o
r
D
R
D
R
2 o
r
2 o
V
Differential-mode equivalent circuit
) // (
) // (
) 2 / )( // (
) 2 / )( // (
1 2
1 2
2
1
o D m
id
o o
d
id o D m o o o
id o D m o
id o D m o
r R g
v
v v
A
v r R g v v v
v r R g v
v r R g v
=

=
= =
=
=
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
14
Common-mode gain et CMRR
SS
D
icm
o
icm
o
m SS
SS m
D
icm
o
icm
o
R
R
v
v
v
v
g R
R g
R
v
v
v
v
2
/ 1
2 / 1
1 1
2 1
= = >>
+
= =

ss m
cm
d
D m d ss D cm
R g
A
A
CMRR
R g A R R A
=
= =
2
1
, 2 /
2
1
2
1
(1) Half circuit of differential pair
(2) Full circuit
=
= = = =
cm
d
D m id o o d icm o o cm
A
A
CMRR
R g v v v A v v v A / ) ( , 0 / ) (
1 2 1 2
m
g
1 D
R
1 o
v
ss
R 2
d
i
icm
R 2
icm
v
d
i
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
15
SS
V
DD
V +
DD
V +
f
I
Re
1 D
I
2 D
I
R
V V V
I
I I I v v
V v
L
W
k I
GS SS DD
D
ref D D GS GS
t GS n D
+
=
= = =
=
1
2 1 2 1
2 '
) (
2
1
SS o o
R r R = =

+
gs
v
gs m
v g
o
r
1 o
v
R

+
gs
v
gs m
v g
o
r
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
16
Non zero common gain due to R
D
mismatch
D
D
ss m
cm
d
D m d
D
D
ss
D
ss
D
cm
icm
ss
D
o o
icm
ss
D D
o
icm
ss
D
o
D D
R
R
R g
A
A
CMRR
R g A
R
R
R
R
R
R
A
v
R
R
v v
v
R
R R
v
v
R
R
v
R R consider
A
=
=
A
=
A
=
A
=
A +
~
~
=
/ 2
2 2
2
2
2
1 2
2
1
2 1
m
g
1 D
R
1 o
v
ss
R 2
d
i
icm
R 2
icm
v
d
i
SS
D
icm
o
icm
o
m SS
SS m
D
icm
o
icm
o
R
R
v
v
v
v
g R
R g
R
v
v
v
v
2
/ 1
2 / 1
1 1
1 1
= = >>
+
= =

Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
17
Figure 7.11 Analysis of the MOS differential amplifier to determine the
common-mode gain resulting from a mismatch in the g
m
values of Q
1
and
Q
2
.
Non zero common gain due to g
m
mismatch
2 1
2 1
2
2
2 1
1
1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2
1
2
1
2 1
2 1
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
m m m
ss m m
icm m
d
ss m m
icm m
d
ss
icm
d d icm s
ss
s
d d ss d d s
m
m
d
d
gs gs
m m
g g g let
R g g
v g
i
R g g
v g
i
R
v
i i v v
R
v
i i R i i v
g
g
i
i
v v
g g consider
= A
+
=
+
=
= + ~
= + + =
= =
=

) (
) (
2
2
t gs
ox
m
t gs
ox
d
V v
L
W C
g
V v
L
W C
i
=
=

Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
18
m
m
ss m
cm
d
D m d
m
m
ss
D
cm
ss m
icm D m
D d D d o o
ss m
icm m
d
ss m
icm m
d
g
g
R g
A
A
CMRR
R g A
g
g
R
R
A
R g
v R g
R i R i v v
R g
v g
i
R g
v g
i
A
=
=
A
=
A
= + =
=
=
/ 2
2
2
2
2
1 2 1 2
2
2
1
1
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
19
Figure 7.25 (a) The MOS differential pair with both inputs grounded. Owing to device and
resistor mismatches, a finite dc output voltage V
O
results. (b) Application of a voltage equal to the
input offset voltage V
OS
to the terminals with opposite polarity reduces V
O
to zero.
Input offset voltage
2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
. 3
. 2
. 1
2
2
1
1
t t
L
W
L
W
D D
V V Q Q
Q Q
R R
= =
= =
=
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
20
) )(
2
(
) )(
2
) (
(
) (
) (
2
2
)
2
(
2
)
2
(
2
2
2
2
2
1 2
2
1
2
1
2 1
D
D OV
os
D
D t GS
D
D
t GS L
W C
t GS L
W C
D m
D
D m
O
d
O
os
D D D O
D
D DD D
D
D DD D
D
D D
D
D D
D D
R
R V
V
R
R V V
R
R
V V
V V
R g
R
I
R g
V
A
V
V
R
I
V V V
R
R
I
V V
R
R
I
V V
R
R R
R
R R
R R consider
ox
ox
A
=
A
=
A

=
A
= = =
A = =
A
=
A
+ =
A
=
A
+ =
=

)
) / (
) / (
)(
2
(
) / ( 2
) / (
2
) / (
) / (
2 2
) / (
) / (
2 2
) (
2
1
) (
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
2 1
L W
L W V
V
L W
L W I
I
L W
L W I I
I
L W
L W I I
I
L
W
L
W
L
W
L
W
L
W
L
W
Q Q consider
OV
os
A
=
A
= A
A
=
A
+ =
A =
A + =
=
oV
V
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
21 t os
OV
t
t GS
t
t GS n
t GS
t
t GS n
t GS
t
t GS n
t GS
t
t GS n
t
t GS n
t
t t
t
t t
t t
V V
V
V I
V V
V I
I
I
V V
L
W
k
V V
V
V V
L
W
k I
V V
V
V V
L
W
k I
V V
V
V V
L
W
k
V
V V
L
W
k I
V
V V
V
V V
V V consider
A =
A
=

