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CONCRETE

PRESENTATION ORGANIZATION

COMPONENTS OF CONCRETE


CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


TYPES OF CONCRETE & THEIR PROPERTIES


PLACING AND FINISHING CONCRTE




















COMPONENTS OF CONCRETE

CEMENT


FINE & COARSE
(AGGREGATES)


WATER


ADMIXTURES



















EARLY HISTORY OF CEMENT

In ancient times, Egyptians mostly used material
obtained by burning gypsum.

Greeks & Romans used the material obtained by
burning limestone.

First cement was invented by Joseph Aspin din on 21
October 1824.

First cement was started at Portland in England.

In India, cement was manufactured in 1904 in Madras
by South India Industrial ltd.












TWO WAYS OF MANUFACTURING CEMENT
DRY CEMENT PROCESS











TWO WAYS OF MANUFACTURING CEMENT
WET CEMENT PROCESS











AGGREGATES
Aggregates give body to the concrete.



Aggregates reduce shrinkage and effect
economy.



Aggregates occupy 70-80 % of volume of
concrete.












SHAPES OF AGGREGATES
Rounded Aggregates : Fully water worn



Irregular Aggregates : Having Rounded Edges



Angular Aggregates : Well defined Edges



Flaky Aggregates : Having small thickness.














ADMIXTURES



ADMIXTURES are added to concrete batch
immediately before or during mixing concrete. Concrete
admixtures can improve concrete quality, manageability,
acceleration or retardation of setting time among other
properties that could be altered to get specific results.












CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN is defined as a
process of selecting suitable ingredients of
concrete and determining their relative
properties with an object of producing
concrete of certain minimum strength and
durability as economically as possible.

Two methods used in concrete design :
1. American Concrete Institutes method
2. Indian Standard method














TYPES OF CONCRETE

Fresh Concrete
Hardened Concrete
Special Concrete
Light weight Concrete
Reinforced Cement Concrete
High Density Concrete
Self Compacting Concrete














CONCRETE PROPERTIES
VERSATILE

STRONG & DURABLE

DOES NOT RUST OR ROT

RESISTS FIRE

DOES NOT NEED A COATING

ENERGY EFFICIENT















WORKABILITY

It is desirable that freshly mixed concrete
be relatively easy to transport, place,
compact and finish without harmful
segregation.


A concrete mix satisfying these conditions
is said to be workable.












FACTORS AFFECTING WORKABILITY
Method and duration of transportation

Quantity and characteristics of cementing
materials

Aggregate grading, shape and surface texture

Quantity and characteristics of chemical
admixtures

Amount of water

Amount of entrained air

Concrete & ambient air temperature












WORKABILITY
Workability is the most important property of
freshly mixed concrete.
It is determined to a large extent by measuring
the consistency of the mix.













CONSISTENCY

Test methods for measuring consistency are:

Slump test (Most widely used test)

Flow test measures the amount of flow

Kelly-Ball test measures the amount of penetration











Slump Test
Slump Test is related with the ease with which
concrete flows during placement (TS 2871, ASTM C
143)














The slump cone is filled in 3 layers. Every layer is evenly rodded 25 times.
Measure the slump by determining the vertical difference between the top of the
mold and the displaced original center of the top surface of the specimen.
SEGREGATION
Factors affecting segregation:

Larger maximum particle size (25mm) and proportion of
the larger particles.

High specific gravity of coarse aggregate.

Decrease in the amount of fine particles.

Particle shape and texture.

Water/cement ratio.












BLEEDING

Bleeding is the tendency of water to rise to the
surface of freshly placed concrete.













BLEEDING

Undesirable effects of bleeding are:

With the movement of water towards the top, the top
portion becomes weak & porous (high w/c). Thus the
resistance of concrete to freezing-thawing decreases.

Water rising to the surface carry fine particles of
cement which weaken the top portion and form
laitance. This portion is not resistant to abrasion.

Water may accumulate under the coarse agg. and
reinforcement. These large voids under the particles
may lead to weak zones and reduce the bond
between paste and agg. or paste and reinforcement.
MIXING OF CONCRETE


The aim of mixing is to blend all of the ingredients of
the concrete to form a uniform mass and to coat the
surface of aggregates with cement paste.

Ready-Mix concrete: In this type ingredients are
introduced into a mixer truck and mixed during
transportation to the site.

1. Wet Water added before transportation
2. Dry Water added at site
Mixing at the site

1. Hand mixed
2. Mixer mixed














Ready Mix Concrete




MIXING AT SITE
MIXING OF CONCRETE


Mixing time should be sufficient to produce a uniform
concrete. The time of mixing depends on the type of
mixer and also to some properties of fresh concrete.

Undermixing non-homogeneity

Overmixing danger of water loss, brekage of
aggregate particles

CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE