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PowerPoint originally prepared by


Shanta Adeeb
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The Nature of Vitamins
Vitamins are organic (carbon) compounds
needed for normal function, growth and
maintenance.
Vitamins are cofactors, they dont do
anything by themselves.
They are not a source of calories.
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The Nature of Vitamins
Organic cofactors what is a cofactor?
Water analogy, scissor analogy
Physiological role specific metabolic
function
Prevents disease unlike supplements
which may promote some thing or have
general metabolic effect
(ex. Omega 3s, fibers)
Natural = Synthetic (except Vitamin E)
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The Nature of Vitamins
Nutritional Value lost by:
Light
Heat
Oxidation
Bacteria
Enzymes
Insects
(Nutritional value of baby
food must be assured.)
Effect of packaging on
nutrient loss in milk.
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The Nature of Vitamins
Food processing can
preserve nutrients.


Vitamin Requirements
Daily Values (DV): standard nutrient intake values
developed by FDA
Includes DRIs (Daily Recommended Intakes for
Individuals) and (DRVs) Daily Recommended
Values (Proteins, etc.)
Disease prevention
Best met through a consumption of a wide
variety of foods
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Vitamin Requirements
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI):
recommendation for individuals (more
accurate, but would be impossible to label)
Age
Gender
Pregnancy
Lactation
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Vitamin Requirements
Daily Reference Values (DRV): standards
established for protein and other dietary
components lacking a RDA or nutrient
standard
Constitute part of the Daily Values (DV)
used on food labels
Dietary Supplements
$6 Billion Market
They are classified as Nutritional Supplements They are not foods,
and not drugs.*
Supplements are Product intended to supplement the diet and
contains vitamins, minerals, botanicals, amino acids, and their
extracts.
NOT consumed as a food replacement
Loosely regulated, not evaluated by FDA

By definition a drug is used to
prevent, treat or cure disease.
These terms cannot be used
with supplements.
Use of some supplements is backed by
scientific data.
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Dr. Montvilles Favorite Supplements
Glucosamine
Omega 3
Folic acid
Ginko baloba
Ground rhinos horn.
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Fat Soluble Vitamins
A orange, carotenoids, vision, antioxidant- used as
color and antioxidant

D we make it with sunlight, deficiency causes
rickets, in milk, regulates Ca:P ratios

E tocopherols, antioxidants, role in preventing
stroke, cancer, heart disease- used as antioxidant

K contributes to blood clotting factor
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Vitamin A
Lots of double bonds, good anti-oxidant
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Vitamin A
Carrotinoids Used in food industry as a
colorant (orange) (label friendly)
Antioxidant (label friendly)
Stored in liver
Important for sight
Deficiency causes ~500,000 cases
of night blindness worldwide
Genetically engineered rice with high
Vitamin A can prevent night blindness
Carrotenosis

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Vitamin D
Also known as calciferol due to its role in calcium
absorption

Main role is to maintain calcium and potassium
levels

It is the only fat soluble vitamin that we can make-
in the presence of sunlight

Can be made from cholesterol

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Vitamin D
Can be stored in fat tissues (as can all fat soluble
vitamins)
Elderly and shut ins are at risk- not enough
sunlight
We get vitamin D form fortified milk and cereal
Toxicity is very dangerous
Occurs only from excess supplementation
Can lead to calcium deposits in kidneys, heart
and blood vessels
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Vitamin D
Rickets can be caused by lack of
sunlight, but also from insufficient
calcium. Vitamin D linked to
calcium absorption.
(Rickets reported in NYC.)
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Vitamin E
A family of eight naturally occurring compounds
Used as an anti-oxidant in foods
Since aging is considered an oxidation reaction,
many anti-oxidants are used as dietary
supplements
Deficiencies are not well understood
Role is stroke, cancer, heart, and immune
response
Americans spend $300 million per year on vitamin
E supplements
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Vitamin K
Contributes to synthesis of seven blood
clotting factors

Can be reactivated to continue biological action

Works as a cofactor for an enzyme that makes two
bone proteins
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Water Soluble Vitamins
Relatively cheap to
add to food
Only Vitamin C is
used for its
functionality

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Water Soluble Vitamins
B
1
, thiamine
B
2
, riboflavin
B
6
, pyridoxamine
B
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Biotin
Panothenic acid
Niacin
Folacin