A
= A
=

A
+ ~

A
~

A
=
A
=
A
=
A
+ =
=
2
2
2
2
2
) (
2
1
) 1 ( ) (
2
1
) 1 ( ) (
2
1
]
) ( 2
1 [ ) (
2
1
)
2
(
2
1
2
2
2 '
2 '
12
2 '
1
2 2 ' 2 '
1
2
1
2 1
2 2 2
) ( )
) / (
) / (
2
( )
2
(
t
OV
D
D OV
os
V
L W
L W V
R
R V
V A +
A
+
A
=
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
22
Differential amplifier with active load
1. Differential gain
2. Common-mode gain et CMRR
Active load
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
23
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
24
Differential-mode equivalent circuit with active load
2
id
V
2
id
m
V
g
1 o
r
m
o
g
r
1
//
3
4 gs m
V g
4 o
r
2 o
r
o
V
)
2
(
id
m
V
g

2
id
V
2
id
V
2
id
m
V
g
1 o
r
m
o
g
r
1
//
3
4 gs m
V g
4 o
r
2 o
r
o
V
)
2
(
id
m
V
g

2
id
V
1
Q 4
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4 2
//
o o o
r r R =
o
m
d
o o o
o o m
id
o o
v v
m
id
o
d
v
m
v
m
m
o o
v
m gs
o o gs
v
m o
r
g
A
r r r when
r r g
v
r r g
v
v
A
g
g
g
r r g v
r r v g v
id id
id id id
id
2
) // (
) // )( (
1
)
1
// // (
) // )( (
4 2
4 2
4 2 2 2
2 2 3 1 2 4
4 2 4 2
=
= =
=
+
=
= ~ =
+ =

) // (
o D m d
r R g A =
Passive load
active load
SS o o
R r R = =
Passive load
active load
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
25
Common-mode equivalent circuit with active load
iCM
V
iCM
V
d
i
d
i
m
g
1
1 o
r
m
o
g
r
1
//
3
4 gs
V
o
V
4 gs m
V g
ss
R 2 1
i
2
i
4 o
r
2 o
r
d
i
m
g
1
ss
R 2 2
i
) (
o ss
r R ~

iCM
V
iCM
V
iCM
V
iCM
V
d
i
d
i
m
g
1
1 o
r
m
o
g
r
1
//
3
4 gs
V
o
V
4 gs m
V g
ss
R 2 1
i
2
i
4 o
r
2 o
r
d
i
m
g
1
ss
R 2 2
i
) (
o ss
r R ~

1
i
SS icm
SS icm
m
o gs
gs m o o
R i v
R i v
g
r i v
i v g r v
2
2
)
1
// (
) (
2
1
4 1 4
2 4 4
~
~
=
+ =
m o SS
o
icm
o
cm
SS
icm
m
o
SS
icm m
o o
m
o
SS
icm
gs
SS
icm
gs m o o
g r R
r
v
v
A
R
v
g
r
R
v g
r v
g
r
R
v
v
R
v
v g r v
3
4
3 4
3 4
4 4
1
1
2
]
2
)
1
// (
2
[
)
1
// (
2
)
2
(
+
= =
+ =
=
+ =
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
26
Figure 7.29 Determining the short-circuit transconductance G
m
; i
o
/v
id
of the active-loaded MOS
differential pair.
1. Find the transconductance G
m
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
27
m m
id m o
m m m m m
id
m
id
m
m
m o
id
m g m o
id
m
m
g
m o o
o o
m
id
m g
g G
v g i
g g g g g
v
g
v
g
g
g i
v
g v g i
v
g
g
v
g r r
r r
g
v
g v
=
=
= = =
+ =
+ =
~
>>
=
2 1 4 3
2
3
4
1
2 3 4
3
1
3
3 3 1
1 3
3
1 3
,
)
2
( )
2
)( (
)
2
(
)
2
(
) / 1 ( ,
) // //
1
)(
2
(

Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
28
2. Find the output resistance R
o
3. Find the differential gain

4 2
4 2 4 4
2 2
2 2
1 2 2 2 2
2
//
2 2
2
1
) / 1 )( 1 (
/
o o
x
x
o
o
x
o
x
o
x
o
x
x
o o
o m
m o m o o
o x
r r
i
v
R
r
v
R
v
r
v
i
r
v
i i i
r R
r g
g r g r R
R v i
=
+ = + = + + =
=
>>
+ + =
=

o
m
d
o o o
o o m o m
id
o
d
r
g
A
r r r when
r r g R G
v
v
A
2
) // (
4 2
4 2
=
= =
= =
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
29
Figure 7.31 Analysis of the active-loaded MOS differential amplifier to determine its common-mode gain.
Common-mode gain et CMRR
Microelectronic circuits by
Meiling CHEN
30
ss m o m
m m o o o
ss m o o m
cm
d
ss m
cm
o o o m
o m
o
ss icm
o
cm
o o
m
m o o
o
m
m g m
o
m
g
ss o m ss o o o
ss
icm
R g r g CMRR
g g r r r let
R g r r g
A
A
CMRR
R g
A
r r r g
r g
r
R v
v
A
r i r
g
i g r i i v
r
g
i g v g i
r
g
i v
R r g R r R R
R
v
i i
=
= = =
=
~
= >>
+
=
= =
= =
=
+ + = =
~ =
3 4 2
3 4 2
3
4 3 3 3
3 3
4
4 2 3
3
1 4 4 2 4
3
3
1 4 3 4 4
3
3
1 3
2 1
2 1
,
] 2 )][ // ( [
2
1
, 1
1 2
1
] ) //
1
( [ ) (
) //
1
(
) //
1
(
2 2
2