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The Situation in Electric Power Markets

Increasing Power Demand from 1.6 GW in 2000 to


6.000 GW in 2023
Strong Environmental Constraints Limitation for
Power Plant Expansions
Natural Energy Resources far away from Load
Centers
Severe Right of Way Constraints

THE SOLUTION
Flexible AC Transmission Systems:
Series Compensation (FSC, TCSC, TPSC)
Parallel Compensation (SVC)
Upgrading of Existing Schemes:
Increase of Rating
Combination with FACTS
Higher Voltage levels
Higher Conductor Temperature
Conversion of AC Lines into DC Lines
IMPACT OF HVDC AND FACTS ON
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
FACTS Devices: New solution for improving grid
stability

The increase in interconnections between individual utility systems has pushed
the transmission system closer to its stability and thermal limits. During
stressed conditions, a failure in one location can quickly propagate across the
grid in a complex and dramatic way, potentially leading to widespread
blackouts. Less severe, but equally costly, is the increasing challenge of
mitigating transmission congestion.
Introducing Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) technology, high-speed
controllable power electronics device will enable utilities to reduce transmission
congestion and more fully utilize the existing transmission system without
compromising the reliability and security of the system with the following
potential benefits:
Increase the power transfer capability of existing transmission systems,
Directly control real and reactive power flow,
Provide fast dynamic reactive power support and voltage control,
Improve system stability and damp power system oscillations, and
Reduce financial costs and environmental impact by possible deferral of new
transmission lines.

WHAT IS FACTS ?
TWO TYPE OF FACTS:
Parallel Compensation:
Mechanical Switched Reactor/Capacitor
Static VAR Compensator
Static Compensator
Series Compensation
Fixed Series Compensation (FSC)
Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC)
Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer (TCPHC)
BREAKER DELAY
2-3 CYCLES
1-2 CYCLES
FACTS TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
FACTS FOR PARALLEL COMPENSATION
STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR
Static Var Compensators (SVCs), the most important
FACTS devices, have been used for a number of years to
improve transmission line economics by resolving dynamic
voltage problems. The accuracy, availability and fast
response enable SVCs to provide high performance steady
state and transient voltage control compared with classical
shunt compensation. SVCs are also used to dampen power
swings, improve transient stability, and reduce System
losses by optimized reactive power control.

SVC APPLICATION
SERIES COMPENSATION
Inserting a capacitive reactance in series with a long
(typically more than 200km) transmission line, reduces
both the angular deviation and the voltage drop, resulting
in increased loadability and stability. Fixed Series
Compensation is since long the preferred solution when
vast bulk transmission corridors shall be optimized.
THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES
COMPENSATORS (TCSC)
Thyristor controlled series compensators (TCSCs) are an
extension of conventional series capacitors through adding a
thyristor-controlled reactor. Placing a controlled reactor in
parallel with a series capacitor enables a continuous and
rapidly variable series compensation system.
The main benefits of TCSCs are increased energy transfer,
dampening of power oscillations, dampening of
subsynchronous resonances, and control of line power flow.


STATCOM
STATCOMs are GTO (gate turn-off type thyristor)
based SVCs. Compared with conventional SVCs they
dont require large inductive and capacitive
components to provide inductive or capacitive reactive
power to high voltage transmission systems. This
results in smaller land requirements. An additional
advantage is the higher reactive output at low system
voltages where a STATCOM can be considered as a
current source independent from the system voltage.
STATCOMs have been in operation for approximately 5
years.

Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC).
Connecting a STATCOM, which is a shunt connected
device, with a series branch in the transmission line via its
DC circuit results in a UPFC. This device is comparable to a
phase shifting transformer but can apply a series voltage of
the required phase angle instead of a voltage with a fixed
phase angle. The UPFC combines the benefits of a
STATCOM and a TCSC.

Benefits of Utilizing FACTS Devices
The benefits of utilizing FACTS devices in electrical
transmission systems can be summarized as follows:
Better utilization of existing transmission system
assets
Increased transmission system reliability and
availability
Increased dynamic and transient grid stability and
reduction of loop flows
Increased quality of supply for sensitive industries
Environmental benefits

WHY SERIES COMPENSATION?
RIGHT OF WAY PROBLEM
RISING COST OF NEW LINES
BETTER UTILIZATION OF EXISTING TRANSMISSION LINE
AUTOMATIC CAPACITIVE VAR REGULATION OF SYSTEM
DAMPING OF OSCILLATIONS
IMPROVED DYNAMIC SYSTEM STABILITY



ADVANTAGE OF FSC
HIGHER POWER TRANSFER BY REDUCING LINES
EFFECTIVE REACTANCE.
INHERENT SELF-REGULATING ABILITY TO VARY
CAPACITIVE VOLT-AMPERE (VA)
BALANCING LOADING IN PARALLEL LINES.
POWER TRANSFER CAPABILITY & STABILITY

P = U1U2Sin
X
L

Or P U1U2
Or P 1/ XL
Where U1 = Sending end Voltage.
U2 = Receiving end Voltage
XL = Series Inductive Reactance of Transmission line
= Phasor angle by which U1 leads U2

POWER LOADING ON LINE CAN BE ENHANCED:
1. By Raising U1,
2. By Raising U2
3. By raising
4. By reducing XL.
LOCATION OF SERIES CAPACITORS
ALTERNATIVE-I :
LOCATION ALONG THE LINE:

REQUIRES LOW SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT THROUGH CAPACITOR,
SIMPLE LINE PROTECTION & PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

ALTERNATE-II
LOCATION AT ONE OR BOTH END OF LINE SECTION

REQUIRES HIGH SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT, ADVANCED LINE
PROTECTION FOR CAPACITOR & PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF FSC
Line
Spark Gap
Bypass Circuit Breaker
Damping
Circuit
MOV
Fixed Capacitor Bank
Components of series capacitor
Capacitor bank
Metal Oxide Varistors
Damping Circuit
Spark Gap
Bypass switch (BPCB)
Current Transformer
Platform to Ground Signal Transmission system
Disconnectors
Insulated Platform
Control & Protection equipment


PROTECTION OF FSC
Capacitor Protection
Capacitor Failure Protection
Capacitor Overload Protection
MOV Protection
MOV Failure Protection
MOV Over Current Protection
MOV High Energy Protection
MOV High Energy Rate Protection
Spark Gap Protection
Self Trigger Protection
Sustained Spark Gap Protection
Delayed Trigger Protection
Refused To Trigger Protection.
Non-Linear By pass resistor Protective Scheme: :
BEHAVIOR OF SERIES CAPACITOR
DURING LINE FAULTS:
1. Faults on the compensated
section
2. Faults outside the compensated
section.
CAPACITOR BANK ON PLATFORM
VIEW OF PLATFORM

VIEW OF PLATFORM

Conclusion:
The series capacitor is, for several reasons, as important
element in a power system. Series compensation using
series capacitors is a very effective means of increasing the
load carrying capability of long lines and constitutes one of
the most effective ways of increasing stability. Series
capacitors improve the reactive power balance and voltage
regulation of long transmission lines.