Vitamin C
Water Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin B
1

Thiamine
Involved in carbohydrate metabolism
Helps body metabolize glucose, affects central
nervous system
Deficiency causes Beri beri
(Singlese, I cant, I cant)

B
2
- riboflavin
Energy metabolism
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Water Soluble Vitamins
B
6
- Pyridoxamine
Neurotransmitter, co-enzyme in over 100
reactions

B
12

Development of red blood cells
Lack of it makes one anemic
Hard for vegans to get
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Water Soluble Vitamins
Biotin
Involved in fatty acid synthesis
Deficiency causes skin disease and hair loss

Panthothenic acid
Found in many foods
Essential for metabolism of carbohydrates,
protein, alcohol and fat
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Water Soluble Vitamins
Choline
A major component of cell
membranes
Folacin = Folate = Folic
acid
Deficiency causes neural
tube defects in utero
Took Rutgers Professor 20
years to for FDA approval
as enrichment Why?
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Vitamin C
Ascorbic acid
Very inexpensive to add to food, marketing
tool. Antioxidant
Deficiency leads to bleeding gums,
hemorrhages
High in citrus fruits, limes, (Limeys)
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Vitamin C - Scurvy
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Niacin (B3)
Energy metabolism
Disease pellagra The Four Ds
Dermatitis
Diarrhea
Dementia
Death
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Minerals
Issues
Absorption
Bioavailability
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Minerals
Percent of Body weight
Calcium 2%
Phosphorus 1%
Potassium 0.3%
Sulfur 0.2%
Sodium 0.1%
Chloride 0.1%
Magnesium 0.05%
Iron 0.04%
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Minerals
Calcium
99% is structural
~25% absorption
Vitamin D aids
absorption
75% is obtained from
dairy products
Many products are
fortified with it
Built in youth, lost in
maturity

Very hard for vegans to get
enough calcium
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Calcium
Osteoporosis a pediatric
disease with geriatric
consequences
1.5 million fractures each
year- major cause of
subsequent mortality (25%
within one year)
14 billion in direct health cost
25 million women at risk
DRI women 600 800
mg/day

National Osteoporosis
Foundation www.nof.org


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Calcium
Risk Factors- By Mayo Clinic staff
Your gender.
Age.
Race.
Frame size.
Eating disorders.
Low calcium intake.
Excess soda consumption (Ca:P ratio).
The link between osteoporosis and caffeinated sodas isn't clear, but
caffeine may interfere with calcium absorption and its diuretic effect
may increase mineral loss. In addition, the phosphoric acid in soda
may contribute to bone loss.
Bone density can be improved at any time.
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Soda is the devils drink
Extra calories
Poor nutrient
density
Interferes with
calcification
Replaces more
nutritious drinks

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Minerals
Phosphorus
Easily absorbed by the body
Enhanced by Vitamin D
Deficiency are rare
Soda, phosphoric acid

Potassium
A primary electrolyte in blood
Associated with lower blood pressure
Athletes

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Minerals
Sodium and Chloride
Added during processing
Enhances flavor
We consume 2X of what we need (DV = 2.4
grams, 1/10 ounce) (show)
Excess Sodium can lead to hypertension
High blood pressure
Salt sensitivity genetics and race

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Salt Uses in Food
Enhances other flavors, cuts cost
Salty taste, per se
Increases consumer acceptance
Raises boiling point of liquids (pasta)
Masks bitter tastes
Food safety
Water binding
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Minerals
Sulfur
Necessary for collagen formation

Magnesium
Abundant in plants

Minerals
Iron
Most common and easily preventable
deficiency
Needed for oxygen absorption, immune
function, developmental performance
Poor absorption from plant sources
Low iron causes anemia, especially in
menstruating women
Toxicity
6 12 vitamins with 100% iron content will
kill a small child
(The dose makes the poison.)
Fortification vs Enrichment
Fortification - restores lost
nutrients due to processing

Enrichment adds nutritional value to
meet a specific standard



Old London
Restaurant Style Croutons. Seasoned
Sourdough.
Enriched Bread,
[Enriched Flour
(Flour,
Niacin,
Ferrous Sulfate,
Thiamin Mononitrate,
Riboflavin,
Folic Acid),
Water,
Yeast,
Sugar,
Salt,
Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil ,
Vinegar,
Ascorbic Acid]
Bean Oil with BHT added as a Dextrin
Enriched Uranium
Enriched Uranium